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AP World History

Accelerated World HistoryAugust 31, 2015Warm-Up: August 31, 2015What inspired Asoka to convert to Buddhism?an encounter with a Buddhist monk on the way to battletwo months of meditation in the wildernesssorrow over the slaughter at Kalingahis son's Buddhist teacher

AgendaWarm UpIndo-EuropeansHinduism & Buddhism

Dont forget! Reading Chapter 3 & 7 (Guided Reading due Thursday)Test Thursday (Study Guide Due Thursday!)

How does conquest affect culture?Early India DevelopsCh. 3, Sec. 1 (pp. 60 - 65) 5Setting the StageRemember, the Indus River Valley civilizations ended around 1750 B.C.Probably due to earthquakes~1500 B.C., nomads (traveling hunter/gatherers) from the north called Aryans settled in northern India & revitalized Indian cultureIt is during the time of the Aryans and the following years that modern Indian culture really started to developEx. Religion, social structures, gender relations, etc.6Aryans Migrate into IndiaThe Aryans came from the northwest (near the Caspian Sea) & migrated (moved from one region to another) into the Indus River ValleyHistorians are unsure why they migratedThey left almost no archeological records (bones, fossils, etc.), but did leave four major works of writing known as the VedasCollections of prayers, magical spells, ritual instructions, etc.Largest was the Rig Veda which contained 1,028 hymns to Aryan gods7

8

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari9A Caste System DevelopsThe Aryans created a strict social structure that divided society according to skin color (Varnas)Lighter skinned people had higher places in society than darker skinned peopleCaste (class) systemDetermined your job, who you could marry, who you could eat with, etc.Permanent (for life)4 ClassesPriests (Brahmins)Rulers and warriorsPeasants and tradersLaborersThe Untouchables were so low in society that they werent even included in the caste systemSeen as impure (dirty) because of their line of workIncluded butchers, garbage collectors, gravediggers, etc.10

11Untouchables in India

12Slums in India

13Doctors Lawyers never get past 60 thousand rupees (Indian currency). Hes won 10 million. What could a slumdog possibly know?

14Aryan Kingdoms Move SouthAround 1000 B.C., the Aryans began to build kingdoms by expanding south into the rest of modern India & Pakistan (the Indian Subcontinent)As the Aryans moved south they fought many battles, creating an atmosphere of violence & confusion in IndiaAs a result, people began to question their role in the world leading the way for religions such as Hinduism & Buddhism to arise15What is Hinduism?A Collection of religious beliefs

Not founded by one person/individual

A religion that allows for great variety for its followers The Hindu Class SystemAlso called the varna Rooted in traditions of the Aryan peopleHigh priests determine class order Vedas are sacred literature including: 4 collections of prayers, magical spells, and instructions for performing ritualsThe Hymn of Man from the Rig-VedaWhen they divided the Man, into how many parts did they apportion him? What do they call his mouth, his two arms, and thighs and feet?

His mouth became the Brahmin; his arms were made into the Warrior, his thighs the People, and from his feet the Servants were born. (Rig-Veda, 10.90 11,12)The Hindu Caste SystemThe Hymn of Man divides society into four distinct classes or castesA persons caste is based on their occupation1. Brahmin = Priests (mouth)2. Shatriyas = warriors & rulers (arms)3. Vaishyas = skilled workers & farmers (thighs)4. Shudras = laborers (feet)Untouchables were considered outcasts in society or out of the caste systemA devout Brahmin

The Soul in HinduismEach individual has a soul

The Brahman is the larger soul which brings together all individual souls

Each persons goal is to become free of desire and not bothered by suffering; thenReincarnationThe Hindu belief that a soul is born again into another body after deathThis provides the soul with another chance to improve and learn its lessonBehavior in a past life will influence the next life, this is KarmaKarma = good or bad deeds/actionsKarma

Other Hindu BeliefsDharma = ultimate moral balance of ALL things, belongs to the universe and the individual; however if an individual goes astray they suffer the consequences of their Karma= the belief that a person experiences the affects of his or her actions What goes around comes around or You reap what you sow. Is there hope for happiness???...Other Hindu Beliefs Contd Samsara is commonly known as reincarnation in the western world. It is the cycle of life, death and rebirth that presents an individual an opportunity to become balancedonce purified there is another realmMoksha is a state of perfect understanding of all things Buddhism also developed

BuddhismSiddhartha Gautamas Quest: as a young man born into a noble family he was isolated in the palace to fulfill the prophecy of becoming a world leaderAt age 29, he ventured outside the palace to experience a world he had never seen

Siddharthas QuestHe ventured outside the palace 4 times: he saw an old man, next a sick man, then a corpse, and finally a wandering holy man who seemed at peace with himself

Siddharthas Quest Contd Siddhartha believed these events meant that every living thing experiences old-age, sickness, and deathOnly a religious life could offer refuge from inevitable suffering He spent the next 6 years wandering around India looking for enlightenment Siddhartha

Enlightenment

EnlightenmentSiddhartha meditated for 49 daysHe achieved an understanding of the cause of sufferingFrom then on, he was known as the Buddha meaning the enlightened oneBuddha preached his beliefs so that all people could attain enlightenmentTo find EnlightenmentMain ideas, called the Four Noble TruthsFirst Noble Truth: Life is filled with suffering and sorrowSecond Noble Truth: The cause of all suffering is peoples selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of this worldThird Noble Truth: The way to end all suffering is to end all desiresFourth Noble Truth: The way to overcome such desires and attain enlightenment is to follow the Eightfold Path, which is called the Middle Way between desires and self-denial33MaFour Noble Truths

Eightfold PathGuide to BehaviorWhat is the Middle Way?... It is the Noble Eightfold Path- Right Views, Right Resolve, Right Speech, Right Conduct, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration. This is the Middle Way. (Buddha, from Samyutta Nikaya)

NIRVANABy following the Eightfold Path, ANYONE could reach a release from selfishness and pain a.k.a. NIRVANABelieved in reincarnation until Nirvana the final goal was achievedNirvana