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Academic English IIi. Class 7 September 27, 2013. Today. Argumentative writing (continued) - Logical fallacies - opposing arguments + rebuttals. Argumentative Writing - Example. Body paragraph 1: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Academic English IIi

Academic English IIiClass 7

September 27, 2013TodayArgumentative writing (continued)

- Logical fallacies

- opposing arguments + rebuttalsArgumentative Writing - ExampleBody paragraph 1:

Cake increases study performance. Elementary school students have increasing pressures to do well in school as expectations of what they should learn and how much they should learn change. As a result, elementary school students now study more difficult subjects, such as math, for longer periods of time. By increasing study performance, cake can help students cope with these new demands. First, cake has been proven to increase concentration. A study found that children who eat just one piece of cake per day have 30% better concentration than children who have no cake (Wonka, 2011). An increase in concentration can allow students to cope with increased class demands, especially in more difficult classes, such as math, which require concentration to solve complex problems. Cake also has a positive effect on reaction time. The chemicals in cake improve the function of the reticular formation, allowing cake eaters to more quickly process visual and auditory information (Jones, 2009). Increased reaction times allow students to answer questions faster and to more readily understand explanations and examples. By providing a much needed increase in study performance, cake should clearly be included on the daily menu of elementary school cafeterias.

Reaching Logical ConclusionsExample 1

Premise 1: Non-renewable resources do not exist in infinite supply.

Premise 2: Coal is a non-renewable resource.

Conclusion: ?

- Coal does not exist in infinite supply.Reaching Logical ConclusionsExample 2: It can often take several premises to reach a conclusion.

Premise 1: All monkeys are primates.

Premise 2: All primates are mammals.

Premise 3: All mammals are vertebrate animals.

Conclusion: Monkeys are vertebrate animals.Using logic in writingSimply creating a syllogism

Premise 1Premise 2Conclusion

is not enough to convince all readers.

1. Not all readers will automatically follow your line of reasoning.

2. The elements of the argument needs to be expanded.Using logic in writingTo convert a logical syllogism into a written argument:

- Present each premise clearly

- Provide evidence to support each premise

- Draw a clear connection to the conclusionUsing logic in writing ExampleContext:

The government in Moronville wants to use taxpayer money to construct a new stadium.

The author of the following argument is opposed to this.Using logic in writing Example 1Authors logic:

Premise 1: Projects funded by taxpayer dollars should benefit a majority of the public.

Premise 2: The proposed stadium constructions benefits very few members of the public.

Conclusion: Therefore, the stadium construction should not be funded by taxpayer dollars.Using logic in writing Example 1Authors logic:

Premise 1: Projects funded by taxpayer dollars should benefit a majority of the public.

Premise 2: The proposed stadium constructions benefits very few members of the public.

Conclusion: Therefore, the stadium construction should not be funded by taxpayer dollars.

This conclusion is logical. However, if there is no elaboration, it may not be persuasive to the audience.Using logic in writing Example 1The author elaborates on the premises (explains them adequately) and provides evidence to support each premise.Logical FallaciesSlippery Slope

Problem: based on the premise that is A happens a series will follow: B, CX, Y, Z.

Basically saying A = Z.

Topic: banning SUVs.

If we ban SUVs because they are bad for the environment, eventually the government will ban all cars; therefore, we should not ban SUVs.Logical FallaciesHasty Generalization

Problem: The conclusion is based on insufficient or biased evidence.

Basically: Rushing to the conclusion.

Even though this is only the first episode, this TV show is clearly going to be terrible.Logical FallaciesPost hoc ergo propter hoc

Problem: Conclusions that assumes that if A occurred after B, then B must have caused A.

Basically: Assuming that if one event follows another, the first event must have caused the second.

I ate some pizza and got sick. Thus, the pizza must have made me sick.Logical FallaciesGenetic Fallacy

Problem: Conclusion is based on an argument that the origins of an idea, person, theory, etc. determine its value.

Basically: Drawing a conclusion based on premises that are not inherently related.

Volkswagen cars are evil because they were used by Hitlers army.Logical FallaciesBegging the Claim

Problem: The conclusion that needs to be proven is already validated in the claim.

Filthy and polluting oil should be banned.Logical FallaciesCircular Argument

Problem: Instead of proving the argument, the writer re-states the argument.

Basically A is B because B.

Barack Obama is a great communicator because he speaks effectively.Logical FallaciesEither/Or

Problem: The conclusion over simplifies the argument by reducing it to only two sides or choices.

We can either stop using cars or destroy the earth.Logical FallaciesAd hominem

Problem: An attack on the character of a person (or organization, etc.) rather than on opinions or arguments of that person.

Basically: Because youre bad, your argument is invalid.

Green Peaces strategies are not effective because they are all dirty, lazy hippies.Logical FallaciesRed Herring

Problem: A diversionary tactic that avoids the key issues, often avoiding opposing arguments instead of addressing them.

The level of mercury in seafood may be dangerous, but what will fishermen do to support their families.Logical FallaciesMoral Equivalence

Problem: Comparing a minor misdeed with a major atrocity.

The parking attendant who gave me a ticket is as bad as Hitler.Spot the fallacyPhysical education classes are regularly opposed by policy makers who want to promote more traditional academic class in school. These policy makers are not the most qualified people to promote these changes. The issue with policy makers opposing physical education classes is that most policy makers tend to be promotion-seeking workers whose primary interest is moving ahead of everyone else. They will often resort to using unethical methods to attain advancement.ad hominemSpot the fallacySchools must ensure that enjoyable and health-promoting physical education class is part of the curriculum. Since students, even young students, spend most of their time in the classroom, they may become bored or distracted by the lack of physical activity. Many students, as a result, look forward to physical education (gym) class as something fun to break the tedium of the classroom. While having fun, the students are also becoming more health conscious through knowledge provided by gym teachers and activities in gym class. begging the claim23Spot the fallacyParties insisting on a decrease in physical education classes support their views with research data that indicate students math and language skills have dropped drastically since more physical education classes were added to the curriculum. While this may have some value, the parties calling for less physical education classes ignore the fact that gym teachers have studied just as hard as other teachers and are a valuable component of the education system. What they teach has significant value.red herring24Spot the fallacyMany people argue that sports should not be part of the school curriculum. However, removing sports from the curriculum will have dangerous consequences. Sports are one of the best ways to encourage children to be physically active. Removing sports from the curriculum will decrease childrens interest in exercising and will lead to more obese children. slippery slope25Spot the fallacyWhile eager parents often assert that more academic classes, like math and science, should take precedence over physical education class because those classes have more value, they ignore the fact that physical education class has real-world value for students by teaching team work. Team work is a skill required in most jobs because it is a necessary skill at work. Students learn this skill through playing team sports like basketball and soccer in gym class.circular argument26Argumentative Writing How toOrganizing your ideas Make an outline

Organization type A:

Introduction (thesis statement)Pro argument 1Pro argument 2Pro argument 3Counterargument(s) and refutation [2 paragraphs]ConclusionArgumentative Writing How toOrganizing your ideas Make an outline

Organization type B:

Introduction (thesis statement)Counterargument(s) and refutation [2 paragraphs]Pro argument 1Pro argument 2Pro argument 3ConclusionOpposing arguments (counter-arguments)A view/opinion/idea OPPOSED to your position.

Some may ask: Wouldnt this WEAKEN the argument?

- If used improperly,

OF COURSE.

BUT

Opposing arguments (counter-arguments)If chosen well, counter-arguments make YOUR argument stronger:

1. It gives the writer the chance to respond to the readers possible objections to the writers ideas BEFORE they even finish reading.

2.It also demonstrates that the writer is a reasonable person who has considered both sides of the argument.How to present an opposing argumentYou should express the counter-argument objectively. (do not present it using overly negative language)

i.e.,