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Academic Connections 1 Glossary Copyright 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.
Academic Connections 1 Glossary
The following words appear in Academic Connections 1. They are
presented in the Vocabulary Check activities, Key Words, and Key Words:
Practice activities in MyAcademicConnectionsLab.
This icon designates Key Words that appear in the student book.
This icon indicates that the word is included in the Academic Word List. These are
important words which students need to be able to understand when reading English,
and also to use when writing academic assignments. Some of these words are practiced
in the Academic Words Puzzles in the Expansion folder.
UNIT 1 PREVIEW
(n) something such as a bag, belt, or jewelry that you wear or carry because it is
Mary wore a beautiful dress with matching accessories.
(n) the feeling of liking someone very much
Feelings of attraction can make relationships successful or unsuccessful.
Some people think that attractive people are more intelligent.
(n) the things that people wear to cover their body or keep warm
The clothing that people wear can tell you a lot about what kind of people they are.
Academic Connections 1 Glossary Copyright 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.
(v) to say what something or someone is like by giving details or information about them
Can you describe what he looks like?
(n) someone's feelings are his/her thoughts, emotions, and attitudes
My feelings about him became more positive after I got to know him better.
(v) to start to exist or be, or to make something start to exist
Nathan always helps his neighbors, so Trish formed the impression that he was a good
(n) an opinion or feeling about someone
People are very good at forming first impressions from little information.
(n) facts or details that tell you something about a situation, person, event etc.
Before I hire her for the job, I need more information about her.
(v) to talk to other people or to work together with them
After the first meeting, two people may interact again and learn more about each other.
(v) to see, hear, or smell something
If a person has a good first impression of someone, he or she probably will not notice
bad things about the person later.
Academic Connections 1 Glossary Copyright 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.
(n) an idea or belief about something
We even form opinions about a persons body and posture.
(n) the study of the mind and how it influences peoples behavior
She wanted to understand why people act the way they do, so she took a psychology
course at the university.
(v) to appear to exist or to be true, or to have a particular quality or feeling
Marcus seems to be a very nice man.
(adj) caring only about yourself and not about other people
Thinking only about yourself is very selfish.
(adj) getting or achieving what you wanted, or having the effect or result you wanted
My meeting with my new coworker was successfulI think we are going to work well
UNIT 1 BUILDING ACADEMIC READING SKILLS
(v) to behave in a particular way
They act like they are better than everyone else.
(v) to do or say things in a particular way
First impressions influence the expectations people have of one another and how they
behave toward one another.
(adj) something that is common is often seen or often happens
It is common for attractive people to make friends more easily than unattractive people.
(adj) not easy to do or understand
No one could solve the problem because it was so difficult.
(v) to believe strongly that something will happen
An interesting part of first impressions is that people act how others expect them to act.
The people's expectations influenced how they acted toward one another.
(n) knowledge that you gain about life and the world by being in different situations and
meeting different people
In my personal experience, people who work hard are usually successful.
(adj) well known to you and easy to recognize
People usually feel better when they are around things that are familiar to them.
(n) the effect that an event or situation has on someone or something
Research shows that first impressions are important because they have a strong impact
on forming relationships.
(v) to have an effect on the way someone or something behaves, thinks, or develops
The early impressions people form will influence their feelings about each other in the
(v) to plan or arrange something
It's important to organize your things if you want to find them easily.
(n) a guess about what is going to happen
A study showed that when people first meet, they quickly make predictions about what
kind of relationship they will have.
If their first impressions of someone are good, people usually predict that they will have
a good relationship with that person.
(n) someone who seriously studies a subject, trying to discover new facts about it
The researcher was happy because he had discovered many interesting things about
(n) information or answers that people get by looking at something carefully, especially
in a scientific way
The result of the study showed that most people don't like selfish people.
(n) a piece of work that is done to find out more about a particular subject or problem,
and that is usually written in a report
The scientist talked about a study he had just done on relationships.
(adj) someone who is well educated has had a lot of education and has a lot of
knowledge about many different things
He's a college professor, so he's very well educated.
UNIT 1 BUILDING ACADEMIC LISTENING SKILLS
(n) the feeling that something is definitely true or definitely exists
I have very strong beliefs, and sometimes it's hard to find people who feel the same way
(v) to decide which one of a group of things or people that you want
Who did she choose to go to the party with? Both Luis and Jim wanted to ask her.
(adj) someone who is confident believes that they can do things well and does not feel
He is very confident and he makes friends very easily, so women find him attractive.
(v) to have a romantic relationship with someone
Pedro and Cecilia used to be a couple, but now they date other people.
(v) to choose what you are going to do after thinking about it
Why did you decide that you didn't want to go out with Max again?
(n) one part of a whole
A psychologist studied speed dating to learn more about elements of attraction.
(adj) able to learn and understand things quickly
Victoria is a well-educated scientist, and she only wants to meet men who are
(n) your husband or wife or your girlfriend or boyfriend
She wants a partner who is kind, funny, and intelligent.
(adj) relating to the body, not the mind or soul
Physical attractiveness is more important to men than to women.
(n) a part of someones personality
More than one quality is important to people in a romantic partner.
(v) to get or be given something
Galina likes to receive flowers from her boyfriend on Valentine's Day.
(adj) showing strong feelings of love
Relationships include those with friends, family, and romantic partners.
(n) a meeting for a particular purpose
At speed-dating sessions, people try to find a romantic partner.
(v) to have or use something with someone else
Married people usually share their money and possessions.
(adj) almost the same, but not exactly the same
Many think its important for a romantic partner to be similar to themselves.
Similarity means that two people feel that they are more or less the same.
(n) the rate at which something moves or travels
Yvonne and Tom met and married with great speedtheir wedding was only two
months after they first met!
UNIT 2 PREVIEW
(v) if something breaks or someone breaks it, it separates into two or more pieces,
especially because it has been hit or dropped
A spider's web will break if you walk through it.
(n) a person or thing that makes something happen; v to make something happen
There are many causes of rain forest destruction.
(v) to make something happen
Pollination causes plants to make new seeds and fruit.
(adj) not containing or making anything harmful or dirty
It is important to keep the earth's air and water clean.
(adj) related or joined
We are all connected in the web of life.
(n) something that happens as a result of something else
One consequence of losing pollinators is that we could have less food.
(n) a plant such as corn, wheat etc. that people grow and sell
Most of the land is used for growing crops.
cut (something) down
(v) to cut something so that the whole of it falls to the ground
People shouldn't cut down so many trees in the rain forest.
(v) to need something
Many important food crops depend on pollination.
(n) all the animals and plants in a particular area, and the way in which they are related
to each other and to their environment
People, plants, and animals live together and interact to form different ecosystems.
(n) a result
Losing pollinators will have serious effects for humans.
(n) the world of land, sea, and air that a plant or animal lives in
Like a spiders web, everything in our environment is connected.
(adj) physically strong and not likely to become sick
Plants need plenty of water and sunlight to be healthy.
(v) to have a bad effect on someone or something
When people hurt plants, they also make it harder for the animals that eat them to stay
(n) a small creature such as an ant or a fly, with six legs and a body divided into three
A small insect was sitting on the flower.
(v) to keep someone or something safe from harm
We must protect the environment because we all need clean air and water.
(v) to give something to someone or make it available to them because they need it or
Natural water purification provides clean water for people and other living things to use
(adj) clean, without anything harmful or unhealthy
The water in this lake is pure, and you can drink it.
(n) a small hard object made by plants, from which a new plant will grow
The farmer planted seeds in April, and the plants soon started to grow.
(n) the importance or usefulness of something; v to think that something is useful or
Some say that the value of the products and services provided by ecosystems is $33
(v) to think that something is useful or important
Because of widespread pollution, people are learning to value their environment more
UNIT 2 BUILDING ACADEMIC LISTENING SKILLS
(v) to cause a change in someone or something
When living things die, it affects the whole web of life.
(v) to destroy or damage something with fire
Fires burn many trees every year.
(v) to need the help of someone or something
Many living things depend on each other.
(v) to break or damage completely
People are destroying the rain forest.
People should stop rain forest destruction.
(v) to go away suddenly
All over the world, trees are disappearing.
(n) a medicine
Irene takes a drug to help her with her headaches.
(v) to hurt or damage something
When people make rivers dirty, they harm plants and animals.
(adj) in a situation where something bad or harmful might happen
The web of life of the Amazon is in danger.
(adj) involving or existing in more than one country
The company is international, and it makes and sells drinks all over the world.
(adj) in or relating to the area where someone lives
These plants are local, and only the people around here know that they can be used in
(adj) something that is missing is not in the correct place and you cannot find it
Dozens of trees are missingsomeone must have cut them down yesterday.
(v) to make or grow something in order to sell it
Companies use trees to produce paper.
(v) to take someone from their job or something from its place, and put a new person or
It may be impossible to replace degraded ecosystems.
(adj) if you are responsible for something bad, you caused it to happen
Humans are responsible for hurting the environment.
(adj) a serious problem, situation, etc. is extremely bad or dangerous
These problems are serious, and we need to solve them before it is too late.
(v) to give money and food for someone to live
Jake works hard to support his family.
UNIT 2 BUILDING ACADEMIC READING SKILLS
(n) a particular part of a place, city, country, etc.
She comes from a very poor area of the country.
(n) something that helps you
Such benefits as clean water are called ecosystem services.
(adv) done or made by a person, not a machine
This rug was made by hand by an old woman about 50 years ago.
(n) the amount of money you must pay in order to buy, do, or produce something
In Brazil, the cost of losing pollination services has been high.
(v) to have a particular price
A water purification plant would cost six to eight billion dollars to build.
Recently, human actions have caused costly degradation to some valuable ecosystem
(v) to make something worse than it was
In the Catskill Mountains of New York State, watersheds were degraded due to the
destruction of forests.
Destruction and degradation of ecosystem services affect the economy.
The effects of degraded watersheds have been severe.
(n) the way that money, business, and products are organized in a country or area
Our actions can be very costly to people and the economy.
Losing ecosystem services would cause serious economic and health problems for
(n) something that happens, especially something important, interesting or unusual
I think the discovery of how to grow crops was the most important event in the history of
(adj) something that is expensive costs a lot of money
The machine was very expensive, so he couldn't afford to buy it.
(n) the activity of raising animals or growing crops on a farm
This land was full of trees when I was a boy, but now it's used for farming.
(v) to stop having something important that you need
If we lose the rain forests, we will be in very big trouble.
(n) a set of actions or events that cause change
During the process of moving slowly through the watershed, water gets clean.
(adv) not long ago
The earth has recently become warmer than it used to be.
(v) to flow into
Rivers usually run into the ocean.
(n) help that someone or something gives someone or something
The river provides many useful services to the people in the city; for example, it can be
used for water power.
(n) a way of solving a problem or dealing with a difficult situation
We need to find a solution to the problem as soon as possible.
(adj) important; costing a lot of money
Pure water is very valuable.
(adj) having a particular value
Some studies say that pollination around the world is worth $234 billion a year.
UNIT 3 PREVIEW
(n) a situation in which someone is hurt or something is damaged without anyone
intending it to happen.
Her parents were hurt in a car accident.
(n) the end of a person's or an animal's life
Mindy was sad after the death of her parents.
(n) the legal ending of a marriage
Anna got a divorce from her husband last year, and now she's dating someone else.
(adj) related to feelings
People sometimes experience real dangers to their physical and emotional happiness.
(n) someone with special skills or knowledge of a subject, gained as a result of training
You should ask an expert to help you with your problem.
(v) to be unsuccessful in what you are trying to do
I was upset when I failed the final physics test.
(v) to become less, or to reduce something in amount, degree, strength etc.
Please lower your voicewhen you shout, you make me feel stressed and unhappy.
(v) to succeed in doing something difficult, such as dealing with a problem
Taking time to manage stress will keep you healthy and happy.
(adj) usual, typical, or expected
It is normal to feel sad sometimes, but not all the time.
(n) someone who works in a job that needs special education and training
Many different types of health care professionals work at the hospital.
(v) to react to something that has been said or done
People today respond differently to big life events than people did in the past.
(n) a combination of all the things that are happening and all the conditions that exist in a
particular time or place
Many people get stressed when they are in a difficult situation.
(n) the feeling of being worried because of difficulties in your life
Too much stress can seriously affect our health.
Many Americans feel more stressed today than they did five years ago.
Most people think life today is more stressful than life 50 years ago was.
(n) a situation that causes a stress reaction
The best way to find a students stress level may be to look at small daily stressors.
(v) to tell someone your ideas about what should be done
The psychologist suggested that I take more walks to help me feel happier and calmer.
UNIT 3 BUILDING ACADEMIC READING SKILLS
(adj/adv) happening, done, or produced every day
Stressful activities, such as driving to work in heavy traffic, are a part of daily life.
(n) the physical and mental strength that makes you able to do things
Younger people usually have more energy than older people.
(n) something that you do regularly, and usually without thinking
Smoking is a bad habit, but many people find it hard to stop.
(v) to chase animals or birds in order to catch and kill them
People used to have to hunt for animals if they wanted to eat fresh meat.
(v) to include or affect someone or something
Divorces involve a lot of stress for the whole family.
(v) to stop holding someone or something
If you let go of your anger and stress, you will feel a lot better.
(n) the way in which you live, including your job, what you won, and what you do
Changes in lifestyle have caused problems with stress.
(n) a particular amount, such as five, ten, etc. out of every hundred
Fifty percent of the people in this city think their life is too stressful.
(v) to tell someone something that s/he does not already know or has not yet noticed
Doctors often point out that it's not healthy to feel stressed all the time.
(v) to become more calm and less worried, especially by resting or doing something
enjoyable, or to make someone do this
Taking hot baths helps many people to relax.
(v) to let someone or something go free
In the past, people released stress with physical activity involved in hunting.
Exercise provides many people with a release from stress.
(n) the thing you are talking about or considering in a conversation, discussion, book,
Many scientists are doing research on this subject because it is very interesting.
UNIT 3 BUILDING ACADEMIC LISTENING SKILLS
(adj) frightened of something that may hurt you or be dangerous
Maria is afraid to walk home alone when it is dark outside.
(n) a feeling of worry
Technostress is a feeling of anxiety caused by working with technology.
Those who dont make schedules are often anxious about managing time.
(adj) someone who is busy is working or has a lot to do
Many people who are busy feel stressed because they have too many plans and
(n) physical activity that you do in order to stay strong and healthy
If you get more exercise, you will lose weight.
get used to
(exp) feel better about doing something so that it does not seem difficult anymore
People think eating healthier foods is difficult, but really, it's not too hard to get used to
(n) a set of things that you write one below the other
Make a list of things you need to do to make your life less stressful.
(v) to do something regularly in order to improve your skill at it
If you want to learn how to do something well, you should practice it, every day if
(n) a formal talk about a particular subject
As soon as everyone in the audience was sitting down, Lin gave a short presentation
about how to lower stress levels.
(v) to know or understand something that you did not know before
People need to realize that relaxing is important in reducing stress.
(v) to make the amount or size of something less than it was before
Getting more sleep can help you to reduce your stress levels.
(n) a plan of what you will do and when you will do it
Making a schedule to manage your time can help reduce stress.
(n) an ability to do something very well, because you have learned it
He has great time management skills, so he can get a lot done without feeling stressed.
(n) one of a series of things that you do in order to achieve something
There are steps you can take to make sure you don't have the same problem getting all
your schoolwork done this year.
(n) a special way of doing something
Different management techniques can be used for different stressors.
UNIT 4 PREVIEW
(n) a person in a book, story, movie, etc.
Animal characters in folktales have human-like qualities such as the ability to talk.
(n) the beliefs, customs, and way of life of a society
Many cultures tell stories to explain the world.
(n) a place or times when there is no light
The room was in total darkness, so I turned on the light.
(v) to do something that interests and amuses people
She entertained the children with stories and songs.
(v) to give the reason for something
Could you explain why the rabbit in the story wins the race?
(n) one part of something that people often notice because it is important or interesting
Animals that can speak are a common feature of folktales.
(n) all the people who are about the same age
Folktales are used to pass down history and beliefs to the next generation.
(v) to put something in a place where no one else can see or find it
Let's hide the presents so the children can't find them.
(n) all the things that happened in the past
Throughout history, people have told stories.
(n) an experience that teaches you things, or a period of time in which someone teaches
Some stories try to teach children lessons about life.
(n) the energy from the Sun, a lamp, etc. that allows you to see things
I can't seewe need more light in the room.
(n) a special power used for making strange things happen
Some folktales explain mysterious events as being the results of magic.
Many animals in folktales have magical powers.
(adj) spoken, not written
People have shared stories in the oral tradition for many years
(v) to give or teach something to people who are younger than you or who live after you
My grandmother passed down all her favorite stories to her grandchildren.
(adj) liked by a lot of people
Folktales are popular all over the world. All different people enjoy them.
(n) the thing that an event, process, or activity is supposed to achieve
The purpose of this story is to teach children to listen to their parents.
(n) a belief or custom that has existed for a long time
The oral tradition has lasted for hundreds or even thousands of years.
A troll is an imaginary creature in traditional stories.
UNIT 4 BUILDING ACADEMIC LISTENING SKILLS
(n) a typical quality or feature of something or someone
The characters in folktales usually have one or two strong characteristics.
(adj) able to use your intelligence to get what you want, sometimes in a slightly
The animals in folktales are often more clever than the humans.
(adv) used to say that something is more true of one person or thing than of other people
Everybody loved the story, especially little Rodrigo.
(adj) something that is exciting makes you feel happy and eager or interested
The story is so exciting that everyone wants to hear what happens next.
(adj) very unusual, special, or surprising
Characters with extraordinary powers are a common feature of folktales.
(adj) someone who is generous gives a lot of help, money, things, etc.
The generous mouse shared his dinner with the turtle.
(adj) not different or special in any way
Nothing interesting was happeningit was just an ordinary day.
(n) something you have decided to do
In the story, the girl's plan was to run away from her evil stepmother.
(v) to say that you will definitely do something
Eva asked her children to promise that they would be quiet in the library.
(n) the position or job that someone has in a group
The roles of animals in folktales are often more important than those of humans.
(adj) easy to do or understand
Most stories for children are simple and are easy to understand.
(n) a short statement that gives the main information about something, not all the details
In summary, many stories have happy endings.
(n) a job or piece of work
Characters in folktales use tricks, skills, or magic to complete a task.
(adv) used when saying what happens most of the time
I usually read stories to my daughter at bedtime, but sometimes I read them during the
(adj) not strong in your body
The little mouse in the story was small and weak, but very clever.
UNIT 4 BUILDING ACADEMIC READING SKILLS
(adv) trying very hard not to make mistakes, damage something, or cause problems The
rabbit carefully hid his carrot under a rock so that no one could see it.
(v) to get hold of and stop something that is moving
Did you catch any fish for our dinner?
(v) to move toward the top of something
Many children like to climb trees. They go up high, but they aren't afraid.
(v) to drop down toward the ground
Be carefuldon't fall down the stairs. They're wet!
(n) an empty or open space in something solid
The squirrel dug a hole in the ground and put a nut in it.
(v) to get something
Tricksters use their own special abilities to obtain something they want.
(n) a special ability to do something
In the story, the old woman had magical powers: she could fly, and she could see the
(n) a plan, especially to do something that is not honest
Tricksters often have a scheme to make weak animals do something.
(n) a long thin piece of wood that has fallen or been cut from a tree
She picked up a big stick that she found on the ground.
(v) to make an object move quickly from your hand through the air by moving your arm
He can throw a ball very far.
(v) to tie someone's arms, legs etc. so that she/he cannot move
You should tie up the dog to a tree so that he can't run away.
(v) to make someone believe something that is not true to get something from him/her
Some characters trick another character, but they do not always win in the end.
(adj) very unattractive, and not nice to look at
The color of our new house is really ugly. We are going to paint it a beautiful blue.
UNIT 5 PREVIEW
(n) the amount you get by adding several numbers together and then dividing the total
by the number of numbers you added together
Americans own a large number of cars. The average for each family is two.
(n) the science which studies substances like gas, metals, liquids, etc., what they are
made of, and how they change
Scientists in the field of green chemistry are finding creative ways to make chemicals.
Petroleum production and its use in chemicals cause many problems.
Green chemists must think about the effects of their alternative fuels.
(n) a subject that people study or a type of work that they are involved in
Professor Kramer is an expert in the field of chemistry.
(n) a substance that provides light, heat, or power when it burns
We use petroleum fuel to drive cars, to heat our homes, and to fly airplanes.
(n) something that you hope to achieve in the future
My goal is to stop using a lot of fuel and other chemicals.
(n) damage or injury
Today we need products that help people without causing harm to the environment.
People are worried about the harmful effects that chemicals have on the environment.
(v) to use your mind to think of new ideas, stories, pictures, etc.
Just imagine what the world would be like with no cars.
(n) a rise in the amount of something
There has been an increase in the number of cars in the world over the last 50 years.
(n) the making of products in factories
Sixty percent of Europeans have negative views of the chemical industry.
Industrial production often creates products that can be dangerous to peoples health.
(v) to make a person, plant, or animal die
Too much water is not good for plantsit can kill them.
(adj) belonging to the present time
Cars that run on biofuels or electricity are modern. They did not exist in the past.
(n) oil from beneath the ground, used for making gasoline
It is hard to imagine modern life without petroleum.
(v) to make the air, water, or soil dirty or dangerous by adding harmful substances
Burning petroleum fuels pollutes the air.
Experts agree that pollution from burning fossil fuels can cause global warming.
The air in many cities has been polluted by the burning of petroleum fuels.
(adj) not likely to harm you
Some chemicals are safe, but others are dangerous.
(n) a period of bad weather when there is a lot of wind, rain, snow, etc.
Many homes were damaged in the storm last night.
(n) a particular type of solid, liquid, or gas
Biofuels break down into harmless substances.
(n) how hot or cold something is
Water freezes at a temperature of 32 degrees Fahrenheit or 0 degrees Celsius.
UNIT 5 BUILDING ACADEMIC READING SKILLS
(adj) different from something else
One opportunity that green chemistry offers is finding alternatives to fossil fuels.
(n) something that tests your skill or ability, especially in a way that is interesting
It will be a big challenge to solve this problem.
(v) to be included in something or be part of something
This drink doesn't contain any harmful chemicals.
(n) an occasion when it is possible for you to do something
Javier had the opportunity to work with the best scientists in the world.
(adj) complete and without any mistakes or problems
This laundry detergent isn't perfect, but it has fewer chemicals than other detergents.
(n) a part of something that has been separated, broken, or cut off from the rest of it
After she broke the mirror, there were pieces of broken glass everywhere.
(adj) containing or producing a substance that can kill you or make you sick if you eat it,
breathe it, etc.
Don't let the baby near the cleaning products. Some of them are poisonous!
(adj) able to be done, or likely to happen, exist, or be true
It is possible that the Earth will run out of fossil fuels very soon.
(v) to say that something will happen before it happens
Scientists predict that temperatures will increase around the world in the next ten years.
(adj) able to be replaced by natural processes
Biofuels come from renewable materials such as soybeans and corn.
(n) a poisonous substance;
Making ethanol puts dangerous toxins in the air.
Petroleum is expensive, toxic, and likely to be gone within 40 years.
(n) your belief, opinion, or attitude about something
The scientists had different views on green chemistry; some thought it was helping the
environment and others disagreed.
(n) things that are left after something has been used; things that people do not want
Making biofuel produces much less toxic waste than producing petroleum fuels.
(v) to think about someone or something a lot, because you feel nervous or unhappy
about him, her, or it
I worry about pollution a lot. It's a serious problem.
UNIT 5 BUILDING ACADEMIC LISTENING SKILLS
(n) something that helps you to be better or more successful than others
One advantage of riding a bike is that it is cheaper than driving.
(adj) if something is available, you can have it, buy it, or use it
This kind of oil is available in stores everywhere.
(v) to get things and bring them together
Some people collect empty bottles and recycle them.
(n) an agreement or arrangement, especially in business or politics
We got a great deal on the new car we bought. It cost less than our old car, and it uses
(adv) without any doubt, for sure
It's definitely a good idea to use less petroleum. Everyone should try to do it.
(v) to get rid of something
Scientists have found a good way to dispose of waste vegetable oil.
(adj) present now
Existing technology allows scientists to turn waste vegetable oil into fuel.
(adj) cooked in hot fat
Remember, fried food is not healthy because it is so greasy.
(n) waste material such as old food, dirty paper, and empty bags
I always take out the garbage after I have a party. I don't like to have a mess in the
(adj) ordinary, without any special features or qualities
It's just a regular carit looks like most of the other cars in this neighborhood.
(v) use something to work
Most cars run on gas.
(adj) unusual or surprising, in a way that is difficult to understand
Cars that use biofuels are still considered a little strange, but they are becoming more
and more common.
UNIT 6 PREVIEW
(adj) art made of shapes and patterns that do not look like real people or things
Artists like Picasso used an abstract style to show ideas about people and objects.
(adj) having or producing a lot of light
This is a painting of a farm on a bright, sunny day.
(n) a period of 100 years
A century ago, art looked quite different than it does today.
(n) a 20th-century style of art in which objects and people are shown with geometric
In cubism, images were made up of shapes or patterns seen from different views.
Chagall used cubist ideas in his early paintings.
(adj) known and admired by a lot of people
After the artist became famous, everyone wanted to buy his paintings.
(n) understanding or knowledge of something
The artist had a strange idea of what the world was like.
(n) a picture
Chagalls paintings often show images of his village.
(n) a thing that you can see, hold, or touch
The object shown in that painting is a chair.
(n) someone who paints pictures
The painter produced hundreds of paintings throughout his life.
(n) an arrangement of shapes, lines, and colors
The patterns in abstract art do not look like real people or things.
(n) a painting, drawing, or photograph of someone
This is a portraitit's probably of the artist's wife.
(n) things that actually happen or are true;
Chagall brings together fantasy and reality to show a love of home.
Artists before the late nineteenth century tried to make paintings look realistic.
(n) the outer form of something
Modern paintings often show different shapes, such as squares and circles.
(adj) very surprised or upset
People were shocked by the artist's strange and ugly paintings.
(n) a way of doing or creating something
Chagall is famous for his own style of modern art.
(n) the thing or person in a painting or photograph
Chagalls and Popovas paintings are different in their colors, shapes, and subjects.
(n) the things that you can see from a particular place
Did you know that views from on top of that mountain are fantastic?
UNIT 6 BUILDING ACADEMIC READING SKILLS
(n) a date on which something important or special happened in an earlier year
The city had a party on the 100th anniversary of the famous artist's birth.
(adv) without any doubt
This painting is clearly a portrait of the artist's daughter.
(adv) in every way or to the greatest degree possible
As soon as the painting was completely finished, the artist started to paint a new one.
(v) to keep happening, existing, or doing something without stopping
The artist continued to paint until he was 80 years old.
(v) to grow or change into something bigger or more advanced
At first the little boy could only draw stick figures, but his ability to draw developed as he
(adj) as if happening in a dream
The soft, dreamlike images in Chagalls painting show simple times.
(n) an experience or situation that you imagine but is not real
In I and the Village, Chagall brings together fantasy and reality.
The experiences or situations in Chagalls paintings are fantastic.
(adj) not controlled by other people
Chagall developed his independent artistic style.
(v) to make someone want to do something
Even after her death in 1944, Bella continued to inspire his work.
(n) a style of art and building that was especially popular from the 1940s to the 1960s, in
which artists used simple shapes
Modernism was especially popular from the 1940s to the 1960s.
In modernistic art, artists used simple shapes.
(v) to feel that you should do something for someone or give something to someone,
especially because she/he has done something for you
I owe my talent in painting to my mother. She is also an artist, and she helped me very
(adj) belonging or relating to one particular person, rather than to other people or to
people in general
These paintings show what was happening in the artist's personal life at the time she
(n) a carefully planned piece of work
The artist and his assistants had to work all night, but they finished the project on time.
(n) the main idea or subject in a book, movie, painting, speech, etc.
His universal themes made Chagall a popular artist.
(n) a line showing the order in which events happened
The timeline shows important events like when the artist was born and when he died.
(adj) true or right in every situation
Chagalls work shows many universal themes.
(n) a very small town
His parents live in a small village near a river in France.
UNIT 6 BUILDING ACADEMIC LISTENING SKILLS
(v) to make something new exist or happen
This artist's paintings create feelings of calm and happiness in everyone who looks at
(n) a person whose job is to say if art, music, and movies are good or bad
Critics agree that Chagalls work has strong purpose and meaning.
In his own day, many people criticized Chagalls art.
(adj) having a regular pattern of shapes and lines
There are lots of interesting geometric shapes in these paintings.
(n) the feeling that good things can or will happen
They bought their children paper and pencils in the hope that they would learn to draw.
(adj) eager to do or have something
She is interested in learning more about modern art.
(n) great happiness and pleasure
She laughed with joy at the good news.
(v) to touch someone with your lips as a greeting, or to show love
Some people kiss to say hello; other people shake hands or smile.
(n) the thing, idea, feeling, etc. that a word, phrase, or sign represents
I don't understand the meaning of this painting.
(v) to repeat exactly what someone else has said or written
In his lectures, Professor Wong likes to quote things that famous artists have said.
(adj) strongly showing emotions such as love and sadness
Some people claim Chagalls art is too sentimental.
(n) a way of doing something
Chagall used different techniques in his work.
(adj) very bad
She was hurt badly in a terrible car accident.
(v) to put your finger, hand etc. on something or someone
Don't touch the paintit's still wet!
UNIT 7 PREVIEW
(v) to put something with something else, or with a group of other things
Please add that marketing idea to the list.
(v) to tell the pubic about a product or service in order to convince them to buy it;
How to advertise a product depends upon what market is intended for that product.
Today, advertisements appear in many more places than they did in the past.
(adv) more than anyone else or anything else
Which of these products do you like the best?
(n) an organization that produces or sells goods or services
He is the owner of a small business.
(n) someone who buys things from a store or company
There are many different kinds of customers and needs.
(v) to separate something into two or more parts, groups, etc.
We divided the large group into several smaller groups.
(v) to give all your attention to one particular person or thing
Business owners fear that if they focus on only one group, they wont make enough of a
(n) whether someone is marriedused especially on official forms
Her marital status is divorced.
(n) a specific number or kind of people who want to buy something
Businesses divide markets into specific groups of buyers.
(v) to try to convince someone to buy something by advertising is in a particular way
Businesses cannot market their products to everyone.
(n) the activity of deciding how to advertise a product, what price to charge for it, where
to sell it, and who to sell it to
Marketing influences what products a customer will buy.
(v) to say or write about something in a few words
I mentioned the idea to my boss, and she seemed to like it.
(n) a part of the population that buys a particular product or uses a particular service, or
is likely to do so;
Sometimes, a seller can find a niche market for his or her product.
(n) niche marketing
The success of many businesses is based on niche marketing.
(n) something that is grown, made in a factory, or taken from nature, usually in order to
Pelco makes lots of different products, such as shampoo, soap, and toothpaste.
(v) to give someone food or drinks as part of a meal
The coffee that the waitress served to us was delicious.
(adj) used when talking about a particular thing, person, time etc.
We made this shampoo for a specific kind of personteenaged girls.
(v) to direct something at someone or something else
Companies often target products to only one small group.
(adj) unusually good or special
We love eating at that restaurant because the food is so delicious and unique.
UNIT 7 BUILDING ACADEMIC READING SKILLS
(n) a study of a person, group, situation, or company over a long period of time
Marketing class websites often contain case studies of particular cases.
(v) to try to be more successful than another person or group;;
Jollibee has shown it can compete with the worlds biggest fast food restaurant.
The same method of competition may not be successful against different rivals.
The goal is to serve a large part of the market that most competitors dont serve.
(v) to have dinner
We usually dine at a restaurant near our house.
(adj) important and necessary
It is essential to keep restaurant kitchens clean. People will get sick if a restaurant is
(adv) used when saying that something is completely correct, the same, etc.
I agree with you. That is exactly what I mean.
(n) an increase in amount, number, or size
The government studied the growth of fast food restaurants in the town. Three new
restaurants just opened right near the school.
have a taste for
(exp) to like something
Many Americans have a taste for hamburgers. They are very popular with teenagers,
(n) a particular place or position
He found a great location for his new restaurant. It's right near the shopping center.
(n) a strategy or way of marketing
Jollibees marketing approach was to focus on Filipino communities.
(exp) best or most important
A-Mart has so many new customers that it is now the number one supermarket in the
(adj) done or produced by someone who has an important position in the government or
in an organization
He got the license and all the papers, and it's official: he can open a new restaurant
(v) to make someone believe or decide to do something
Special expressions persuade audiences to think about a topic in a certain way.
(adj) food that is spicy contains a lot of spices
Wowthis hot sauce spicy! I need a glass of water.
(adv) for the reason that you have mentioned
There were many children in the area; therefore, she decided to open a candy store
UNIT 7 BUILDING ACADEMIC LISTENING SKILLS
(n) how much of something there is, or how much is needed
The company had only a small amount of money to spend on advertising.
(n) someone who pays a person or organization for a service
It's very important for companies to give each client what he or she wants.
(v) to provide information, advice, or answers;
Deciding which firm to consult about marketing decisions is often difficult.
A team of consultants helped with the marketing plan.
(v) to become or make something larger in size or amount
He wants to expand his business quickly.
(v) to promise that something will happen or be done
We guarantee that you will love this product, or we'll give you your money back.
(v) to recognize and name someone or something
They asked the customers to identify the kind of coffee that they liked the best.
(adj) not very great in amount or number;
Small businesses have a limited amount of money for marketing.
It is often necessary to limit most of your business to a specific group.
(v) to say that you are willing to give something to someone
Some restaurants offer customers a free drink with their meal.
(n) money that you gain by selling things or doing business
If a market is small, a company may not make a profit.
(v) if a message, television program, etc. reaches a lot of people, they hear or see it
The company's new, online advertisement will reach millions of people.
(v) to look again at something you have studied, such as notes, reports, etc. Professor
Lee wants to review the main topics we covered in our marketing class yesterday.
(n) an exercise in which you behave in the way that someone else would behave in a
Let's do a role play: you're the manager, and I'm the customer.
run out of
(v) to use all of something, so that there is none left
We are going to run out of those computer games. So many people bought them!
(v) to limit most of your business or study to a specific group, subject, etc.
You can specialize to meet the exact needs of customers.
Specialized products fit the needs of niche markets.
(n) someone who does something without being paid, or who is willing to offer to help
We need a volunteer to taste our new brand of cookies.
UNIT 8 PREVIEW
(prep) used to say where your information comes from
People can communicate in several different ways, according to scientists.
(n) a general opinion or feeling about someone or something
Nonverbal messages are important in communicating feelings and attitudes.
(n) someones education, family, and experience
My son had trouble making friends at his school because he is from a very different
background than the other kids.
(n) the process of sharing information or expressing thoughts and feelings;
Nonverbal communication includes the use of the body, face, and tone of voice to
Nonverbal signals are an effective way to communicate across cultures.
(adj) consisting of many different parts and often difficult to understand
Nonverbal communication is complex because people interpret nonverbal messages
based on their own culture.
(v) to say, write, or show what you think or feel
It's sometimes hard for people to express their feelings.
face to face
(adv) while physically close to someone
Talking to people face to face can be easier than talking to them on the phone.
(adj) annoyed or angry because you cannot do or have what you want
Rong can't understand her teacher, and she is frustrated in class.
(v) to make someone or something part of a larger group
The psychologist's study should include examples of many different types of
(v) to explain or determine the meaning of a statement, action, event, etc.;
Misunderstandings can happen when people interpret nonverbal messages.
Interpretation of face-to-face communication often depends on nonverbal messages.
(adj) if someone or something is known, many people know about them
He is known to be very good at communicating with other people.
(n) a failure to comprehend a question, statement, or situation;
Some misunderstandings of communication are especially uncomfortable.
Using the wrong tone of voice can cause others to misunderstand your message.
(adj) made angry or upset
Laura was offended because Bruno looked away and acted bored while she was
(v) if two things relate to each other, there is a connection between them
It's easier to relate to people when you are from the same place as they are.
tone of voice
(n) the way your voice sounds, which often shows how you are feeling or what you mean
Face-to-face communication has three basic elements: words, tone of voice, and
(adj) relating to words or using words
Talking, reading, and writing are all examples of communication that is verbal.
UNIT 8 BUILDING ACADEMIC LISTENING SKILLS
(adj) correct or good for a particular time, situation, or purpose
Gestures that are appropriate in one culture may not be in another.
(v) to think that something is true even though you do not know if it is
Misunderstanding gestures can make us assume that something is true when it is not.
The assumption that people can easily change their nonverbal communication is
(phr v) using something as the model from which you develop something else
I think she's popular, based on the fact that she has so many friends.
(adj) not worried about what someone will do or about what will happen
People feel very comfortable with her because she is so friendly and nice.
(v) to examine or judge two or more things in order to show how they are similar to or
different from each other
In the study, the researchers compare the way young children communicate with the
way adults do.
(n) a situation in which you look directly at someone while she/he is looking at you In the
United States, people usually make eye contact when they are talking to each other.
(n) a movement of your head, arm, or hand to express your feeling
The professor wants students to understand the use of gestures across cultures.
(adj) behaving or speaking in a way that is correct for the social situation you are in, or
showing good manners
It's not polite to say unkind or insulting things other people.
(n) the possibility that something will develop or happen in a particular way
There is the potential for misunderstanding when using nonverbal signals.
(adj) not making much noise
Please be quiet! I'm on the phone with my son and I can't hear what he is saying.
(v) to move or lift something to a higher position or to an upright position
You should raise your hand if you want to answer the teacher's question.
(v) to control an activity or process, usually by having rules
Japanese and American cultures use different nonverbal signals to regulate
(adj) speaking or behaving in a way that is not polite
Most people feel it's rude to talk when you have food in your mouth.
(n) a sound, action, or event that gives information or tells someone to do something
Nonverbal signals are used to take turns speaking.
(v) if a group of people take turns doing something, one person does it, then another
person does it, etc.
If two or more people want to use something, they should take turns using it.
(v) to move your hand, or something you hold in your hand, from side to side as a signal
It is OK to wave to the waiter if you want to pay for your meal, but don't shout at him.
UNIT 8 BUILDING ACADEMIC READING SKILLS
(v) to look at or think about the parts of something in order to understand the whole thing
A researcher analyzed a video involving a police officer and a hysterical woman.
(v) to become quiet and relaxed after you have been angry, excited, or upset, or to make
someone become quiet and relaxed
After the officer makes the woman hold his gaze, she is able to calm down.
The officer used his gaze to make the woman calm.
(adv) with no other person, action, process etc. involved
I always look directly into a person's eyes when I am saying something important.
(adj) not honest; a word describing someone who lies, cheat, or steals
The CEO of that company was dishonest and stole money from many people, so the
police put him in prison.
(v) to repair something that is broken or not working correctly
The new principal promised to fix the school's problems. We need more teachers and
(n) information or advice that tell you how to do something, how to use a piece of
equipment or a machine, etc
Listen carefully to the following instructions. Everyone must sign their names in this
book first, then go upstairs to the meeting room.
(n) a planned way of doing something
Gaze is the most important method of regulating face-to-face interaction.
(v) to do something such as a job or a piece of work, especially something difficult or
Psychologists perform experiments to find out more about nonverbal communication.
(v) to store music, sound, television programs etc. on tape or disks etc. so that people
can listen to them or watch them again
The video camera recorded everything that happened in the room.
(v) to tell someone about something
The students reported the results of their study to the class.
(n) an instruction that says how something is to be done or what is allowed, especially in
a game, organization, or job
If you follow the rules, you will understand how to play the game.
(adj) not having the skill, strength, knowledge etc. to do something
She was unable to talk to anybody after the accident. First she cried, and then she went
(adj) unhappy and worried because something bad or disappointing has happened
He was very upset that she had lied to him. He believes that lying is a very bad thing to
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