About Cheese

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<p>ABOUT CHEESE.Categorization of cheese </p> <p>Aging Texture Process and methods of making Fat content Kind of milk Region and country</p> <p>Aging</p> <p>fresh cheeses o Cottage Cheese o Cream Cheese o Mascarpone o Mozzarella o Ricotta o Romanian Ca o Neufchatel (the model for American-style cream cheese) o Chevre o Whey o Provencal Brousse o Corsican Brocciu o Romanian Urda o Greek Mizithra o Norwegian Geitost o Corsican cuisine o Paneer o Queso Fresco aged cheeses</p> <p>TextureUsually aged cheeses or ripened cheeses are further classified according to texture </p> <p>Hard cheeses Semi firm cheeses Semi soft cheeses Soft-ripened of mold Washing Processed cheese Blue-veined cheese Painstaking Pasta filata</p> <p>Fat content </p> <p>reduced-fat fat-free cheeses Imitation cheese</p> <p>Kind of milk </p> <p>goat milk cow milk ewe milk</p> <p>Region and country </p> <p>Africa Asia North America Central America South America Europe o Italian cheese o French cheese o Spanish cheese o USA cheese</p> <p>Australia and South Pacific</p> <p>HOW TO MAKE CHEESE?IT'S EASY ..</p> <p>Basic PrinciplesThe basic principle involved in making all natural cheese is to coagulate or curdle the milk so that it forms into curds and whey. As anyone knows who has left milk unrefrigerated for a period, milk will curdle quite naturally. The milk sours and forms into an acid curd. . Today's methods help the curdling process by the addition of a starter (a bacterial culture which produces lactic acid) and rennet the coagulating enzyme which speeds the separation of liquids (whey) and solids (curds). There are two basic categories of starter cultures. Hemophilic starter cultures have microbes that can not survive at high temperatures and thrive at room temperatures. Examples of cheeses made with these bacteria are Cheddar and Gouda. Hemophilic starter cultures are heat-loving bacteria. They are used when the curd is cooked to as high as 132oF. Examples of cheeses made from these bacteria are Swiss and Italian cheeses. . The least sophisticated cheeses are the fresh, unripe Ned varieties typified by Cottage Cheese. These are made by warming the milk and letting it stand, treating it with a lactic starter to help the acid development and then cutting and draining the whey from the cheese. The cheese can then be salted and eaten fresh. This is the simplest, most basic form of cheese.</p> <p>AcidificationGenerally, cheese making starts with acidification. This is the lowering of the pH (increasing acid content) of the milk, making it more acidic. Classically, this process is performed by bacteria. Bacteria feed on the lactose in milk and produce lactic acid as a waste product. With time, increasing amounts of lactic acid lower the pH of the milk. Acid is essential to the production of good cheese. However, if there is too much acid in the milk the cheese will be crumbly. If not enough acid is present the curd will be pasty.</p> <p>RennetAfter acidification, coagulation begins. Coagulation is converting milk into curds and whey. As the pH of the milk changes, the structural nature of the casein proteins changes, leading to curd formation. Essentially, the casein proteins in the milk form a curd that entraps fat and water. Although acid alone is capable of causing coagulation, the most common method is enzyme coagulation. The physical properties of enzyme-coagulated milk are better than that coagulated purely with acid. Curds produced by enzyme coagulation achieve lower moisture content without excessive hardening. . Enzymes used to coagulate milk come from a number of sources: animals, plants, and fungi. The traditional source of enzyme is rennet. Rennet is a preparation made from the lining of the fourth stomach of calves. The most important enzyme in rennet is chymosin. Today, most chymosin is a recombinant product made possible by genetic engineering. Until 1990, the only source of rennin was calves. Around 1990, scientists created a system to make chymosin that doesn't require calves. Using genetic engineering, the gene for chymosin was cut from a calf cell and inserted into the genomes of bacteria and yeast. The microbes make an exact copy of the calf chymosin. Microbes replicate and</p> <p>grow rapidly, and can be grown continuously. Thus, the supply of rennet is assured. Approximately 70% of the cheese made in the U.S. is coagulated using chymosin. The chymosin made by the yeast cells is the same as that made by the calf cells. .</p> <p>Cutting and Pressing the CurdAfter the coagulation sets the curd, the curd is cut. This step is usually accompanied with heating the curd. Cutting the curd allows whey to escape, while heating increases the rate at which the curd contracts and squeezes out the whey. The purpose of this stage of the process is to make a hard curd. The term hard curd is relative; the cheese at this stage is still quite pliable. The main difference between a soft curd and a hard curd is the amount of water remaining in the curd. Hard curds have very little water left in them. .. Once the curds have sufficiently hardened, salting and shaping begins. In this part of the process, salt is added to the cheese. Salt is added for flavor and to inhibit the growth of undesirable microbes. Large curds are formed as smaller curds are pressed together. This will often involve the use of a cheese press.</p> <p>RipeningThe shaped cheese is allowed to ripen or age for various periods of time. During this time, bacteria continue to grow in the cheese and change its chemical composition, resulting in flavor and texture changes in the cheese. The type of bacteria active at this stage in the cheese making process and the length of time the cheese is aged determine the type and quality of cheese being made. . Sometimes an additional microbe is added to a cheese. Blue veined cheeses are inoculated with a Penicillium spore which creates their aroma, flavor and bluish or greenish veining. Such cheeses are internally moulded and ripen from the inside out. On the other hand, cheeses such as Camembert and Brie have their surfaces treated with a different type of Penicillium spore which creates a downy white mould (known as a bloomy or flowery rind): this makes them surface ripened cheeses. . Many surface ripened cheeses have their surfaces smeared with a bacterial broth. With others the bacteria is in the atmosphere of the curing chambers. These cheeses are called washed rind varieties as they must be washed regularly during their ripening period (longer than for Camembert or Brie) to prevent their interiors drying out. The washings also help promote an even bacterial growth across the surfaces of the cheeses. As this washing can be done with liquids as diverse as salt water and brandy, it also plays a part in the final flavor of the cheese.</p> <p>RindsThe rinds of the cheeses are formed during the ripening process, many quite naturally. Some are created artificially. Rinds may be brushed, washed, oiled, treated with a covering of paraffin wax or simply not touched at all. Traditional Cheddars are wrapped around with a cotton bandage. The rind's basic function is to protect the interior of the cheese and allow it to ripen harmoniously. Its presence thus affects the final flavor of the cheese. Salting plays an important role in rind formation. Heavily salted cheeses develop a thick, tough outer rind, typified by the Swiss range of cheeses. Cheddar, another natural rind cheese, is less salted than the Swiss varieties, and consequently has a much thinner rind. I hope this introduction to principles of cheese making has been interesting and informative. As you begin to make home made cheese, I would advise to start with the simple quick cheese recipes. Then, move on to the soft cheeses and finally the hard cheeses. You'll find that you learn more about the process every time you try a recipe. Your final cheese is effected by many factors. I would advise using a log book in which you can record such factors as starter type and amount, inoculation time, temperature, etc. Each recipe will have different factors you'll need to look at. The use of a log book will help you reproduce your outstanding cheeses on command, while avoiding the many pitfalls that can ruin your hard</p> <p>Cheese making BasicsAll cheese starts with milk. In the United States, most cheese is made with pasteurized milk. Some cheese connoisseurs argue that raw-milk cheese tastes better, and some small dairies produce raw-milk cheese (although to be legal in the United States, the cheese has to be aged for 60 days). But in addition to being considered safer, using pasteurized milk to make cheese is also easier because its behavior is predictable.</p> <p> Photographer: Fotomy | Agency: Dreamtime</p> <p>Milk is separated into curds and whey.</p> <p>Large cheese makers get their milk in tanker trucks, which have to be spotlessly clean and keep the milk at about 42 degrees Fahrenheit (5.6 degrees Celsius). Small dairies may use milk from their own herds. Once the milk is collected, it is put into a huge container and warmed. First, the milk must separate into curds (solid) and whey (liquid). To start this process, the lactose, or milk sugar, needs to become lactic acid. After warming the milk, cheese makers add a starter culture that contains one or more types of bacteria, including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus. These bacteria are also known as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) because they produce lactic acid as they metabolize. The specific mix of bacteria depends on the type of cheese being produced.</p> <p>Justin Sullivan/Getty Images</p> <p>Cheese curds</p> <p>Once the acidity level in the milk rises, the casein (one of the proteins in milk; whey is the other) can curdle. This requires the addition of rennet, which is a group of enzymes extracted from the stomach lining of a young cow, sheep or goat. In the stomach, rennet allows the animal to digest its mother's milk. When added to milk, it makes the casein turn into curds. After settling for up to two hours, the curdled milk has the appearance and texture of custard or pudding. The temperature of the cheese at this point depends on the type of cheese being made. Generally, higher temperatures produce firmer cheeses. Next, the curd is cut using a tool called a harp, which releases the whey. The size of the curds will determine the type of cheese -- soft cheeses come from large curds, while harder ones come from very fine curd. The whey is drained and used as an additive in processed foods and in animal feed. The next steps in the cheese making process depend on the type of cheese. We'll look at the possibilities in the next section.</p> <p>TYPES OF CHEESE..</p> <p>THE 7 TYPES OF CHEESEUnlike wine or animals, the character of cheeses can be judged by a glance at their rind. From just a brief encounter you can gauge its texture, taste, and strength of flavour and, with a little experience, even the stage of maturity. Using the 'rind' method, you can categories 90% of all cheeses into one of the following types.</p> <p>FRESH CHEESES - [No rind]Only 1-15 days old when eaten they have no time to develop a rind and only a subtle 'lactic', fermenting fruit flavour with a hint of the green pastures. They can be smooth and creamy, mousse-like or crumbly like Feta. Some are wrapped in chestnut leaves, rolled in ash or covered in herbs. Examples: Banon, Ricotta, Feta, Cottage cheese, Cream cheese</p> <p>NATURAL RIND - [Wrinkled rind, bluish grey mould] Nearly always goat, they are chalky and moist when young, with a lemony fresh tang. Gradually they develop a delicate bluish grey mould and dry out; producing a wrinkled rind which becomes more pronounced with age and the flavour is more nutty with a more distinct goaty taste. Examples: Sancerre, Chabichou, Crottin de Chavignol</p> <p>SOFT WHITE CHEESE - [White Fuzzy Rind]The curd retains much of the whey, ensuring the cheese becomes wonderfully soft, almost runny and grows a fuzzy white rind ofPenicillin candidum. The best taste of mushrooms sometimes with a hint of sherry! Unpasteurised examples develop a reddish-brown ferment on the rind whereas pasteurized versions have a pure white appearance. Examples: Camembert, Brie, Chevre Log</p> <p>SEMI-SOFT - [Brownish orange to thick grayish brown]There are two styles of semi-soft cheese. The first are those with supple, elastic, sometimes rubbery, texture and sweet, buttery to savory or even meaty in taste. These may have a barely formed rind like Edam or be encouraged to develop a thick, leathery rind encrusted with grayish mould. Examples: Edam, Pont Lvesque, St Nectaire, Tomme de Savoie The other style, known as washed-rind cheese, are rubbed or 'washed' in strong brine to maintain their internal moisture and attract special bacteria that create the characteristic orange sticky rind, strong, piquant flavour and aroma. The texture ranges from slightly chalky when young to rich, smooth and voluptuous when fully mature. Examples: Langres, Carre de L'Est, Epoisses</p> <p>HARD CHEESES - [Thick, dense rind often waxed or oiled]The curd is cut finely then heated in large vats before the whey is drained off. The curd is cut again or even 'milled' before being salted, packed in moulds and firmly pressed. Some cheeses are bathed in brine to seal and protect the cheeses from drying out in the curing cellars. Examples: Cheddar, Parmigiano Reggiano, Gruyere, Manchego</p> <p>BLUE CHEESES - [Gritty, rough, dry or sticky variable in co lour]The blue moulds, like Penicillin Roquefort, need oxygen to develop their co lour. This is achieved by piercing the young cheese with rods [normally steel]; the blue then grows along the tunnel, cracks and trails between the roughly packed curd. Examples: Stilton, Roquefort, Gorgonzola, Maytag Blue, Cashel Blue</p> <p>FLAVOURED CHEESES - [From barely formed to hard and crusty]They are a rapidly growing area of the market and offer an alternative to those who like dessert rather than cheese or who are not sure they like cheese. They range from the sublime to the ridiculous and are hard or semi-soft cheeses with added flavorings - nuts, fruit, spices, herbs even salmon or ham! Examples: Cornish Yarg, Gouda with Cumin, Stilton with Apricots, Devon Garland.</p> <p>For more details you could purchase a copy of CHEESE, a magnificent book by Juliet Harbutt that reveals chapter by chapter each of the different types with delicious examples from around the world.</p> <p>Cheddar cheese</p> <p>Country of origin Region, town</p> <p>England Somerset, Cheddar</p> <p>Cows, rarely Goats Cheddar cheese is a Source of milk fairly hard, pale Pasteurized Frequently yellow to orange, Texture hard/semi-hard sharp-tasting cheese originally (and still) Aging time 3-30 months depending on variety made in the English West Country farmhouse Cheddar Only: Certification village of Cheddar, PDO in Somerset.[1] Cheddar cheese is the most popular cheese in the United Kingdom, accounting for just over 50% of the country's 1.9 billion annual cheese market.[2] Although Cheddar cheese is or...</p>

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