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- 1. New International Economic Order (NIEO)
- 2. Actually I dont understand What is New Economic Order or New International Economic order (NIEO)????????
- 3. New International Economic Order (NIEO) has been proposed and gained considerable recognition in the International community. It was an idea which in all its dimensions, embody prescriptions for the various ailments of the World economy as well as providing genuine basis for its Future Consolidation and Development.
- 4. How the term NIEO Evolved??? Then lets come-back to the history and do research to know the reasons.... History
- 5. Reason For emergence of New Economic Order Fisheries production increased from about 14 to 60 million Metric tons after world war II. At the beginning of the period, the world production decreased while oil prices rose and access of the resource was stiffened. In the second half of the seventies the use of Fishing Licenses system generalized as a large number of countries claimed a 200 nautical-mile Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).
- 6. Reasons for Rising of fish catches during seventies: Natural fluctuations of abundance of low-value species. (e.g. Peruvian anchovy, Chilean jack mackerel, Japanese and LatinAmerican Pilchards) Intensified fishing on Alaska Pollock. Expansion of long-range fleets into the Indian Ocean, the South pacific and the Southwest Atlantic in search of high-value species (e.g. Tunas, Shrimp and Cephalopods).
- 7. Effects of intensified fishing: This rise in production conceals the overfishing of most valuable demersal resources such as Cod, Hakes, Haddock, Whiting, Octopus, Groupers, Sea Breams, Pacific Ocean Perch, Chinese yellow croaker, large shrimps etc. The ecological changes of Fishery systems with replacement of large, long-lived species by smaller short-lived ones (in the Gulf of Thailand, in the North Sea, Off West Africa).
- 8. FAO convened in Vancouver (Canada) The FAO Technical Conference on Fishery Management and Development, Vancouver, 1972 (Stevenson, 1973), stressed both the problems of overfishing and environmental degradation from non-fishery sources. It also called for new management approaches based on precaution and addressing multispecies problems. It proposed to design the new fisheries management into the broader framework of ocean management. The main key Issues: The resource limitation and despite limited management success, most of the stock had reached the lowest levels ever recorded. Overcapitalization (Governmental subsidies) Need for a better scientific basis for management, for integration of biological science with economy and for better regional cooperation. The problems of free access to resources. Environmental degradation and its impact on fisheries.
- 9. The United Nations, at its Special General Assembly on Natural Resources held in May 1st, 1974, adopted A Declaration and a Programme of Action on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order. In December, 1974, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted by an absolute majority a Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States (generally known as the Echeverria Charter), a codified version of the NEIO Declaration and a Programme of Action.
- 10. In its path towards the New Economic Order, the Fisheries Department was guided by F.E. Popper, from Canada (1972-1976) H.C.Watzinger from Norway (1977-1978) K.C. Lucas (1978-1981)
- 11. The Charter lays down concrete rights of the Developing countries to be for improvement of their economic and social position. Guarantee of permanent sovereignty over natural resources. Right to restrict and supervise foreign capital investments Non-interference in the affairs of other countries by foreign business enterprises. Right to nationalize and appropriate foreign assets. Right to form producer cartels for primary products and Unlimited expansion of preferential trade agreements for the developing countries.
- 12. The fundamental principles of NIEO: It advocated the equality of national sovereignty each states. Disapproval of acquisition of territory by force. Non-interference in the affairs of other countries fisheries or any other natural resources. Permanent sovereignty over natural resources. Adoption of special measures for the most seriously affected countries. Promotion of producer cartels . Restrictions on activities of multinational corporations.
- 13. The lined activities of NIEO are.. Formation of an overall program for raw materials and primary products. Extending loans to the developing countries for their development programs,. Helping and promote industrialization. Transfer of technology. Restricting activities of multinational corporations. Promoting cooperation among the developing countries.
- 14. In 1945, total world fisheries production was about 14 million metric tonnes (MT). Of that amount, about one-third was allocated to production of fishmeal and fish oil, used mainly as a protein supplement for animal feeds. There was very little aquaculture produced and only a modest amount of trade in fishery products. Ships from Soviet bloc countries like Poland, together with ships from Asian coastal nations such as Japan, China, the Philippines and Thailand, quickly came to dominate global marine production and Market by the late 1960s.
- 15. During the post-war period of rapid expansion of fishing fleets throughout the world, most coastal nations claimed jurisdictions extending 12 nautical miles from shore, an area that encompassed only a fraction of the oceans most productive upwelling and continental coastal shelf areas. The post-war global fleet expansion thus brought a huge increase in fishing effort to the near-shore waters of all coastal nations, increasing fisheries production in proportion. By the 1970s, Global marine harvests had quadrupled from the 1945 levels of 14 million MT to 60 million MT, about a third of which was consumed by Soviet bloc countries (Christy, 1997).
- 16. In 1982, at the conclusion of the UN Conference on the Law of the Sea, the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) was signed. The signing of the Convention was the culmination of several years of negotiation that began at the start of the Third Conference on the Law of the Sea in 1973 and that stretched into much of the 1970s. UNCLOS provided the legal foundation for the immensely important institutional change that led coastal nations to extend jurisdictions from 12 to 200 miles and establish Extended Economic Zones (EEZs). Since most of the worlds fisheries are found in the upwelling zones and continental shelf areas close to coastal borders, this territorial change effectively brought the bulk of the worlds fisheries under the control of coastal nations. Some of these fisheries came under the control of single nations; others came under joint control (shared or straddling stocks).
- 17. Impact of the Conversion of the Worlds Commons into this new system of Coastally Privatized fisheries: There was a shuffling of production and changes in the patterns of world trade as a number of the worlds fishing nations found themselves shut out of coastal waters they once exploited. Some nations like China turned to aquaculture and inland-produced fish to supplement diets. Japan, for example, rose to dominate world trade in fisheries in the past two decades, currently providing a market for more than a third of the worlds impo
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