Abhijit Momohanty s.r.m m

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    is a way of life , a sub culture with a state of norms & values with the characteristics attributes

    of apathy & social isolation.

    D efinition of Slum:-

    According to a report of United Nation the urban land policy explains that a slum is , a building

    group of building or area characterized by overcrowding , deterioration in sanitary conditions or

    absence of facilities or amenities which because of these conditions or any of them endanger

    the health, safety or morals of its inhabitants or the community .

    According to Bergel who is a famous urban sociologist, conceives slums as area of substandard

    housing condition with a city.

    In order to make our clarification regarding slum more in-depth, we should know about the

    various important characteristics of slum dwellers:-

    A.Low Economic status:-

    Generally a slum is inhabited by people of the lowest income group & although there may be

    occasional buildings of equally run down appearance inhabited by families that are not so poor

    , in general however , the slum is a poverty ridden area.

    B. Bad appearance:-

    This may be called as an universal work of the slum in its aspect of neglect & disorder with

    respect to buildings yards & streets, bad appearance is an inherent virtue of a slum.

    C. Overcrowding :-

    The space may be over crowded with building or the building may be over crowded with people

    or both. If the slum is retreating may of the building may be over crowding in the buildings still

    occupied the uninhabited space may then be occupied by such unwelcome occupants.

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    D . Over population:-

    In a sum of heterogeneous who are generally not welcome in other residential areas, or those

    who can not afford to live elsewhere ,thus it may be a refuge for the aged, the chronically sick,

    the homeless & the socially maladjusted, but such odds & ends may not be welcome even in

    some slums where a sense of community exists if the slum population is racial or cultural it may

    have a degree of social organization.

    E. Bad health & sanitation:-

    For understandable reasons when compared with other areas of residence the slum is

    characterized by low standards of sanitation, for mixed reasons, it may also be an area of high

    sickness & death rates.

    F. Loose morals:-

    The slum may be an area of delinquency, crime & vice but this is more likely to be true of the

    socially disorganized slum. While such a slum may not be the habitat of successful criminals, it

    may of the habit or the hiding place of fugitive criminals, may vices may be funned in the slum

    but are by no means confirmed to the shin.

    G .Social isolation:-

    While many residential areas within the modern city tends to be socially isolated from others

    ,partly by choice & partly by location, he slum is especially so their chief link with the rest of the

    community is their identification with labour market ,but there may be an additional link

    through politics slum dwellers function equally with others as citizen & as they are able to

    identify themselves with political group.

    H. High mobility:-

    The slum is usually an area of high residential mobility but a family occupied slum may have a

    low rate of residential mobility . The high mobility of slum inhabitants is more true of American

    cities then European cities ,perhaps the most mobile is the slum occupied mainly by homeless

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    ,especially itinents workers .In Indian slums however the rate of mobility differs from one slum

    to the other.

    Creation & development of slum:-

    Slums are created mainly because of poverty ,social backwardness & unemployment of the people living

    in the country side. Due to drought or other un favorable conditions in these areas having no work to

    earn their livelihood ,find themselves in a difficult condition to maintain themselves & naturally drift

    towards the urban area with the main objective of eking out their livelihood the amenities available &

    job opportunities attract them towards Big Towns & Cites & naturally there is an intensive in flow of

    poor & labour class people to these cities & towns & cities provides more scope for employment

    opportunities & thus attract a large number of poor people from surrounding areas.

    2.Review of Literature:-

    Review of literature in education reseacch provides means of getting into the frontiers in a

    particular field of knowledge. It involves locating ,realizing & evaluation reports of research as

    well as reports at one s gathers during the cause of the investigation .

    y Preventing Anti-social Behavior , Interventions from birth through adolescence.

    Guilford publication. By Joan Mc Cord,Richard Emest Tremblay.

    y Adolescents at risk of persistent Anti-social Behaviour & Alchohol problems. The role of

    behavior ,personality & biological factors .Stockholm University;publishers By

    Jenny M E klund.

    y Criminology ,Rjashthan University.By Ram Ahuja.

    y Social problems & social Disorganization in india By Mamoria C.B.

    y Indian social problem By Ram Ahuja.

    y Criminology By Don c.Gibbons.

    y Preventing Antisocial Behavior: Interventions from Birth Through Adolescence

    By Joan Mc Cord, Richard Ernest Tremblay Guilford Publications .

    y Adolescents at Risk of Persistent Antisocial Behaviour and Alcohol

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    Scope of the study :-

    The scope of the study is not very vast .This scope of the study will be in Dhirikuti

    slum of Bhubaneswar ,but it may not be completely same for the other slum of B.B.S.R. The study is completely concentrated on a particular slum & its situation,

    socio economic condition & most importantly the anti social activities practiced

    in the Dhirikuti slum of B.B.S.R.

    Area of the study:-

    The area of the study is not very large ,it is based on a particular slum of

    Bhubaneswar city named as Dhirikuti . This slum is a very oldest slum of B.B.S.R

    divided into three clusters, total households in this slum is 347,the total no. of

    people are 2646 , from them 779 are male & remaining 688 are female, total no.

    of children of this slum is 1179. Labor class people are staying in this cluster. In

    named as Upar sahi , there is only 76 houses & in cluster one Hanuman Temple

    is there in the slum.

    All the people were migrated from various districts of odisha & some were

    migrated from Andhra Pradesh .As the population of the whole community is not

    very much surprising to see various types of people with different types of

    behavior & attitudes ,but still their socio economic life & various activities they

    practices to some extent same but most remarks the same.

    Objectives:-

    y Types of Anti-social activities they practices.

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    y Degree of involvement in Anti-social behavior by the slum dwellers.

    y Factors responsible for Anti social activities of the slum dwellers.

    y Impact of Anti social behavior upon the slum dwellers .

    y V arious remedial measures for it.

    Hypothesis:-

    Hypothesis really shows the path to the research work . It throws light to the

    researcher. A hypothesis is a conjectural statement of the relations between twoor more variables. Hypothesis are always in declarative form & the relate to either

    generally or specifically variables to variables.

    For the research work , the researcher has taken two Hypothesis . Those are

    mentioned below.

    Hypothesis:-1

    Majority of slum dwellers indulge themselves in anti social activities.

    Hypothesis :-2

    It is their situation which compels themselves to involve in anti social behaviors.

    Variables:-

    In social research , the term , V ariable is most important . V ariable is a property

    that takes different values .A variable is a symbol to which numerals or value is

    assigned.

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    In this research work , the independent variable (cause) & depended variable

    (effect)are explained below;

    Independent variable:-

    Kidnapping, Robbery, Smuggling, Murder, Black marketing, Theft, etc.

    D ependent variable:-

    Age, Gender, Place, Peer Pressure , Environment , Socio-economic conditions etc.

    Type of Research D esign:-

    In this research the researcher decides different dimensions of social & economic

    problems involve in a particular slum Dhirikuti. The researcher has taken

    Explorative research design for conducting the study . It is a type of research

    conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. Explorative research

    helps determine the best research design, data collection method & selection of

    subjects .It also concludes that perceived problem does not actually exist.

    Universe of the study:-

    Dhirikuti slum is the universe of the study.

    Research Method:-

    The researcher will follow the survey method for conducting the research on Anti

    social behaviors of Dhirikuti a slum in B.B.S.R.

    Sampling Technique:-

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    In order to have a systematic study the researcher adopted a well designed

    sampling technique. When a small group taken as the representative of the whole

    the study is called sampling study .The whole group from which the sample has

    been drawn that technology is known as sampling.

    Random sampling:-

    At the second stage the research selected four clusters in Dhirikuti slum ,random

    sampling is the form applied when the method of selection assures each

    individuals or elements is universe as an equal chance of being chosen . At the last

    stage the researcher randomly selected 30 households from the 4 clusters.

    Sample unit or size:-

    Before drawing a sample we have to decide the unit of sample . What shall be

    selected a house, a family & individual group. In researcher s study the sampling

    unit are individual. The size of the sample is an important problem to be decided

    in case of sampling. This is because the size has a direct bearing upon accuracytime , cost & administration of the researcher .My sample size is 30 by looking

    the various aspects of my study.

    Methods & tools of data collections:-

    Data collection can be defined as the facts or information. Collection of data is

    very much essential in social researcher, because the data are the basis upon

    which research has been conducted.

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    There are 2 important tools are generally used in social survey; those are schedule

    & questionnaire.

    Schedule has to be indirect observation & is filed by the field worker himself; thequestionnaire is generally mailed to respondent who fills it up return it to the

    sender.

    Questionnaires consist of a number of question printed of typed in definite order

    on a form or set of form. To make successful questionnaire schedule should be

    short & simple, technical terms & vague expression should be avoided.

    D ata Analysis:-

    The data thus collected were of two types. Quantitative & qualitative data were

    collected through the interview schedule were located with the help of master

    sheet & after that the data were edited, codified & tabulated data was converted

    into percentages & were analyzed in form of simple & complex tables. The tables

    were also represented in the form of diagrammatic graphs were ever necessary.

    Capterization:-

    The research study will be fragmented in the following chapter.

    a. Introduction.

    B.Review of literature.

    c.Research methodology.

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    d.Tabulation & data analysis.

    e.Major findings & conclusion.

    Appendix:1 Bibliography.

    2 Interview schedule.

    Limitation of the study:-

    1.The research is not able to cover the whole people living in all slums. So the

    inferences are based on the particular slum.

    2.It is difficult to make interview schedules from those , whose are not willing to

    express their true opinions.

    3. The respondent are not really like to express their true opinions.

    4. Researcher faced various difficulties, in forming rapports with the slum

    dwellers as an out side.

    5. Some respondents totally refused to give all information about his/her family

    to the researcher.

    The limitation as mention above could not be avoided because of the peculiarities

    of the aspects chosen for the study.

    Profile of the study area:-

    Profile of the Khurda D istrict :-

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    The district Khurda came into being on 1 st April 1993 by dividing it off its erstwhile

    Puri ,Khurda & Nayagarh.The district is bounded by Cuttack district-north & east

    nayagarh district west purl district-south ganjam district. According to census

    2001 total population is 18,7,.395 .Out of which male are 9,86,886 & female are

    8,90,509 respectively.

    Profile of Bhubaneswar City:-

    The Temple city of Bhubaneswar which was the capital of odisha in early 1950s,

    was considered to be one of the cleanest cities in the country till a few years back.

    The city which had a population of 16,512 spread over an areas of 1684 hct. The

    civil body for the city of B.B.S.R is known as B.M.C (Bhubaneswar Municipality

    Corporation Act).The slum wing of the Municipal Corporation is headed by a

    project officer , incumbement of odisha Administration service.The project officer

    is assisted by the community organizers. There are 11 no. of community

    organizers & each supervises & coordinates the work of slum areas assigned to

    him/her.

    About Sample Slum:-

    Dhirikuti is a one of the oldest slum of Bhubaneswar , which was established by

    the late chief minister M.r Biju Pattnaik. The whole slum is divided into 3 clusters.

    The total house are 347 in the slum ,total population is 2646,from them 779 are

    male ,female 688 & children were 1179.From the children 520 are regularly going

    to school ,dropout students are 183,child labour in the slum is only 17.In cluster

    no.1 Tala sahi there are 895 people living in 226 house holds. From 895 people

    83 male, 23 female & rest 389 are children. Among the children 177 are regularly

    going to school & 47 children were dropout from the school . In cluster No. only

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    63 houses & 246 people are staying .Among all 66are male & 66 also female &

    rest 114 are children. Only 63 children are going to school & 6 children were

    dropout from the school.

    Incluster-3 the name is line sahi .Most of the SC & O.B.C categories people are

    staying in this cluster. The total house are 138 & 59,people are staying in this

    cluster. The children in this cluster is 255 from them 78 are school going & 59

    childen were dropout from the school due to some reason.

    M.r Sudhansu Marandi is the secretary & M.r Hemanta Pradhan is the

    president of this slum

    4 .Tabulation & data analysis:-

    Personal Profile :

    Table -5.1

    Distributions of the respondent as per their age group;

    Age group in

    years

    Male Female Total Percentages

    20 2 1 3 11%

    20 to 30 5 2 7 23%

    30 to...