a network partitioning methodology for distributed traffic management applications
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A network partitioning methodologyfor distributed traffic managementapplicationsHamideh Etemadniaa, Khaled Abdelghanya & Ahmed Hassanaa Bobby B. Lyle School of Engineering, Southern MethodistUniversity, PO Box 750340, Dallas, TX 75275-0340, USAAccepted author version posted online: 22 Apr 2013.Publishedonline: 15 Jul 2013.
To cite this article: Hamideh Etemadnia, Khaled Abdelghany & Ahmed Hassan (2014) A networkpartitioning methodology for distributed traffic management applications, Transportmetrica A:Transport Science, 10:6, 518-532, DOI: 10.1080/23249935.2013.795200
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23249935.2013.795200
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Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, 2014Vol. 10, No. 6, 518532, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23249935.2013.795200
A network partitioning methodology for distributed trafficmanagement applications
Hamideh Etemadnia1*, Khaled Abdelghany and Ahmed Hassan
Bobby B. Lyle School of Engineering, Southern Methodist University, PO Box 750340,Dallas, TX 75275-0340, USA
(Received 31 January 2012; final version received 9 April 2013)
This paper presents a multi-way network partitioning methodology for distributed traffic man-agement applications. The methodology can be used to partition a typical urban transportationnetwork such that: (a) the inter-flow among the resulting subnetworks is minimised; (b) thesubnetworks are balanced in terms of their sizes/flow activities; and (c) each subnetwork isconnected. Two heuristics are presented. The first adopts a recursive iterative procedure todetermine the networks sparsest cuts that maintain the balance and connectivity requirements.The second heuristic adopts a greedy network coarsening technique to determine the mostflow-independent subnetworks. The solution quality of these two heuristics is evaluated usinghypothetical and real networks with different configurations. The results show that the heuristicscan obtain near-optimal solution in significantly shorter execution times.
Keywords: distributed traffic management; network partitioning; network coarsening;sparsest cut
IntroductionUrban areas in the USA and in many countries around the world have rapidly grown in sizeand population resulting in the formation of mega-cities with congested transportation networks.For instance, the Los Angeles (LA) metropolitan area in California has grown at a rate of about35% from 1982 to 2007 recording a total population of 17.8 millions living in 189 cities thatextend over an area of 4850 square miles. With an average annual delay of 70 h per traveller, theLA metropolitan area is ranked as the most congested urban area in the USA (Schrank and Lomax2009). Traffic management in such large congested urban areas is considerably challenging. Itrequires the development of traffic management capabilities that effectively alleviate recurrentand non-recurrent congestion. A holistic approach to develop these capabilities would follow acentralised architecture through which the entire traffic network is managed using one centralcontroller. This controller is equipped with the capabilities to collect real-time information onthe current congestion pattern across the entire network, generate a suitable traffic managementscheme, and disseminate this scheme to the traffic control devices for implementation (e.g. traf-fic light, dynamic message signs, traveller information, etc.). However, the large size of theseurban areas represents a barrier in face of adopting the centralised architecture. It requires an
*Corresponding author. Email: email@example.comPresent affiliation: Department of Agricultural Economics, Sociology and Education, Pennsylvania StateUniversity, University Park, PA 16802-5602.
2013 Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies Limited
Transportmetrica A: Transport Science 519
extensive wired and wireless communication infrastructure to interconnect these large areas. Fur-thermore, the large network sizes make it algorithmically difficult to develop a global optimaltraffic management scheme, especially if this scheme needs to be generated in real-time (Peetaand Ziliaskopoulos 2001).
A plausible alternative approach is to adopt a decentralised traffic management architecture. Thearchitecture builds on an existing infrastructure for data collection and traffic management withineach local jurisdiction. Extensive research work has been devoted to describe the framework andmethodological aspects of the decentralised traffic management architecture (Cuena, Hernandez,and Molina 1995; Hawas and Mahmassani 1995; Pavlis and Papageorgiou 1999; Hernandez,Ossowski, and Garcia-Serrano 2002; Logi and Ritchie 2002; Daganzo 2007). For example, Hawasand Mahmassani (1995) proposed a decentralised architecture in which the network is managedby multiple distributed controllers. Each controller manages traffic within a pre-defined subarea.The route guidance instructions and other control strategies are generated by each controller usingtraffic surveillance data for the portion of the network within the controllers locality. Each localcontroller is assumed to estimate the network conditions outside its boundaries based on availablehistorical information. Chiu and Mahmassani (2002) present a hybrid framework that integratesthe centralised and the decentralised approaches. Travellers are split in terms of their source ofroute guidance instructions (centralised versus decentralised). The centralised controller providesroute guidance instructions based on the predicted network conditions, while the decentralisedcontrollers provide route guidance instructions that react to the actual traffic conditions withinthe locality of each controller. Also, Hernandez, Ossowski, and Garcia-Serrano (2002) present aknowledge-based approach to develop a distributed architecture in which a structural cooperationmechanism is used to model the coordination among local controllers.
Nonetheless, one should expect the quality of a traffic management scheme using a distributedarchitecture to depend primarily on the boundaries of the local controllers, and their interfaces withthe main traffic movements in the network (i.e. traffic hand-off points). Most existing researchwork that adopts distributed traffic management architectures seems to overlook such dimen-sion of the problem assuming that the boundaries of the local controllers are predefined. In arecent research work (Wen 2009; Villalobos, Chiu, and Mirchandani), network decompositionis proposed as a strategy to achieve scalable dynamic traffic assignment (DTA) implementation.To reduce the computational complexity of the existing DTA methodologies, Wen (2009) andVillalobos, Chiu, and Mirchandani propose solution techniques to improve the scalability of DTAmodels for on-line applications. Boundary construction and adjustment algorithm are proposed inJi and Geroliminis (2011, 2012) to obtain partitioning results such that each subnetwork has well-defined macroscopic fundamental diagrams. Several criteria should be considered to determinethe boundaries of the distributed controllers in the decentralised architecture. For example, thenetwork should be partitioned such that the subnetworks are flow-independent. In other words,the partition minimises inter-flow among adjacent subnetworks in order to reduce the need fortraffic management schemes that require intensive communication/coordination among adjacentcontrollers. In addition, the network partitioning should maintain a balance in terms of the amountof traffic management activities required by each local controller. For instance, the partitioningshould be conducted such that the subnetworks are relatively close in size (spatial balance), and/orthey are similar in terms of the amount of served traffic within their boundaries (flow balance). Thebalance criterion would likely enable the decentralised architecture to achieve the real-time com-putational requirement as it distributes the computation effort, associated with