a literary and historical atlas of america ([1911])

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  • EVERYMAN .1 WILL? GOV-*

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    IN THY MOST NEED

  • THEE & BE THY GUIDE

    O GO BY THY SIDE

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  • Presented to the

    LIBRARY of theUNIVERSITY OF TORONTO

    by

    Sybille Pantazzi

  • EVERYMAN'S LIBRARYEDITED BY ERNEST RHYS

    REFERENCE

    A L I TE R A R Y ANDHISTORICAL ATLAS OFNORTH & SOUTH AMERICA

  • THE PUBLISHERS OF

    LlBT^ATty WILL BE PLEASED TO SENDFREELY TO ALL APPLICANTS A LISTOF THE PUBLISHED AND PROJECTEDVOLUMES TO BE COMPRISED UNDERTHE FOLLOWING THIRTEEN HEADINGS:

    TRAVEL ^ SCIENCE ^ FICTIONTHEOLOGY & PHILOSOPHYHISTORY ^ CLASSICALFOR YOUNG PEOPLEESSAYS $ ORATORYPOETRY & DRAMABIOGRAPHYREFERENCEROMANCE

    IN FOUR STYLES OF BINDING; CLOTH,FLAT BACK, COLOURED TOP; LEATHER,ROUND CORNERS, GILT TOP; LIBRARYBINDING IN CLOTH, & QUARTER PIGSKIN

    LONDON: J. M. DENT & SONS, LTD.NEW YORK: E. P. DUTTON & CO.

  • IALITERARYSHISTORICALATLAS OFAMERICA?

    J G.BARTHOLOMEW LL.D

    LONLON:PUBL4SHEDhyJMDENTS-SONS^ANP IN NEW YORKBYE-PDUTTONSCO

  • /

  • INTRODUCTIONWHEN General Hamilton spoke in the Federalist over acentury ago of

    "an empire, in many respects the most inter-

    esting in the world," meaning the United States of America,he did not, he could not, foresee the vast growth of his countryand its northern and southern neighbours which this bookportrays. The volume is the third in a series of small atlases,meant to cover in turn the whole globe, and to do it in a wayto knit up geographical and historical knowledge with thefacts of commerce and the literary record of each land orregion. One chief purpose of these maps is to trace clearlythe development of the United States, beginning with

    " themost remarquable parts

    "of the New England of the Pilgrim

    Fathers, described by Captain John Smith in 1614, and notforgetting the territories of the old American-Indian nations.Some inkling too is given in facsimile of the early charts, views,and maps by the explorers and cartographers who made asurvey of the first settlements. For example, we have an oldmap of Guiana invaluable as a Sir Walter Raleigh record,giving the mouths of the Oronoke, or Orinoco, where his mentugged against the stream, and stretching southward to theAmazon itself, and we get from the map of Peru at theperiod of the Conquest a clear idea of the country in thetime of Pizarro.As with the great rivers, so with the great American cities.

    You can compare"old New York," as represented in one page,

    with the new New York and its environs which are a world'swonder to-day. Then again you can take the chart of theEarly Highways that ran westward into the wilderness andestimate how the power of the engineer has, since the railwaycame, caught the States in an iron network and rearrangedthe Americas. Battlefields and sieges, by which the rightof the new country to its national life and individuality was

    vii

  • viii Introduction"

    wrenched," as Tennyson said in his address to the oldcountry,

    1 are not forgotten.Note among the less familiar documents that we are able to

    include, the rare map of the territory in Virginia and NorthCarolina traversed by John Lederer in his three marches.Lederer was sent out by Governor Berkeley in 1669-70,and journeyed west as far as the top of the Apalatoean moun-tains. It seems doubtful how far he went in South Carolina.He did not penetrate far enough, according to ProfessorW. J. Rivers, to meet

    " the new-comers who were aboutfounding the Commonwealth of Locke."As for the local associations that have become familiar

    in American literature, you have a chart of the Concordneighbourhood showing Walden Pond, Forest Lake, Lexing-ton, and Punkatasset Hill, associated with the name andfame of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, andH. D. Thoreau. Fenimore Cooper recalls the old IndianTerritory as it was in the wild prime of the Red Men; andyou travel from the land of

    " Hiawatha " in Longfellow's poemsouthwards to the Mexico and Peru of Prescott, and thenpause over something more amazing than any record inimaginative verse or prose the plain statistics figured in themap of South America, and the emergence of Buenos Ayreswith its million and a quarter inhabitants, Rio de Janeirowith its 860,000, San Paulo with 350,000, and Santiago with330,000. Here are the elements of an immense new Lathicivilisation which is going to count, and count enormously,just as China and its millions are bound to count enormouslyin the twentieth century.We might have spoken at large of Canada and its huge

    dominion; of Newfoundland, New Brunswick, New " Scotia,"and the chain of the Great Lakes in the North. But an Atlasspeaks for itself with the accent of a world-bearer if one treatsits pages as they ought to be treated, with a sense of thegreat perspective of history and of men and nations advancingalong it to their fulfilment in the world. The Old World andthe New have lately been drawn closer by the mysteriousnerves that underrun the Atlantic and the understanding ofa true world polity; and it is hoped that this volume will dosomething to foster that amity between states and nations.

    1 " Be proud of those strong sons of thineWho wrenched the right thou wouldst not yield."

  • Introduction IX

    We have again to acknowledge very gratefully the indis-pensable help given to our enterprise by Dr. Bartholomewwith his unfailing knowledge and skill. Also to thank MissEdwardes for her working gazetteer which makes referenceeasy, and Mr. G. C. Brooke of the Department of Coins andMedals at the British Museum for his notes on the coinage,and for his arrangements of the specimens which serve sovividly to illustrate the historical side of the atlas.

  • CONTENTSCOLOURED MAPS

    PAGEATLANTIC OCEAN, TOSCANELLI, 1474 iDISCOVERIES OF COLUMBUS 2DISCOVERIES OF THE NORSEMEN ...... 3AMERICA, 1492-1522 ........ 3

    AMERICA, 1522-1700 . . . 4, 5NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES, 1643 6NORTH AMERICA, 1740 7NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES, 1755-1763 . . . . 8, 9NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES, 1783 . . . . .10,11CANADA, 1791 12, 13UNITED STATES, 1801 14UNITED STATES, 1845 15UNITED STATES CIVIL WAR, 1861-65 16, 17CORTES IN MEXICO, 1519 ....... 18MEXICO AND WEST INDIES, 1650 19MEXICO AND WEST INDIES, 1763 20MEXICO AND WEST INDIES, 1855 21SOUTH AMERICA POLITICAL FORMATION . . . . 22, 23THE WORLD ON MERCATOR'S PROJECTION, SHOWING ROUTES TO

    AMERICA 24, 25AMERICA COMMERCIAL ROUTES ON MERCATOR'S PROJECTION . 26, 27AMERICA JANUARY TEMPERATURE . . . . . 28AMERICA JULY TEMPERATURE 29AMERICA RAINFALL AND WINDS, JANUARY .... 30AMERICA RAINFALL AND WINDS, JULY..... 31SKETCH CHART OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC ON

    ;.MERCATOR'S PRO-

    JECTION . . . . . . . . . 32, 33ARCTIC REGIONS ......... 34ANTARCTIC REGIONS ........ 35NORTH AMERICA OROGRAPHICAL ...... 36NORTH AMERICA VEGETATION ...... 37

    xi

  • xii Contents

    PAGENORTH AMERICA POLITICAL 38NORTH AMERICA POPULATION ...... 39DOMINION OF CANADA ........ 40, 41CANADA RAILWAYS AND ECONOMIC ..... 42, 43NEWFOUNDLAND AND GULF OF ST. LAWRENCE ... 44NEW BRUNSWICK, NOVA SCOTIA, ETC. ..... 45QUEBEC .......... 46, 47ONTARIO 48, 49MANITOBA AND PART OF SASKATCHEWAN . . . . 50, 51BRITISH COLUMBIA, ETC. 52, 53UNITED STATES POLITICAL ACQUISITIONS . . . . 54, 55UNITED STATES RAILWAYS AND ECONOMIC . . . . 56, 57NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, AND NEW ENGLAND STATES . 58, 59NEW YORK AND ENVIRONS 60, 61CHICAGO .......... 62ST. Louis .......... 62BOSTON 63PHILADELPHIA ......... 63ATLANTIC STATES . . . . . . . . . 64, 65CENTRAL STATES . . . . . . . . . 66, 67SOUTHERN STATES . . . . . . . . . 68, 69WESTERN STATES 70, 71THE YOSEMITE VALLEY........ 71CALIFORNIA, ETC 72VANCOUVER .......... 73SAN FRANCISCO ......... 73ALASKA 74PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 75MEXICO 76, 77WEST INDIES AND CENTRAL AMERICA 78, 79CUBA, JAMAICA, ETC. ........ 80

    PANAMA CANAL ......... 81SOUTH AMERICA OROGRAPHICAL ...... 82SOUTH AMERICA VEGETATION ...... 83SOUTH AMERICA POLITICAL ...... 84SOUTH AMERICA POPULATION ...... 85SOUTH AMERICA RAILWAYS AND ECONOMIC . . . . 86, 87BRAZIL AND GUIANA 88, 89VENEZUELA, COLOMBIA, ECUADOR, AND PERU . . . . 90, 91CHILE, ARGENTINA, ETC. . . . . . . . 92, 93

  • Contents xiii

    PAGERio DE JANEIRO . . . ... . . 94

    MONTE VIDEO ......... 95BUENOS AYRES . . . . . ... . . 95PATAGONIA . . . . . . . . . . 96

    A BRIEF SURVEY OF THE COINAGE OF NORTH ANDSOUTH AMERICA, BY G. C. BROOKE, B.A., DEPARTMENTOF COINS AND MEDALS, BRITISH MUSEUM ... 97

    LINE MAPSMAPS AND PLANS OF NOTABLE BATTLES AND DISTRICTSCONNECTED WITH FAMOUS AUTHORS AND THEIR BOOKS

    BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL, i7th June, 1775 .... 117SIEGE OF CHARLESTON, 1776 . . . . . . .118BATTLE OF LONG ISLAND, 1776 ...... 118BATTLE OF BRANDYWINE, 1777... . . 119ATTLE OF FREEMANS FARM . . . . . .

    .119PLAN OF WEST POINT, showing Forts and Batteries, 1780 . . 120SIEGE OF YORKTOWN ........ 120MAPS SHOWING PRINCIPAL BATTLES OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 121A PLAN OF THE OPERATIONS AT THE TAKING OF QUEBEC AND THE

    BATTLE FOUGHT NEAR THAT CITY, September isth, 1759 . 122

    PORT ROYAL, 1613 ......... 123A MAP OF NEW ENGLAND IN 1631, as observed and described by

    Captain John Smith . . . . . . . .124MAP OF THE WHOLE TERRITORY TRAVERSED BY JOHN LEDERERin his Three Marches, 1672 . . . . . . .125

    A MAP OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN NATIONS adjoining to the Missis-sippi, West and East Florida, Georgia, South and North Carolina,Virginia, etc., 1775 ........ 126

    NEW AMSTERDAM ABOUT 1650 ....... 127NEW YORK ABOUT 1730 ........ 128PLAN OF NEW YORK IN 1746 ..... 1 . 129EARLY HIGHWAYS, showing expansion westwards . . . .130

  • xiv ContentsPAGE

    THE BOSTON DISTRICT . . . . . . . .130THE CONCORD NEIGHBOURHOOD Emerson, Hawthorne, Thoreau, etc. 131VIRGI