A Conservation Management Plan - Citizens Theatre

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Produced by TheatreSearch - Historic Theatre Consultants. This document looks in detail at the history of the Citizens Theatre, with particular reference to its architecture and historical upgrades. You can see photos of the building on our Flickr group: http://www.flickr.com/groups/citizenstheatre/pool/ Please feel free to add your own images.

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7+(&,7,=(167+($75($&216(59$7,210$1$*(0(173/$1The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow A Conservation Management Plan by Dacre Hall, Dacre, North Yorkshire, HG3 4ET Tel: 01423 780497 Fax: 01423 781957 E-Mail: office@theatresearch.co.uk Conservation Management Plan ii Contents 1. Introduction p.2 2. Local Context. p.3 3. National Context p.4 4. Original Architect.. p.6 5. Theatre Design Principles.. p.7 6. Opening of the Theatre. p.8 7. Original Function & Purpose. p.11 8. Original Main Elevation p.12 9. Early Theatre Management p.18 10. The Stage House p.20 11. The Stage Floor. p.24 12. Layout of the Stage p.26 13. Corner Traps.. p.27 14. The Corsican Trap. p.30 15. Stage Bridges. p.34 16. Cuts & Sloats. p.37 17. Grave Trap. p.38 18. Overstage Machinery. p.39 19. Wing Grooves p.41 20. Fly Floors p.42 21. Scenic Paint Shop p.43 22. Stage Machinery Context p.47 23. Machinery Conservation Issues.. p.49 24. Architectural Evolution. p.50 25. Alterations of 1894. p.51 26. Alterations of 1908. p.52 27. Alterations of 1919. p.53 28. Formation of the Citizens Theatre Company p.54 29. Alterations of 1948. p.59 30. Alterations of the 1950s.. p.60 31. Alterations of the 1960s.. p.61 32. Artistic Direction: 1963 & Beyond. p.62 33. Alterations of the 1970s.. p.63 34. Demolition of the Palace Theatre p.64 35. Alterations of the 1980s. p.65 36. Alterations of the 1990s. p.66 The Building in 2011 37. The Auditorium.. p.67 38. The Auditorium Decoration p.67 39. Front of House. p.68 40. Auditorium Circulation p.69 41. Auditorium Ventilation p.71 42. Upper Circle & Amphitheatre Tier. p.74 Conservation Management Plan iii 43. Dress Circle Tier. p.77 44. The Stalls p.77 45. Seating p.79 46. The Boxes p. 47. Auditorium Roof Space.. p.80 48. Summary. p.81 Conservation Management Plan Policies 49. Recording & Archive Policy p.82 50. Systematic Recording Policy.. p.83 51. Educational Resources p.84 52. Conservation Philosophy & Policies.. p.86 53. Conservation Philosophy Implementation & Review.. p.86 54. Issues & Vulnerability. p.90 55. Physical Condition.. p.90 56. Reversible Physical Intervention p.91 57. Non-Reversible Physical Intervention p.92 58. Statutory Controls p.92 59. Acoustic Investigation p.94 60. Sightlines p.94 61. General Policies.. p.95 62. Interpretation & Public Access Policy p.96 63. Operational Management Policy p.97 64. Site & Context Management Policy.. p.99 65. Statutory Body Liaison Policy p.100 66. Access Management Policy p.101 67. Conservation & Maintenance of the Building p.101 68. New Components, Finishes & Fittings.. p.102 69. Conservation Management Plan Review p.103 70. Conservation Philosophy Implementation.. p.104 71. Conservation Key Priorities... p.104 72. Heritage Impact Assessment.. p.107 73. Conservation Risk Assessment.. p.110 Appendices Appendix 1: Extant Historic Architetural Drawings. p.112 Appendix 2: Listing Description p.117 Appendix 3: Curtains!!! Or A New Life For Old Theatres p.118 Appendix 4: The Theatres Trust Guide to British Theatres... p.119 Appendix 5: Bibliography. p.120 Appendix 6: Opening Newspaper Accounts. p.121 Appendix 7: James Sellars Biography. p.125 Appendix 8:James Sellars Obituary p.127 Appendix 9: Timeline for the Citizens Theatre.. p.129 Appendix 10: Original Extant Architectural Drawings p.131 Conservation Management Plan iv Appendix 11: Sensitivity Plans. p.153 Conservation Management Plan 1 Acknowledgements Theatresearch would like to thank the following people and organisations who have kindly assisted in the preparation of this document: Gordon Carswell, John Crallan, Euan Gray, Chris MacDougall, Mitchell Library, Ian Ribbens, Scottish Screen Archive, Scottish Theatre Archive, Anna Stapleton. Conservation Management Plan 2 The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow A Conservation Management Plan 1. Introduction 1.1 The preparation of a conservation statement for a building of architectural significance seeks to establish the national standing and context of the building. It also establishes the credentials of the main architect in order to place the building within a professional portfolio and genre ranking. 1.2 The Citizens Theatre was designed by architects Campbell Douglas and James Sellars, and opened in 1878 as Her Majestys Theatre, changing its name the following year to the Royal Princess Theatre. 1.3 Douglas and Sellars formed their partnership in Glasgow in 1871 being prolific provincial architects of the period. Theatres of this period were often designed by architects specialising in the genre whereas Douglas and Sellars were provincial public building specialists, their work included; Free Abbey Church, Dunfermline, Woodside Parish Church, Glasgow, Victoria Infirmary, Langside, Glasgow, Sinclairtown Town Hall, Sinclairtown, Kirkcaldy, Glasgow International Exhibition of 1888. 1.4 Their only other theatre commission appears to have been the reconstruction of the Scotia Music Hall in Glasgow in 1874 which was subsequently rebuilt by J.C. Maxwell of Newcastle in 1898 as the Metropole Theatre. It is perhaps this commission, and its success which lead to the commission for Her Majestys Theatre. Conservation Management Plan 3 2. Local Context 2.1 The Citizens Theatre was opened on the 28th December 1878 at a time when theatre building was just beginning to gain momentum. By the time the first Stage Guide and Directory1 was published in 1912 Glasgow was extremely well provided with theatres. (bold type denotes theatres that survive largely intact) Name of Theatre Seating Capacities (1912) Theatre Royal 2,187 Royalty Theatre 1,287 Royal Princesss Theatre 2,700 Grand Theatre 1,913 Metropole Theatre 1,798 Lyceum Theatre 3,500 Pavilion Theatre not stated Empire Theatre 2,000 Coliseum 3,800 Olympia 2,400 Alhambra Theatre not stated Palace Theatre of Varieties 3,000 Henglers Grand Cirque not stated Gaiety Theatre of Varieties 2,000 Athenaeum 830 Britannia Panoptican not stated Savoy Theatre 2,000 Kings Theatre 2,500 Total 31,915 2.2 This clearly demonstrates the huge demand for theatre in Glasgow in the early twentieth century. The theatres cited above do not include the many small music halls and the like that were also thriving in the city at this time. The Entracte Almanack 2 of 1878 lists the following music halls in Glasgow; the Alexandra, the Alhambra, the Britannia, Browns, the Oxford, the Royal Albert, the Scotia, the Victoria and the Whitehait. It also lists the following theatres; the Adelphi, the Gaiety, the Prince of Wales, and the Theatre Royal. 1 Carson, L., The Stage Guide, pub:London, The Stage, 1912. 2 The Entracte and Limelight Almanack, pub: London, 1878,pp.52-56. Conservation Management Plan 4 2.3 The Citizens Theatre (then the Royal Princesss) was clearly competing against a significant number of theatres and music halls. Its location in the Gorbals district of Glasgow provided a metropolitan option for the inhabitants of the area. It removed the necessity to travel across the river into the main centre of Glasgow, and in doing so became a local theatre supported by the local community. 3. National Context 3.1 The work of Douglas and Sellars is still well represented within the cityscape of Glasgow. However, their only other theatre, the Scotia Music Hall was effectively lost in 1898 when the building was reconstructed. The Citizens Theatre therefore falls into the category of a rare theatre executed by a well known provincial architectural practice. This kind of theatre is now extremely rare within the provinces of Great Britain, other examples including the grade II* Grand Theatre & Opera House, Leeds (1878, George Corson and James Robison [sic.] Watson) and the Grade I Tyne Theatre & Opera House, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1867, William Buckerall Parnell). 3.2 Within a context such as this it can quite clearly be stated that the Citizens Theatre represents the most complete and early example of its kind in Scotland. The auditorium is a very important survivor from this early period of theatre construction. The historic stage machinery at the Citizens Theatre is now the only surviving example of nineteenth century stage machinery in Scotland.3 3.3 The British Isles once boasted a profusion of theatres, scattered far and wide, in towns, cities, and even villages. Today there is a misconception that all cities and most towns still have an old theatre - nothing could be further from the truth. When in 1982 Curtains!!! or A New Life For Old Theatres 4 was published it produced a stark picture of the wanton destruction that had been carried out on Britains theatrical heritage: Eighty-five per cent of the 1,000 Theatre Royals, Grands, Alhambras and Empires, which flourished in Britain between 1900 and 1914 have been destroyed or irretrievably altered. Under a tenth 3 The stage machinery at the Royal Lyceum Theatre, Edinburgh was removed in 1990. 4 Mackintosh, Iain & Sell, Michael, (eds.), Curtains!!! or A New Life For Old Theatres, pub:Eastbourne, John Offord, 1982. Conservation Management Plan 5 of this marvellous heritage of popular theatres which once enlivened every High Street are still in use as theatres. This leaves some 70 yet to be reawakened - Sleeping Beauties spread throughout England, Scotland and Wales.5 3.4 This clearly places the Citizens Theatre in a British context, twenty-nine years later the situation is even worse - the Palace Theatre & Hippodrome, Nelson has recently being demolished, and other theatres identified as survivors in 1982 have been lost, e.g. Empire Theatre, Longton - burnt down, Dunfermline Opera House -demolished (and its auditorium exported and rebuilt in Florida), Birkenhead Music Hall - demolished. 3.5 In 2000 The Theatres Trust published6 a re-assessment of the theatres first identified in Curtains!!! In it the Citizens Theatre is clearly defined as a building of specific note and, in the grading within the publication receives the highest rating of three-star. The entry for the theatre is worth quoting as it identifies the importance and significance of the building; The fine auditorium retains its dark allure. Two lyre-shaped balconies with fine plasterwork are supported by slender columns with large capitals. Superimposed stage boxes are surmounted by caryatids. The proscenium opening is framed by the inner pilasters of the boxes. The ceiling is flat and plain with deep panelled coves round the perimeter. There is still a remarkably well-preserved set of Victorian wood machinery below the stage, the best survival of its kind in Scotland.7 3.6 The fact that the theatre dates from the 1870s places it in an early phase of what is referred to as the theatre building boom. The building has undergone many changes since 1878, but fundamentally retains its identity from this earliest phase. The changes wrought subsequently contribute to the story of a theatre evolving and reacting to the changing tastes and fashions that have been encountered throughout its almost 130 year history. 5 Ibid. 6 Earl, John & Sell, Michael, (eds.), The Theatres Trust Guide to British Theatres 1750-1950, pub:A&C Black, London, 2000. 7 Op.cit., p.67. Conservation Management Plan 6 4. Original Architect 4.1 James Sellars was the principal architect involved in the original design of the theatre in 1878. He was not a theatre specialist, but was nevertheless a significant architectural presence in the city go Glasgow during the late nineteenth century. Her specialised in the design of public buildings including banks and offices. There is no doubt that the choice of Sellars must have been associated with local associations and relationships with James McFadyen the proprietor of the theatre. James Sellars 1843-1888 [From: The Bailie, 3rd November 1880] 5. Theatre Design Principles 5.1 When a new theatre opened in the nineteenth century there was always great press interest and excitement. Fortunately the Glasgow Evening Citizen Conservation Management Plan 7 covered the occasion which was in turn reported in The Era theatrical newspaper; Both internally and externally Her Majestys Theatre is a model of excellence It is divided into stalls, pits, front and back boxes, and gallery, and an ample view can be had of the stage from every part of the auditorium The arrangement of ingress and egress are exceedingly commodious and the comfort generally of those in front has been attended to with considerable care and much success.8 5.2 The layout and design of the theatre followed what were by 1879 established procedures and practices. Although relatively little had been published on British theatre architecture by this time, the theatre building boom, lead specifically by theatre architect Charles J. Phipps. Phipps first theatre had been the Theatre Royal, Bath in 1863 and by 1879 he had already completed well over twenty projects including the Theatre Royal Dumfries and the Theatre Royal Dunfermline in 1876. There were of course many other provincial architects involved in theatre design including Alfred Darbyshire and J.J. Alley in Manchester who also involved their practices in other public buildings that contributed to the cityscape of their respective surroundings. 5.3 In 1790 George Saunders produced the first British publication on theatre design, his Treatise on Theatres.9 This was not followed by anything significant or authoritative until James G. Buckle produced his Theatre Construction and Maintenance in 1881.10 Prior to this the architectural journals of the time e.g. The Builder, Building News regularly ran articles and discussions about theatre design. In consequence the specialism of theatre architecture was limited to a select number of architects. It is therefore interesting to find that Richard Waldon appointed Douglas Sellars to undertake the commission. 5.4 Theatres built around 1879 were largely constructed from timber and lit both front of house and backstage by gaslight. The consequences of such a combination are not difficult to imagine. The life expectancy of a theatre around this time was little more than 15 years it was either likely to burn down or be remodelled within a time span such as this. 6. Opening of the Theatre 8 Glasgow Evening Citizen, reported in The Era, 5th January 1879 9 Saunders, George, A Treatise On Theatres, London, 1790. 10 Buckle, James G., Theatre Construction and Maintenance, pub: The Stage, London, 1881. Conservation Management Plan 8 6.1 The theatre originally opened on 28th December 1879 as Her Majestys Theatre & Opera House. Unfortunately no original architectural drawings have survived from this period and so the best source of information about the original theatre is to be found in contemporary newspaper accounts of which the one below appears to be the most comprehensive: This magnificent Theatre, which has been in course of erection during the past seven months, was opened to the public on Saturday evening, 28th December 1879, under the management of Mr. J.F. McFadyen. The event is one of the more than ordinary importance in the theatrical annals of Glasgow, inasmuch as the new house is on the south side of the river, where, hitherto, no place of dramatic entertainment has ever existed. Within the last few years several schemes for the erection of a south-side Theatre have been proposed, and in one instance endeavours were made to promote a joint-stock company with that object in view. Plans were even prepared, and a prospectus issued pointing to the purchase of an eligible site in Carlton-place; but there the matter ended, and our fellow citizens across the water were yet without a dramatic retreat of their own. That state of affairs has now, however, been altered by the enterprise of Mr. John Morrison, the Proprietor and builder of Her Majestys, which for elegance, comfort, and completeness is unsurpassed in Scotland. The building, which also comprises a commodious suite of assembly halls, is situated in Main-street, Gorbals, one of the most populous districts of the city. The frontage is in the Doric style, with a row of six fluted columns supporting an ornamental entablature, which is surmounted by six large figures. At the two extremities are capital statues of Shakespeare and Burns, the figures between them representing Tragedy, Comedy, Music, and Burlesque. The general effect of the faade is at once graceful and imposing. The principal entrance from Main-street is 12 feet wide, and leads first of all into a vestibule 30 feet by 25 feet, from which access is gained to stalls and dress-circle, the former being fitted up with luxurious chairs in crimson velvet. The circle is also upholstered in the same rich material. A separate door, 11 feet wide, in Hutherglen-road, leads to the pit and gallery, the latter being reached by a substantial stair, and being seated for 750 persons. The pit is seated for the same Conservation Management Plan 9 number, and the house can accommodate in all 2,500 persons. The circle and gallery above are both constructed in horseshoe shape, and rise gently towards the rear. There is a corresponding incline from the stalls to the back of the pit, and a clear view of the stage can thus be had from all parts of the house. From the stage to the back of the pit the distance is 60 feet, with a width of 55 feet, while the measurement from footlights to middle of circle is 30 feet. The roof is covered to the height of eight feet with ornamental ribs rising to the circular ceiling in the centre, from which depends a large sunlight, having a ventilator shaft above communicating with the various air openings throughout the structure. Similar sunlights are introduced in other parts of the house, and serve the double purpose of lighting and ventilating. The decorations, which are of the most chaste and elegant description, were designed by and executed under the personal supervision of our clever local artist, Mr Joseph Sharpe, on whom they reflect a world of credit. The prevailing tints are maize, pink, and green, picked out with gold. The embellishment of the balcony consists of alternate scrolled panels, with puffings of crimson satin, and ornamental trusses bearing miniature caraytids, which support the coping. All the doors in the building are made to open outwards, and special modes of egress have been provided in case of emergency, while hydrants are placed at convenient stations throughout the building ready for immediate use. All parts of the house are provided with well-ventilated lavatories. &c., stalls and circle having additional accommodation in the shape of cloak and retiring rooms for both ladies and gentlemen. Altogether, the arrangements for the comfort of the audience are thoroughly satisfactory and complete in every respect. The proscenium opening is 27 feet wide, and on each side are two fluted pilasters, surmounted by emblematical figures which, as well as those on the faade, are the work of Mr. Young, Dumbarton-road. Behind the curtain the stage has a depth of 42 feet, with a width equal to that Conservation Management Plan 10 of the auditorium, while the depth of the cellar is 28 feet. The usual galleries are run along the side walls at a height of 25 feet above the stage, and on this level also, but at the very back of the stage, is a spacious painting room. The stage itself is fitted up with all the most modern machinery and appliances that money could procure. The comfort of the artists, too, has received the most careful attention. The dressing-rooms, of which there are a great many, have each a fire-place and a plentiful supply of water. There is also a green-room, band-room, large supers-room, property-room, and wardrobe, all of which, as well as the dressing-rooms, are in the rear of the stage, while on either side are a scene dock and carpenters shop. The lime-light tanks the finest in Scotland and gas-meter are in a shed outside the main building; so that, should any accident occur, the audience will be beyond danger. No cost has been spared in the construction of the Theatre, the end in view being completeness in all departments, and that end has certainly been attained. The architect is Mr George Douglas West, George-street, Mr Morrison (proprietor) himself being the builder. The woodwork was executed by Mr James Morrison, the gas-fitting and ventilating by Messrs D. and G. Graham, the machinery of the stage by Mr Farrel (resident carpenter) and assistants, the upholstering by Messrs F. and T. Smith, Union-street, and the painting by Mr Edgar. The splendid act-drop is the work of Mr John Connor, and when disclosed excited great admiration. It may be added that the walls of the building and also the staircases are constructed of stone. The Pantomime of Ali Baba; or the Forty Thieves, was the opening attraction. Previous, however, to the commencement of the performance the National Anthem was sung by the entire strength of the company. As might have been expected, the house was crowded in all parts. [The Era, 5th January 1879, p.12] Conservation Management Plan 11 7. Original Function & Purpose 7.1 It is important to understand that there were several kinds of theatre in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Fundamentally a theatre was designed in a specific way in order to fulfil a certain artistic brief. Depending upon the aspirations of the proprietor and the directors, a theatre could be designed to accommodate various activities e.g. circus, drama, opera, music hall etc. 7.2 Unlike today, proprietors seldom fell into the multi-purpose trap - attempting to create a performing space suitable for every kind of entertainment but ultimately creating a compromised design. 6.3 The Citizens Theatre has a number of important elements that collectively define it as an excellent theatre: x An auditorium capable of seating 450 people by todays standards x An intimate atmosphere with an excellent actor audience relationship x A well proportioned stage house still replete with original nineteenth century stage machinery x An early theatre of the building boom with original auditorium still intact x A theatre of great architectural and artistic quality, nationally recognised, and grade B listed.11 11 See listing description in Appendix 1. Conservation Management Plan 12 8. Original Main Elevation 8.1 It is always interesting to examine other work by provincial architects who were non-specialist theatre designers. It often provides an indication of their influences and sources of inspiration. In this particular case the sources are perhaps even more interesting than usual. 8.2 In June 1879 the illustration below appeared in the architectural press. 8.3 It was furthermore accompanied by the following fascinating text: The building which forms the subject of the illustration was in course of erection, and nearly completed at the time the Bank stopped payment in October last. It has since been completed and roofed in at the level of the main cornice, but the work above this stage will not now be done. The material use for the building is from the Overwood Quarries, with a granite base up to the height of the street floor sills. The architects are Messrs. Campbell Douglas and Sellars, Glasgow. 12 12 The Building News, 13th June 1879. Conservation Management Plan 13 8.4 The fact that the statuettes at parapet level appear to have never been completed is an interesting point to which we will return later. 8.5 The main elevation of the Citizens Theatre was demolished in 1977 along with the adjoining Palace Theatre. Main Elevation by Campbell Douglas & Sellars 1878 [photo: John Crallan] 8.6 The juxtaposition of the two theatres, with entrances flanking both sides of the elevation provided a central focal point for theatre activity on Main Street. The two theatres were owned by Richard Waldon, who acquired the Royal Princesss Theatre in 1888 and commissioned the construction of the Palace Theatre which was designed by Bertie Crewe, a specialist theatre architect based in London in 1904. In this respect Crewe simply took the opportunity to incorporate the entrances to the Palace Theatre within the existing tenements, effectively using the Royal Princesss Theatre as the street presence for the Palace. In doing so Richard Waldon as able to concentrate his capital on the provision of an excellent auditorium built on relatively cheaper land behind the existing tenements. The acquisition of another portion of land fronting onto Main Street would have increased the costs of construction significantly. Conservation Management Plan 14 8.7 The development of a provincial site containing two theatres adjoining one another is not without precedent. Other examples include: x Empire Theatre and Victoria Theatre - Burnley x Playhouse and Hippodrome Hulme, Greater Manchester x Tyne Theatre & Opera House and Pavilion Theatre Newcastle upon Tyne 8.8 Proprietors saw a commercial opportunity for plural development which attracted audiences to a particular area within a town or city. Sometimes the two theatres were within the same ownership quite often they were not. This kind of approach was purely a reflection of the significant profits that could be made in theatre management. An examination of this excellent birds eye view of the site reveals the physical relationships that were established between the two theatres. The Campbell, Douglas Sellars elevation was firmly set between the two theatres within a row of tenements. Birds Eye View of the Site Citizens Theatre on the left Palace Theatre on the right [photo: John Crallan] 8.9 Returning to the issue of the statuettes from the City of Glasgow Bank elevation, an article appeared in From Glasgows Treasure Chest Conservation Management Plan 15 entitled, The Mystery of the Twelve Statues which is worth quoting at length: As I passed along Ingram Street one day, looking up at the statues of Lanarkshire House (formerly the Head office of the Union bank of Scotland, Ltd.) I thought I would lie to know more about them than the mere fact that they were the work of our celebrated townsman, John Mossman, who lived from 1817 to 1890. I therefore looked up the Historical Sketch of the Union bank of Scotland Ltd., in which it is recorded that after the amalgamation of the Glasgow Bank Co. with the Ship Bank in 1836, the united banks demolished the ancient Virginia mansion which had been purchased by the Glasgow Bank eight years previously, and erected on the same a spacious edifice for the Union Bank of Scotland, Ltd. This was extended in 1843, and in 1879 this building was altered and extended. In describing this reconstruction, the Historical Sketch states that the fluted Corinthian columns surmounted by allegorical figures (from the chisel of Mr. John Mossman), which formed a striking feature of the architecture, were replaced by a frontage of more modern design. These columns and figures now ornament the building of the Royal Princesss Theatre, in Main Street, Gorbals. The foregoing statement puzzled me. Because, on examining the alterations of the old bank building and the new frontage after it had been completed and the statues restored, I found that the six statues shown on each were exactly the same. Apparently, therefore, although the columns had been removed, the statues had not. On the new building, also, an additional group had been placed at each end of the row of six statues. These were also by Mossman. They each consist of two figures, the eastern group representing Navigation and Commerce and the Western group Mechanics and Agriculture. The six older figures in between represent, from east to west, Britannia, Wealth, Justice, Peace, Industry, and Glasgow. The puzzle now was:- If the six statues had not been removed to the Royal Princesss Theatre, as the history of the bank stated they had been, what were the six statues now surmounting the columns of the theatre, and where had they come from? A visit to the Gorbals showed me that the theatre statues were a different subject altogether, Conservation Management Plan 16 portraying theatrical figures, the exact subjects of which I have, so far, failed to identify with certainty. This statement in the Historical Sketch having proved erroneous, I took the matter up at the Bank, and found that the mistake had previously been detected, and measures had been taken at the time to prevent its recurrence in the later and more complete history of the Union bank, produced by the late Sir Robert Rait. So that point seemed to be settled; but, meantime, a strange chance added interest to the matter of the theatre statues, about which I was feeling some curiosity, and wondering if it would be possible to ascertain their original history. Just at this stage, I discovered upon a book barrow an old volume of The Bailie, and looking over it casually, I came upon the following paragraph:- Within the faade of the Gorbals Theatre, Mr. Douglas, the architect, has rather cleverly appropriated the old frontispiece of the Union Bank, and Mr. Morrison, the proprietor, has very spiritedly resolved upon crowning it, as it was aforetime, with a gallery of statues. I do not know who are the subjects of Mr. Morrisons hero-worship: but perhaps some day Bailie, a Scottish theatre may be graced with sculptures of those with whom it is most intimately associated.13 8.10 The six statues in question reside today within the new foyers of the Citizens Theatre. The identity of two is easily established: William Shakespeare and Robert Burns. The remaining four appear to relate to the theatrical muses. 13 Cowan, James, From Glasgows Treasure Chest A Miscellany Of History, Personalities And Places, pub: Craig Wilson Ltd., Glasgow, 1949, pp.239-242. Conservation Management Plan 17 John Mossman H.R.S.A. [1817-1890] [from the original painting by Norman Macbeth R.S.A.] Below: Three of the six statues that once adorned the main elevation William Shakespeare A Muse Robert Burns Conservation Management Plan 18 9. Early Theatre Management 9.1 The theatre originally opened under the name of Her Majestys Theatre & Opera House in 1878 quickly closed and resurfaced during the following year as The Princesss Theatre under the management and ownership of Richard Waldon. It was under his personal supervision and direction that the building established a reputation in Glasgow and beyond for its wonderful pantomimes. Mr. Richard Waldon [theatresearch archive] 9.2 The decision to accquire the freehold of the theatre was quite probably influenced by the fact that the building had been originally conceived as a small opera house and had consequently been equipped with stage machinery capable of spectacular effects. This machinery was equally useful for the presentation of spectacular pantomime. 9.3 By 1919 Richard Waldon was at the peak of his powers and business interests. His theatre ownership had extended significantly and the Glasgow Herald Yearbook lists the following buildings within his ownership: x The Royal Princesss Theatre x The Palace Theatre x The Lyceum, Govan x The Pavilion x The West End Playhouse/Empress Conservation Management Plan 19 Pavilion Theatre, Renfield Street, Glasgow Designed by architect Bertie Crewe in 1904 [From: theatresearch archive] Lyceum Theatre, Govan Designed by architect David Barclay in 1898 Note the closed for alterations sign [From: theatresearch archive] Conservation Management Plan 20 10. The Stage House 10.1 The stage house is clearly defined externally, being defined as a separate and distinct element of the building. Since construction the changes that have been wrought within the surrounding streetscape mean that the building is now discovered in a way that was never intended by Douglas and Sellars. The loss of the surrounding buildings (which also included the Palace Theatre) have been truly dramatic in their own right. The result is an urban landscape which exposes in a not unattractive way the industrial architecture of nineteenth century theatre design. 10.2 The stage house is contemporary with the construction of the theatre, and changes that have taken place backstage have been relatively minor. The survival of its Victorian stage machinery is remarkable, and since the removal of the original stage machinery at the Royal Lyceum Theatre, Edinburgh in 1990, is now the most important survivor of its kind in Scotland. The machinery was partially stabilised in the 1990s, but continued water ingress into the cellar still places the equipment under constant threat. 10.3 Contextually the stage machinery is a remarkable survivor, but one which needs careful consideration in any future proposals. The continued and improved operation of the theatre as a home of creative drama must not be compromised by any desire to restore the equipment beneath the stage. Yet the equipment deserves to be seen and understood. This will undoubtedly be one of the major challenges of any future changes and improvements. 10.4 A recent examination of the substage structure has revealed that subsidence is now beginning to take place at an alarming rate. The upstage vertical supports of the Victorian stage are now dis-engaging from the lateral beams which they support. All stages of this period are assembled with dry unpegged joints in order to allow physical changes and alterations to be made quickly and easily. In consequence subsidence at any level becomes immediately apparent. 10.5 Work was undertaken to the cellar drainage approximately five years ago. However water ingress continues mainly through the brick footings of the north facing wall. This is currently managed by a sump pump fitted with a float mechanism which automatically sets the pump in motion as soon as the water reaches a certain level. It is recommended that the cellar drainage is subjected to CCTV survey to see if there are any problems caused by fractured or blocked drains within the immediate vicinity. Once this has been carried out it may then be possible to develop a comprehensive strategy which may require new drainage, repair or re-routing. Fundamentally water ingress is highly destructive to the long term well being of timber stage machinery, and the importance of resolving this problem once and for all cannot be underestimated. Conservation Management Plan 21 Stage House Transverse Section: Cellar to Grid Conservation Management Plan 22 10.6 At the turn of the twentieth century, Edwin O. Sachs, writer of the definitive treatise Modern Opera Houses & Theatres, asserted that, the typical of English stage of today.. is practically the old wood stage of the last century.14 Whilst it cannot be denied that the construction materials had remained almost identical, a large amount of finesse had in the meantime been applied to the basic machinery as described by Peter Nicholson in Abraham Rees Cyclopaedia of the early 1800s. 10.7 The responsibility for the design of a theatres machinery was usually delegated by the architect to a stage machinist of theatre master carpenter. As late as 1893 Ernest Woodrow wrote: That it is necessary to for the architect of a theatre to understand somewhat of the machinery of a stage is obvious, but I will; not go so far as to say that every architect who designs a theatre should be able to supply the detail drawings of the traps and sliders. Stage machinery is a speciality, and as a rule left in the hands of the ability, ingenuity, and inventive faculty. The architect must not, however, because of the existence of this individual, ignore the stage entirely and be satisfied to hand over the four bare walls for the stage carpenter to fill the stage machinery, irrespective of strength of materials; the architect should acquire sufficient knowledge of the requirements to be able to supervise the work.15 10.8 This appears to have been the procedure adopted in 1878 for the construction of the stage machinery at the Citizens Theatre. Douglas and Sellars were not theatre specialists and must have turned to specialist stage machinists to provide the necessary substage and overstage machinery the stage machinist was in effect the person responsible for the fit out of the timber stage house. 10.9 Although architects seldom had the technical expertise to design the stage machinery itself, they still had to be aware of the structural requirements of the stage house itself. If the fly tower was too low or the stage too narrow, the stage machinist could not carry out the work successfully. In connection with this Sachs wrote; A proscenium 30 feet wide requires a measurement of 65 feet between the main walls of the stage, as the width of the stage must be ay least somewhat 14 Sachs, Edwin O., Modern Theatre Stages, Engineering, 28th February, 1896, p.271. 15 Woodrow, Ernest A.E., Theatres XVI, The Building News, 10th February, 1893, p.188. Conservation Management Plan 23 more than double the width of the opening, in order to allow the floor to be worked off to the right and left. 16 10.10 A table provided by James G. Buckle in his treatise Theatre Maintenance & Construction, indicates precisely how many London and provincial theatres fulfilled the conditions stipulated by Sachs, i.e. a stage width more than twice the proscenium opening. Only 61.5% of the provincial theatres and 43.8% of London theatres listed measured up to Sachs rule. This clearly demonstrates that nineteenth century stages were anything but standardised, and often responded to many things including repertoire, site and inevitably budget. Mistakes were however made, Buckle recalled that, The importance of having the gridiron the requisite height may be estimated from the fact that at a representative London theatre an increased outlay of from 500 to 700 is required on each production, owing to the gridiron being a few feet too low, a fault in construction made by an architect hitherto credited with having an monopoly of knowledge as regards theatrical requirements. 17 10.11 The depth of the cellar required to house the scenery and machinery was also something which varied enormously from one theatre to the next. Buckle quotes the Theatre Royal, Runcorn, as having a depth of 6 feet from stage to cellar floor, while the Royalty Theatre, Glasgow had a depth of 27 feet. Once again the dimensions were related to function and necessity. Sachs advocated that; In as much as the scenes raised upwards have to be taken out of sight, the scenes lowered under the stage floor have likewise to disappear from the vision of the audience, hence the height from the bottom of the cellar or well under the stage should if possible, be equal to the height of the proscenium opening, or height of the cloths. 18 10.12 There were, however, practical problems associated with this. For instance, in order to allow the audience a quick and easy access to the street from all levels of the theatre, especially the gallery, the pit and stalls were often sunk below ground level. It therefore follows that in such 16 Sachs, Edwin O., Modern Opera Houses & Theatres, Vol. III, supp.1, p.9. 17 18 Sachs, Edwin O., Modern Theatre Stages No.IV, Engineering, 28th February, 1896, p.271. Conservation Management Plan 24 instances the stage cellar would have to be excavated to a greater comparative depth, thus increasing the risk of flooding etc. The Citizens Theatre is just such an example. Owing to the large number of subterranean streams and drainage culverts, some of which are likely to be 150 years old and fractured, the substage of the theatre is susceptible to significant flooding which has caused deterioration of the stage machinery and associated footings. It is quite usual for the floor of the substage to be open soil as opposed to concrete and this in fact assist the drainage of flooding. However, the present condition is cause for concern and needs to be thoroughly investigated to locate the source of the water and to identify appropriate remedial measures which will aid the conservation of the equipment. 11. The Stage Floor 11.1 The rake or slope of the stage floor varies considerably during the nineteenth century. Peter Nicholson (writing in Rees op.cit.) advocated 1:36, while Buckle, (1881) suggested a rake of between 1:18 and 1:24. However, by 1896 Sachs stated that all our stage floors are laid to the same rake, namely falling to every foot from back to front19. 11.2 The present rake of the stage at the Citizens Theatre is set at 1 in 17.5. This gradient was arrived at during the re-laying of the stage surface in 2002 which was brought about in an attempt to resolve the unevenness of the stage which had had numerous layers added to the original surface. 11.3 When the contract for renewal began the various layers were stripped away to reveal the oldest layer and sub-structure. To everyones surprise this revealed a stage surface which had two distinctive rakes or slopes. This cannot be an original feature as it would have made the work of the stage carpenter and the performers virtually impossible on a long term basis. It is likely that these alterations were undertaken to the sub-structure of the stage machinery for a one-off production and that the whole stage was simply overlaid at a constant rake after the production finished. 11.4 In consequence of this the new 2002 stage floor had to be realigned to provide a constant rake as there was insufficient time to realign the original sub-structure of the stage. This resulted in a stage floor which does not align with the floor levels at the back of the stage, and in consequence every access point has an unsatisfactory ramp arrangement. 11.5 The current timber sub-structure of the stage is suffering from significant subsidence caused by water ingress into the cellar and poor footings constructed on a soil substrate. It is essential that these issues are resolved as soon as possible in order to achieve the following objectives: 19 Sachs, Edwin O., Modern Theatre Stages Conservation Management Plan 25 x Stabilisation of stage timber sub-structure x Cellar drainage improvements x Resolution of stage rake providing a constant level x Relaying of the stage surface at 1:24 accommodating all trap doors 11.6 By carrying out all this work the historic stage machinery will be stabilised and conserved, and just as importantly, the stage floor of the Citizens Theatre will be resolved once and for all providing: x A standard and constant rake x A stage that is level with all doorways onto the stage e.g. no ramps x A stage that is nationally important in historic terms x A stage that is far more flexible and useful to a professional theatre company Conservation Management Plan 26 12. Layout of the Stage 12.1 The layout of the nineteenth century wood stage was a tradition that developed and evolved throughout the eighteenth and early nineteenth century. By 1878 this evolution was almost complete and the construction of a theatre stage was something always designed and executed by stage machinist rather than by the architect of the theatre. 12.2 The layout of the stage in this theatre drew on all the experience and tradition of the British theatre. It is important to point out that the original name of the theatre was Her Majestys Theatre & Opera House, for it tells us something about the original aspirations of the owners. Theatres which included Opera House within the their title were usually constructed with elaborate substage machinery that could fulfil the requirements of either the operatic or pantomimic repertoire. Clearly the theatre aspired to and for many years fulfilled the latter role within the theatreland of Glasgow. For this reason alone the substage was equipped with elaborate machinery, most of which appears to date from the theatres original construction in 1878. In summary the stage layout is highly similar to the traditional English Wood Stage as illustrated by Edwin O. Sachs in his 1896-8 treatise Modern Opera Houses and Theatres. 12.3 The drawing above demonstrates the traditional rhythmof theatre trap layout in the nineteenth century alternating between stage bridges and cuts. It is also important to note the smaller stage traps at the front of the stage which were provided for pantomime typical appearances by Conservation Management Plan 27 geni and demons. At the Citizens Theatre there has been some intervention is this area which does confuse to a certain extent the original layout of these traps. It would appear that a later substage brick fire wall was inserted during the twentieth century, causing the front trap area to be reduced and in plan. 13. The Corner Traps 13.1 The Citizens Theatre substage probably contained two traditional timber corner traps measuring the standard 24 x 24. The operation of a corner trap requires a certain amount of skill and care. There is a popular belief that the corner trap was heavily counterweighted so that on release it sped up to stage level to crash into the stage joists. This method may have been used in some theatres, but it carries with it great danger because from the moment of release until the moment the trap reaches stage level it is out of the control of the operator. 13.2 During the nineteenth century safety was not always considered paramount in the theatre and consequently accidents, especially with corner traps, were quite frequent. This is well illustrated by the following passage from Memoirs of Joseph Grimaldi, and relates to a performance he gave in Manchester: He arranged and got up a very pretty little pantomime called Castles In The Air, in which he of course played Clown. His first appearance was Conservation Management Plan 28 to be from a large bowl, placed in the centre of the stage, and labelled Gooseberry Fool; to pass through which it was necessary for him to ascend from beneath the stage through a trap-door which the bowl concealed. On the first night of the piece, he ascended from below at the proper time; but when he gained the level of the stage, the ropes which were attached to the trap broke, and he fell back into the cellar from which he had just risen. He was terribly shaken and stunned by the fall, but quickly recovering himself, ascended the stairs, went on the stage, and played as though nothing had happened to discompose him. However this was not the end of the unfortunate episode; The Liverpool Theatre belonging to the same managers, and being resorted by the same company, they all travelled thither for one night for the purpose of playing Castles In The Air as the afterpiece, having the same master-carpenter with them as they had had at Manchester. Grimaldi sought the man out, and explaining to him the nature of the accident which had happened through his negligence on the previous night, entreated him to render all secure for that evening, and to prevent a repetition of the occurrence. This he promised but failed to do notwithstanding, for a precisely similar accident took place here. Grimaldi had ascended to the stage and got his head through the bowl, when, as a shout of laughter and welcome broke from the audience, the ropes gave way and he was left struggling in the trap. For a second or two he did not fall; for, having passed through the trap nearly to his waist, he strove to support himself by his arms. All his endeavours, however, were vain; the weight of his body pulled him downwards and the trap being small, his elbows were caught by the edges and forced together above his head, thereby straining his shoulders to such an extent that he thought his arms were wrested form their sockets. He fell a considerable distance, and when he rose from the ground was in excessive pain.20 20 Boz. (ed.) [Dickens, Charles], Memoirs of Joseph Grimaldi, pub: New York, William H. Colyer, 1838, pp.153-4. Conservation Management Plan 29 13.3 There were many variants to the standard corner trap, often devised to fulfil a certain need within a production. One important surviving variant survives at the Citizens Theatre and relates to a sloat rising corner trap as depicted in the accompanying drawing. Star Trap Specialist Sloat Currently stored in the Cellar Conservation Management Plan 30 14. The Corsican Trap 14.1 The corner trap was also used as a substitution trap in performance of The Corsican Brothers, a well known popular nineteenth century drama. The play written by E. Grang and Xavier de Montpin was originally performed at the Theatre Historique in Paris in 1850. It was brought to England by Charles Kean, translated and adapted by Dion Boucicault, and performed at the Princess Theatre in London in 1852. It remained in the dramatic repertoire well into the twentieth century, and evidence of its performance still remains within the substage at the Citizens Theatre. 14.2 The production revolved around twin brothers who experience connected emotions during times of heightened trauma. The role of both brothers was played by a single actor, relying on the use of doubles to cover fleeting moments when both brothers are on stage together. Charles Kean, actor manager of the Princess Theatre in London played the role in the first production and was followed in later years by many important actors including Sir Henry Irving and Martin Harvey. 14.3 The sensational element within the drama relies on a unique piece of stage machinery which was created specifically for the production and became known as The Corsican Trap. During the performance of the play one of the brothers in killed in a duel, and appears as a ghost to his twin brother. The apparition is made to rise up through the stage whilst also travelling across the stage at the same time the trap also became known as the ghost glide for obvious reasons. When it was first used it created an absolute sensation and in consequence became a well loved piece of theatre. 14.4 The actual workings of a Corsican Trap were never written down in detail. Indeed the workings of the trap were probably carefully guarded as part of the stage carpenters trade secrets. The technical difficulty involved in making the trap ascend a diagonal distance whilst the trap cover at stage level travels horizontally, and therefore different distances and speeds should not be under-estimated. Yet between 1860-1900 many theatres were built with or later equipped with a Corsican Trap, underlining perhaps just how significant a contribution this adaptation made to British drama in the nineteenth century. 14.5 In the late 1990s, the present writer was commissioned by the Gaiety Theatre & Opera House, Douglas, Isle of Man to reconstruct a Corsican Trap based on scant remaining evidence at that theatre, but also drawing on other archaeological sources scattered in theatres around the British Isles. The remaining evidence at the Citizens Theatre formed a significant part of the recreation, although at that time it did not include the visual evidence contained within a film shot at the Citizens Theatre Conservation Management Plan 31 in c.1946. 21 The black and white still image shown below is taken from the film and almost certainly shows one of the large take up drums for the Corsican Trap. It appears to be constructed of metal and may therefore represent a twentieth century reconstruction of the original nineteenth century timber drum. It nevertheless provides a fascinating insight into the construction and use of this enigmatic device. Corsican Trap Take-Up Drum Citizens Theatre c.1946 21 Plays For The People, directed by Gordon Begg and produced by Thames & Clyde Films, (24minutes duration, c.1946) Scottish Screen Archive. Conservation Management Plan 32 Evidence of the Corsican Trap Drum at the Citizens Theatre Above note the impression left by the revolving drum on the joist Below track cut into the joists to allow the scruto to be wound off 14.6 The scruto was a temporary flexible stage akin to the revolving shutter of a roll-top desk. It also contained the hole through which the actor had to pass as he traversed the stage. The trick was to keep the hole directly above the actor! Conservation Management Plan 33 Illustrated Sheet Music Cover from the First production The Princesss Theatre, London in 1852 14.7 The illustrated sheet music cover depicts the dead twin brother appearing to his brother as a ghost to reveal the manner of his death which is depicted upstage in a vision reveal. Conservation Management Plan 34 15. Stage Bridges 15.1 The standard layout of the English Wooden Stage relied upon two key elements, the bridge and the cut. The bridge was a large timber platform that could be raised and lowered between the substage, stage and sometimes above stage level to produce three-dimensional scenic effects. John Crallans axonometric illustration of a stage bridge mechanism demonstrates the principle upon which most bridges operated during the second half of the nineteenth century. Contained within the Citizens Theatre substage are three such structures, generally in good condition though in need of stabilisation and conservation. Nevertheless, they are remarkably complete and by far the best surviving examples in Scotland. 15.2 As with the Corsican Trap this kind of equipment was in response to the dramatic fashions and demands of the time, and enabled theatre managers to produce spectacular stage effects for pantomimes, sensation dramas and melodramas. The bridge platform, which stretched the full width of the proscenium opening was controlled from a timber windlass located on a mezzanine floor beneath the stage. A rope attached to this windlass was passed down into the cellar where it ran around a deflection pulley before being wound around the circumference of a large timber drum measuring approximately six feet in diameter. Two more ropes were wound onto the shaft, one of each side of the drum. These then passed to respective deflection pulleys mounted at each end of the bridge guides, eventually passing up and over a final set of deflection pulleys just below stage level, before being attached to the bridge platform. 15.3 This rigging system produced a mechanical advantage proportional to ratio between the circumference of the drum and the shaft. The operation of the bridge was also assisted by counterweights attached be ropes to each end of the platform. This allowed the stage carpenters to compensate for any particularly heavy scenery or large numbers of performers who had to be raised up to stage level. 15.4 The bridge platform was constructed to form a strong timber lattice capable of supporting significant weight. However in order to maintain the scenic illusion it was often necessary to mask this timber framework with scenery. This was achieved by using the cuts which were regularly positioned inbetween the bridges on the stage. A typical layout, and one illustrated by Sachs, was a sequence of a bridge and two cuts repeated at least three times as demonstrated by the stage at the Citizens Theatre. Conservation Management Plan 35 The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 36 Above: Mezzanine Floor, Citizens Theatre 22 Below: Mezzanine Floor of Edwin O. Sachs English Wood Stage23 22 Drawing by John Crallan with further edits from Theatresearch 23 Sachs, Edwin O., Modern Opera Houses & Theatres, pub: London, B.T. Batsford, 1898, vol.III, Supp.I, p.11. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 37 16. The Cuts & Sloats 16.1 The cuts were narrower opening on the stage floor which also stretched the full width of the proscenium opening. They could be used for a number of purposes including that of masking the front of bridges that were elevated above stage level. Other uses included raising two-dimensional scenic flats and ground rows, and even for the raising and lowering of scenic gas ground-rows which allowed on stage elements to be lit form stage level. 16.2 The scenery was raised within the cut by a series of timber elements known as sloats. ( see illustration) They consisted of a guided timber box which received a timber tongue which could slide within the box. Scenic pieces were then attached to the timber tongue and by attaching a rope which was subsequently connected to a windlass, it was possible to raise and lower the scenery from substage to stage level. 16.3 The co-ordinated management of this scenery allowed the creation of spectacular transformation scenes which formed an important part of nineteenth century pantomimes, something for which the Citizens Theatre became renown. At the Citizens it appears that two sloats were mounted within each cut and that the majority of cuts were operated from windlasses positioned on then stage left mezzanine floor. It is also possible that a number of cuts were rigged so that they could be operated in a smooth and co-ordinated manner for the purposes of the transformation scenes. Details of a Scenic Sloat for Raising Scenery The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 38 17. Grave Trap 17.1 The grave trap was always located centre stage and flanked by the corner traps in a downstage position. This element of the machinery worked on exactly the same principles as the bridges. It was to all intents and purposes simply a smaller version of the bridge. Its name was derived from the ghost scene in Hamlet, although its was recognised as a very useful piece of equipment for supernatural appearances and disappearances e.g. John Wellington Wells descent into Hades at the end of Gilbert and Sullivans opera The Sorcerer. Preparing to Raise The Ghost in Hamlet The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 39 18. The Overstage Machinery 18.1 The overstage timber machinery at the Citizens Theatre appears to be contemporary with the substage equipment. On that basis it is likely that it dates from the theatres original construction. Although modern equipment has also been installed within the fly tower, the earlier timber machinery remains largely intact. 18.2 The principle of mechanical advantage as employed in the substage region was also employed in the overstage region. A series of timber drum and shafts mounted on the grid allowed the stage carpenters to raise and lower backcloths and cut cloths in a smooth and co-ordinated manner. The stage house also relied upon the hemp hauling system whereby flymen would hand haul scenery without the benefits of counterweighting or mechanical advantage. The drum and shaft allowed a single flyman to lower a series of cut cloths in smooth and co-ordinated manner by the release of a single rope. Drum & Shaft Mechanism on The Grid - Citizens Theatre 18.3 The survival of this kind of equipment is becoming ever scarcer. Fortunately, the installation of the counterweight system into the stage house did not, as has so often been the case, necessitate the removal of the old equipment. Whilst it is no longer in use it does not appear to present any significant operational problems for the company and should therefore be able to remain there in the long term. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 40 Sections Through The Grid Showing Drum & Shaft Mechanism [Drawing by John Crallan] 18.4 The roof trusses in a nineteenth century stage house are nearly always designed to accommodate the suspension of scenery as well as the roof. An examination of the above cross-section shows a grid inserted into the upper reaches of the rood truss, whilst two smaller eave grids are shown at lower level. It is possible that the original grid was at the lower level supported on the bottom chord of the roof truss. At some point the grid may have been raised to accommodate the flying of higher scenery, although no documentary evidence has been discovered to support this theory. However, the fact the headroom is severely limited in the current grid, and the split level nature of the grid as a whole leads to the conclusion that a number of interventions have been undertaken at various times. This is nothing unusual within an old theatre, a building which almost by definition must constantly evolve and react to the artistic demands of the next performance. View of Underside of Grid Showing 2 Gridded Levels 19. Wing Grooves The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 41 19.1 Rigid wing-pieces were operated and changed manually in the Citizens Theatre during the nineteenth century. This meant that each wing piece required at least two stagehands to change it. This was done by sliding one wing piece onstage infront of the one that was in view. A number of wing pieces were contained in units known as grooves, which were as the name suggests timber grooves which contained the wings flats. 19.2 It is likely that theses elements were removed many years ago probably prior to the beginning of the twentieth century. They were recognised by Sachs as being extremely inefficient and generally unsuitable and were replaced initially by scenic forks which held the top of the wings in place, but after the first world war scenic wings and flats were usually supported form the stage by scenic braces a system which is still in use today. 19.3 The nineteenth century timber grooves were mounted on the underside of the fly floor. In consequence the lower fly floor of a theatre was usually raked at the same angle as the stage so as to ensure that all the wing flats were interchangeable. The upper fly floor was however always level for ease of operation, for this was the floor form which the heavy backlcloths were operated. Scenic Wing Groove, Theatre Royal, Leicester [Photo: Richard Leacroft, theatresearch archive] The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 42 20. Fly Floors 20.1 The fly floors of the Citizens Theatre are constructed from large timber beams, the fly rail being effectively a large timber lattice truss designed to take the loads imposed from the scenery hung off the grid above. 20.2 When the theatre was originally constructed and until 1989 the theatre was operated using the traditional hemp house system. This involved the fly staff hand-hauling the ropes attached to the scenery in order to raise and lower it as the productions required. 20.3 Each bar to which the scenery was controlled by means of three hemp ropes, long short and middle attached to a semi-rigid bar or batten. The introduction of the counterweight system in 1989 allowed increased loads to be flown whilst also improving the health and safety regime within the theatre. Stage Right Fly Floor Citizens Theatre The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 43 21. Scenic Paint Shop 21.1 The survival of an original Victorian scenic paint shop, probably dating from the 1894 additions, is a remarkable surviving feature of theatre. Examples of this kind are now extremely scarce, and the Citizens Theatre possesses without doubt the earliest surviving example in Scotland. 21.2 The function of this kind of facility was originally intended to assist the preparation of scenery for productions crated in-house. In that respect it is used today exactly as intended. During the nineteenth century theatres of this kind employed a resident scenic artist who often both designed and painted the scenery for the theatre. Scenic artists of the day were highly thought of, many gaining public recognition in their own right as both scenic artists and legitimate artists. 21.3 The standard equipment of the nineteenth century scenic paint shop was the paint frame. This was used as a device to attach the scenic canvas to for painting purposes. It allowed the artist to stand still and move the paint frame up and down through a slot in the floor. This saved time and energy and removed the necessity to climb up and down ladders etc. Typically this system is almost unique to the British Isles. The Continental method of scene painting involved painting the scenic canvas on the floor. 21.4 Surviving complete examples of provincial scenic paint shops attached to theatres are extremely scarce. They include: x Gaiety Theatre & Opera House, Isle of Man 1900 x Royal Theatre & Opera House, Northampton 1884/7 x Grand Theatre & Opera House, Leeds 1878 21.5 The Citizens Theatre is particularly well served by a scenic workshop with two paint frames, and forms a unique example of the way in which Scottish theatres were serviced by their backstage scenic painters who in many cases would have been supported by a small team of junior assistants. The importance of nineteenth century scenic art should not be under-estimated. Important legitimate artists of the period including David Roberts, Alexander Nasmyth, and Clarkson Stanfield were all recognised and respected theatrical scene painters. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 44 Citizens Theatre Paint Frame Axonometric [drawn by: John Crallan]The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 45 21.6 For the purposes of clarity one of the two paint frames contained within the Citizens Theatre paint shop is omitted from the drawing. Paint shop of this kind nearly always contained multiple paint frames in order to allow the theatres scenic artists to work on a number of backcloths or scenery at any one time. Nineteenth Century Scenic Paint Shop [From: Harpers Weekly, November 30th 1878.]The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 46 Paint Frame & Paint Shop Citizens Theatre 21.7 The two paint frames and the paint shop are use daily by the theatres resident scenic artists. They provide a practical and eminently suitable solution to scenic painting on site. There is however a need to undertake some conservation to ensure that the paint frames can continue to be use for their original purpose for the foreseeable future. 21.8 It is therefore essential that a pragmatic and sensitive approach is taken to their continued use after conservation has taken place. In this instance there does not appear to be any significant conflict between continued use and conservation providing that all health and safety requirements can be fulfilled in a sensible manner. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 47 22. Stage Machinery Context 22.1 Original nineteenth century stage machinery installations are now extremely rare. The Citizens Theatre installation is now the only remaining one in Scotland and is in consequence unique. Large scale losses of original nineteenth century stage machinery have been experienced during the last thirty years including equipment at the following theatres: x Royal Lyceum, Edinburgh x Grand Theatre, Wolverhampton x Everyman Theatre, Cheltenham x Grand Theatre & Opera House, Leeds x Theatre Royal, Bristol, x Theatre Royal, Bath 22.2 Today only two other significant provincial installations survive and neither are not wholly original: x Tyne Theatre & Opera House, Newcastle (reconstructed after a major fire) x Gaiety Theatre & Opera House, Douglas (reconstructed using discarded machinery from other theatres) 22.3 This clearly places the Citizens Theatre stage machinery in context. It is the only surviving and largely complete provincial installation. Under such circumstances as this its stabilisation and conservation should be given high priority. It is important in this context to understand that the Citizens Theatre is a working theatre company, and that the stage is an every changing environment. There is consequently potential conflict between conservation and creativity. This Conservation Management Plan seeks to develop a strategy and understanding which will allow both elements to co-exist harmoniously. 22.4 The mezzanine substage of the theatre is currently used for technical equipment storage and the substage cellar is largely unused. Under these circumstances it should be possible to develop a strategy for the substage which will fulfil the following criteria: x Stabilisation of the cellar region: structurally and environmentally x Stabilisation of the mezzanine region : improved storage x Increased technical capabilities for current productions The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 4822.5 Both the cellar and mezzanine areas are currently inaccessible to the public. It will be crucial to develop an architectural solution to this problem which is both pragmatic and sensible. The theatre company is by definition a creative organisation that operates on a flexible timetable system. This demands that there is no such thing as a typical or regular week in the buildings life. In consequence an approach will need to be developed which offers public access at various pre-defined times during the theatres year. This might include: x Defined Heritage Open Doors Days x During Summer performance closure periods x Education and Access programmed Visits x Guided Heritage Tours 22.6 The very fact that theatre is an ever changing environment means that repeat visits are likely to be in high demand. It also follows that there is probably too much to see at one visit, and that there would undoubtedly be an opportunity to create a front of house visit and a backstage visit. 22.7 Large amounts of documentary evidence relating to the theatre survives in various archives and repositories, e.g. x Mitchell Library, Glasgow x Peoples Palace, Glasgow x Scottish Theatre Archive x Theatre Museum, Victoria & Albert Museum 22.8 This creates lots of opportunities for exhibition and display collaborations between the various organisations. Theatre has so often been described as a Mirror of Society and the opportunities to demonstrate this kind of relationship within the national curriculum should not be under-estimated. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 49 23. Stage Machinery Conservation Issues 23.1 In order to ensure the long term survival of this important suite of stage machinery it will be essential to rectify a number of fundamental problems largely associated with the age of the building. 23.2 The cellar region is subject to flooding and often contains standing water at the lowest level. Various theories have been developed relating to the cause of this ground water but no firm conclusions have been established. It is therefore suggested that a comprehensive drain survey is undertaken to include both mapping and CCTV investigation. This should help to establish the precise nature of the problem. It may be that the water ingress is simply caused by local ground conditions. If this turns out to be the case it should be possible to create a cellar sump pump arrangement which will manage and control and rises in water level an arrangement that is used effectively at the Gaiety Theatre & Opera House in the Isle of Man. 23.3 An examination of the substage pitch pine timbers suggests that they are generally in good repair. There is some water damage and need for careful drying out, but there is nothing to suggest that the timbers are suffering from dramatic infestation or major structural decay. The environment within the substage has always been generally dank, and it would be a mistake to attempt to dry the whole installation out completely. It is more a question of stabilisation, excessive drying out would almost certainly be counter productive and create destabilisation effects within the installation. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 50 24. Architectural Evolution 24.1 The architectural evolution of the Citizens Theatre, Glasgow is not at all well documented. The building co-existed with numerous places of entertainment during the second half of the nineteenth century. It was one of a large number, was considered at the time to be typical and by implication unremarkable. However by loss and attrition unremarkable can gradually become remarkable and that is quite simply what has happened over the space of 132 years. 24.2 The surviving records relating to the building are extremely limited and do not form a comprehensive record. In consequence we are limited to examine the evidence that survives, adding simply that surviving does not always correlate with significant. 24.3 The majority of the surviving architectural information is located at the Mitchell Library in Glasgow. During the course of this research all surviving architectural drawings were consulted, including ones relating to the Palace Theatre which was located immediately next door to the Citizens Theatre. 24.4 All surviving pre-1950 architectural drawings have been digitised during the course of the research and are reproduced at high resolution on the accompanying CD. They are also reproduced in the Appendices at the back of this document. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 51 25. Alterations of 1894 Architects: Thomson & Sandiland, 241 West George Street, Glasgow 25.1 The drawings for the 1894 alterations show the development of an associated building immediately adjacent to and indeed connected to the Royal Princesss Theatre. By this time the site was already within the tenure of Richard Waldon and it is clear that the building adjoining the theatre contained an auditorium. 25.2 The elevational drawing to Clelland Lane clearly shows the stucco legends of both The Grand National Halls, an organisation with which Richard Waldon was involved and The Royal Princesss Theatre. The portion denoted as the area given over to The Grand National Halls would in 1904 be re-developed to create Waldons larger variety house The Palace Theatre. 25.3 Today remnants of this development remain within the Princesss Theatre element of the 1894 scheme. The drawings provide a tantalising glimpse of the backstage facilities at the Princesss but do not unfortunately provide significant information to allow any architectural change assessment to be made of the surviving fabric. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 52 26. Alterations of 1908 Architects: H.& D. Barclay, 248 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow 26.1 The architectural drawings that survive from this period relate to minor changes surrounding the auditorium at dress circle level. Specifically: x Enlargement of the circle bar on the auditorium right side of the dress circle x The creation of a gents urinal at the rear of the dress circle. x The creation of a new entrance at the rear of the dress circle x The creation of a ladies lavatory x The creation of a Managers office 26.2 This is the earliest surviving drawing that shows the configuration of the auditorium. Fortunately each seat is shown on the drawing providing a total dress circle capacity of 288 excluding the two boxes. The 1912 Stage Guide, whilst not providing a breakdown of the seating capacities within the theatre, provides a total capacity of 2,700 leaving 2,412 seats dispersed amongst the other areas within the auditorium. 26.3 Although this plan shows the seating layout it also clearly demonstrates that the architects introduced a new entrance to the dress circle. This was achieved by using an open court area at the rear of the tenements that fronted onto Main Street. The previous means of access had been via a much smaller staircase located in the auditorium right corner. The narrowness of this staircase, accessed by means of a single width door must have posed a significant danger to the safety of the audience, for this was the only means of access and egress to this area. It is in fact surprising to discover that this practice had been allowed to continue by the authorities after the disastrous accident which had taken place at the Star Theatre in Glasgow in 1884, when 15 people were crushed to death on a narrow staircase. 26.4 An examination of this circle plan shows that before the alterations the entire dress circle was encircled by a corridor accessed by two single doors on each side of the auditorium. The safety strategy relied on 288 people exiting from the tier via four single doors and making their way in single file to the narrow staircase which ultimately gave access back down to street level. Although there is no immediate evidence to support the theory, it seems likely that at some point the theatre had been designed without this corridor and that the whole of the tier had been open to the staircase at the rear of the tier. Although the insertion of the corridor may have provided s degree of fire separation, it is highly doubtful as to whether this would have been a safer environment for the patrons. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 53 27. Alterations of 1919 Architects: Charles J. McNair, 112 Bath Street, Glasgow 27.1 This set of drawings identify changes to the main entrance vestibule fronting onto Main Street. They appear to show the removal of an existing shop unit and the strengthening of the ceiling and floor to these areas. In elevation it is quite clear to see that the entrance is punched through part of the existing tenement and part of the Grand National Halls which was by this time in the same ownership. The entrances followed through into an existing designated Crush Hall. The Open Court was above the Crush Hall (known locally as the High Court, and remained open to the elements until the demolition of this area for the construction of the new existing foyers. 27.2 It is also interesting to note the section through the Grand National Halls which shows the position of the side balconies in the main hall, and the presence of the Lesser Hall on the top floor. The plan also clearly defines that the platform as opposed to stage was at this end of the hall. The Grand National Hall eventually became the venue for Close Theatre, it suffered a fire in May 1973 and was not reinstated as a working theatre space. 27.3 These alterations clearly demonstrate the beginnings of a post-war architectural style, but the social segregation of the classes is still maintained. The new entrance provides a wider corridor for habitus of the pit, whilst the combined entrance for the dress circle and stalls remains largely unaltered. Somewhat ironically both entrances share a communal pay-box, with a thin partition simply dividing the classes. A booking office facility is also created where the public can queue to buy advance tickets for performances. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 54 28. Formation of the Citizens Theatre Company 28.1 An undated press cutting in the Scottish Theatre Archive (extracted from the Glasgow Herald) provides an indication of the arrangements that were being put in place to locate the Citizens Theatre Company at the Royal Princesss Theatre. Although undated it almost certainly comes from the latter part of 1944 or early part of 1945: New Home for Glasgow Citizens Theatre Glasgow Citizens Theatre is to have a new home shortly the Princesss Theatre to which it will probably move in May, 1945. Occupancy will be on the basis of a 10 years lease. Some time ago Mr. Harry McKelvie proprietor of the Princesss Theatre, decided to retire from active participation in theatre life. Wishing to show his gratitude for the warm support of the public throughout his career, he made a generous offer to Glasgow Citizens Theatre of a lease of the Princesss for 10 years it can be stated that the offer is on a non-profit making basis and the option given the Citizens Theatre of taking up the lease has been accepted. While the legal formalities are not yet completed there is no doubt that the Citizens Theatre will be the next occupants of the Princesss Theatre opening their first season there in September 1945. Mr. Lewis Casson has examined the Princesss on behalf of the Citizens Theatre, in which he is interested through C.E.M.A. and is enthusiastic about it. In addition to Mr. McKelvies offer the Citizens Theatre has received a further encouragement by a gift of 10,000 from Sir Frederick C. Stewart. This sum has been given without conditions, and may be used as the directors think best. 24 24 Glasgow Herald, undated press cutting, Scottish Theatre Archive, Ref: Bridie 359. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 55 28.2 A fascinating letter in the Scottish Theatre Archive25 provides an indication of the condition of the theatre prior to occupancy by the Citizens Theatre Company. It is worth quoting this lengthy extract: Miss M.C. Glasgow, C.E.M.A.26 9 Belgrave Square, London, S.W.1. Friday 23rd February 1945 Dear Miss Glasgow, Citizens Theatre Glasgow Two of our Directors, along with an architect, have now been able to make a preliminary survey of the Princesss Theatre with a view to deciding what work on alterations and improvements we should try to have done before we open there in the autumn. As we expected, the Theatre wants a lot of attention: frankly, it does not look as if Mr McKelvie had spent very much on it for a good long time. Put very broadly, the urgent items are: - 1. Generally the rows of seats are too close together, and some readjustment will be necessary to give reasonable comfort to our audiences. 2. The amphitheatre will require to be reseated. It is proposed that we should block off the gallery and stop using it altogether, but it is hoped that the amphitheatre would be popular at the price of 1/6d. 3. A certain amount of painting is essential. We are arranging to get as early as possible a preliminary estimate from a well-known firm of decorators in Glasgow. 4. The dressing-room accommodation will require a thorough overhaul. Our Company has put up with a good deal of discomfort and inconvenience in the Athenaeum, and we all feel that we must ensure reasonable comfort for them in the Princesss. 5. The floor coverings are in a bad state. We understand Mr McKelvie has a quantity of carpeting which he bought before the war but has not 25 James Bridie Papers Ref No.108, Scottish Theatre Archive 26 The acronym for Council for the Encouragement of Music and the Arts the predecessor of the Arts Council of Great Britain. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 56use. We are approaching him to see whether we can buy this from him at a reasonable figure. All these items are, we feel, for immediate action. We wish, therefore, to make formal application to C.E.M.A. for a grant towards the cost, and as a first estimate or our requirements I am asked to put forward the figure of 5,000. I do this now because doubtless you are considering the shape of the C.E.M.A. budget for the next financial year. In addition I am instructed to express the hope that C.E.M.A. will be able to give us a guarantee 2,500 for a season of approximately 48 weeks, beginning, we hope, at the end of the season. 28.3 It is clear that alterations were undertaken apace and by the 25th June 1945 the Glasgow Evening News reported that; Reconstruction of seating is now complete at the Princesss new home of the Glasgow Citizens Theatre, and work is going ahead on stage lighting for September opening.27 28.4 True to their word the theatre re-opened as the Citizens Theatre on 11th September 1945 with a performance of J.B. Priestleys Johnson Over Jordan. The Daily Record reported: The Princesss Theatre, new home of the Citizens is blushing in all the glory of new paint and decoration. It is resplendent like a bride now that has been wedded to the high art of theatre. 28 28.5 It would therefore appear as if sufficient funds had been found to undertake both the seating works and a re-decoration of the auditorium as per the Citizens Theatre request as outlined in their letter to C.E.M.A. The details were also reported the following day by the Glasgow Herald: A 10 year lease has been taken of the Princesss Theatre, which has been re-decorated and the seating accommodation and amenities improved. It has not been possible, because of the general building situation in the country, to obtain 27 Glasgow Evening News, Monday 25th June, 1945. 28 Glasgow Daily Record, 12th September 1945. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 57permission to carry out all the intended alterations, but this will be done when the opportunity arises. 29 28.6 It appears that not all the aspirations were at this time fulfilled. It is however clear that fund-raising continued and by June 1946 the Glasgow Evening Times reported that: Next winter patrons of the Citizens Theatre will be able to leave their overcoats in the cloakroom and sit in a warm and draught-free auditorium. As soon as the Ulster Group Players conclude their season at the end of July the theatre will be in the hands of architects and builders and an entirely new heating system will be installed. Members of the Citizens Theatre Society will also find a new clubroom provided, and it is hoped to run a snack bar where a meal can be obtained by out-of-town playgoers before the show. 30 28.7 However a letter in the James Bridie Archive provides a further insight into ongoing issues. Dated 16th July 1946 building works at the theatre were clearly causing problems. This letter was written by Norman Duthie of Mann Judd Gordon & Co., Chartered Accountants and is addressed to Dr. Osborne Mavor [aka James Bridie]: When we all visited the theatre to discuss the additional accommodation the building contractor told me there was some difficulty about permits. I told him that if the Architect would write me about his troubles we would use any influence we have in an endeavour to help him. Anderson did not do so, and I assumed that the work was going on quite well until Colin White telephoned me on Friday to say that he was not satisfied with progress. It seems now that he has altered all his plans presumably without consulting anybody. The third item is definitely annoying. After all we are a Theatre, and Andersons plans ought to have been very fully discussed with Matthew Forsyth before he began pushing in air ducts which I understand interfere with the headroom on the stage. Certainly if there is any 29 Glasgow Herald, 12th September, 1945. 30 Glasgow Evening Times, 12th June 1946. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 58considerable such interference, I think we have another cause for complaint. 31 28.8 Unfortunately the architectural drawings for these alterations do not appear to have survived. Nevertheless, the content of the second letter clearly indicates alterations to the heating system, and it may therefore also provide an indication of the date for the heating duct alterations within the auditorium. 31 James Bridie Papers Ref No.154, Scottish Theatre Archive. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 59 29. Alterations of 1948 Architects: James Taylor Thomson & McCrea, 212 Bath Street, Glasgow 29.1 These drawings appear from the title to relate to the creation of a restaurant saloon at ground floor level. However careful examination suggests that they were also submitted to create a rehearsal rooms and a wardrobe store for the Citizens Theatre company. Unfortunately they do not provide any further details about the auditorium, although they do note the location of a miniature rifle range that was located in the basement and accessed via the yard of tenement 119B. It is understood that prior to being a rifle range it had also been a small bowling alley. 29.2 In 1949 these further plans were announced in the local newspaper: Plans to Make Citizens Theatre a Social Centre To extend the social amenities available for their patrons the Citizens Theatre have reconditioned parts of their premises and a generous gift by a member of the Citizens Theatre Society (who wishes to remain anonymous) will make it possible to equip and decorate two large connecting rooms of a snack bar and restaurant lounge whenever the necessary permits have been obtained. This should go far towards making the Citizens a social and artistic centre of the West of Scotland, as it will allow visitors from the country to make an evening of it in the theatre itself. As a temporary measure the Citizens Theatre Society have lent their handsome little club room as an interval tearoom for the theatre audiences. 32 32 Glasgow Evening Times, 8th December 1949. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 60 30. Alterations of the 1950s 30.1 A safety curtain was installed sometime in the 1950s. This involved cutting out the downstage guides to the two substage corner traps in order to maintain the fire separation between auditorium and stage. A Beckwin Theatre Furnishers trade catalogue33 recorded that they had recently fitted a new proscenium house curtain, something which was usually done at the same time. 30.2 The stage floor was relaid in 1956, by which time the stage traps had long since fallen into dis-use. A passage was also introduced at this time which linked the workshops at the rear of the building with the passage behind the stage, bridging the light well at ground level. Before the installation of this passage there was no direct connection between the theatre and the workshop. The rest of the rear of the building above the workshop building, 2 floors in all, had by this been turned into storage areas with a small rehearsal room taking up a third of the top floor.34 31.3 By 1969 the two areas on the 1948 plan designated as rehearsal rooms had become a tea room and restaurant, the back rehearsal room forming the basis of the kitchen. It remained as such until the construction of the new foyers. 33 Located in the theatresearch archive 34 I am indebted to Ian Ribbens for this information. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 6131. Alterations of the 1960s 31.1 In 1965 the Citizens Theatre partnered a relationship with an associate organisation known as the Close Theatre Club. It operated under the aegis of the Citizens Theatre and was located within the old adjacent National Hall. It was an experimental open stage theatre. After initial experiments as a theatre-in-the round it became a three-sided open stage with a small acting area of approximately 24ft. x 20 ft. 31.2 The seating capacity was 149 arranged in three permanent blocks, asymmetrically arranged around the acting area. The three-sided balcony from the National Hall was retained and re-engaged as a lighting gallery. 31.3 The space was also provided with a small club room with bar and catering facilities. It was destroyed by fire in May 1973. Close Theatre Club: Plan and Photo [from: Tabs, Vol.24 No.1, March 1966] The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 6232. Artistic Direction: 1963 & Beyond 32.1 James Bridie remained in post as Artistic Director until his death in 1951. From then until 1963, there was no overall artistic director and seasons were directed by a succession of Actor-Directors including James Gibson, Roddy McMillan and Madeleine Christie, as well as guest directors including Eric Capon, Peter Potter and John Casson. In the period between 1963-69 there were five artistic directors; Callum Mill, Iain Cuthbertson, David Williams, Michael Blackemore and Robert Cartland. 32.2 During the period from the 1969 to 2003, the Citizens was associated with innovative play selections and stagings by Giles Havergal, Philip Prowse and Robert David MacDonald. Under their directorship the Citizens Theatre became recognised as one of the leading theatres in Britain. In 2003 both Havergal and MacDonald stepped down from their posts as Directors of the Company, but Prowse continued his role as Artistic Director until 2004. Robert David MacDonald sadly died in 2004. 32.3 Jeremy Raison was appointed Artistic Director of the Citizens Theatre in November 2003 and was joined by Joint Artistic Director, Guy Hollands in 2006. 33. Alterations of the 1970s 33.1 During the 1970s a significant number of alterations and interventions took place. These may be summarised as follows: x Double doors were double doors were knocked through from the scenery store (next to the paint frame) to the workshop allowing an area for the pre setting up of scenic elements and a way directly to the stage without the necessity of moving all the built pieces round the outside of the building to gain access to the stage. x The whole of the top floor of the building at the rear of the theatre was turned into one big rehearsal room x The floor above the workshop was turned into a backstage canteen x Re carpeting and reseating the auditorium (1974) x A small technical box was created at the back of the stalls for the lighting and sound operator x Two lighting bars were suspended from the auditorium ceiling (motorised in the 1980s ) The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 63x New lighting board and dimmers installed 1971 33.2 In 1977 the Palace Theatre was condemned as being unsafe and accordingly demolished along with Sellars original theatre elevation of the 1875. The Mossman statues were as previously identified removed, stored and eventually repatriated in the new foyer of the Citizens Theatre. 33.3 In the summer of 1978 Glasgow City Council completed a major refurbishment of the theatre which included: x Refurbishment of the backstage areas, dressing rooms etc. x Realigning some of the backstage spaces on the second floor (which had been a caretakers flat) to create the wardrobe spaces x Installation of fire vents above the stage x Installing a new gas fired heating/ hot water system x New fire escape stairs to the rehearsal room/canteen etc x Redecoration of the auditorium and installation of new chandelier x The backstage light well was floored over at all levels to create extra space for plant and storage The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 64 34. Demolition of the Palace Theatre 34.1 In 1977 the adjoining 1904 Palace Theatre originally designed by Bertie Crewe and the original main elevation of the Royal Princess Theatre as designed by Sellars in 1878 was demolished leaving a desolate and barren appearance to the surviving Citizens Theatre auditorium shell. 34.2 At this time some of the fibrous plaster adornments within the auditorium of the Palace Theatre were salvaged. Some of the elephants heads were set aside along with the figures from the main elevation parapet into the newly constructed foyer of the Citizens Theatre. In addition one of the main public box bays was carefully dismantled for retention by the Theatre Museum in London. This was reconstructed within the museums new home in Covent Garden, but was subsequently removed to storage when the museum closed in 2007. At the time of writing it is understood to be in one of the Victoria and Albert Museums many stores. Palace Theatre Elephant now in the Citizens Theatre Foyer [photo: theatresearch] 35. Alterations of the 1980s The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 6535.1 In the c.1985 the back part of the stalls was refigured to create a larger technical control room, a directors box and two rows of raised seating which followed the curve of the dress circle above. 35.2 During the summer of 1988 the old foyer and bars were demolished to make way for a major redevelopment of the front of house facilities. During this phase the theatre continued its operations by building a temporary in-the-round theatre with raked seating on the actual stage behind the lowered safety curtain. Access to this space was through an emergency exit with a temporary box office set up outside and one of the rooms beside the stage was turned into a bar. The main theatre opened that year with the Christmas show, albeit with limited facilities as the building work had not been completed. The auditorium was repainted and new seating installed. 35.3 In the summer of 1989 a counterweight flying system was installed. There had earlier been a plan by the local authority as owners of the building to remove the roof above the stage and build a fly tower and counterweight system. This came to nothing and so the Citizens Theatre Company raised the money from various sources including the Arts Councils Housing the Arts Fund . Financial restraints required that the new flying system would have to utilise the existing suspension grid. In consequence Eurotrak Ltd., the company who were awarded the contract designed a single purchase counterweight system that involved minimal changes to the original structure of the building. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 6636. Alterations of the 1990s 36.1 In 1991 a decision was taken to open two studio venues to enable the theatre to extend its repertoire. This involved re-appropriating both the new circle bar and the new stalls bar areas. The stalls studio was created as a traverse seating space with seating banks at opposite ends of the auditorium seating a maximum 50 people. The Circle studio was created in the round and now seats a maximum of 100. The stalls bar was moved to the centre of the stalls foyer and the circle bar to the side of the circle foyer. These studios opened in January 1992 and were an immediate success. 36.2 Two years later the circle studio was reconfigured and a small vestibule built into an existing roof area, which also included passages to the dressing rooms which allowed direct access to the stage (before actors had to cross the main foyer to access the stage from the dressing rooms) a small door was also inserted linking the fire exit to the stalls foyer which meant actors who used this fire exit as entrances to both venues, no longer had to go round the outside of the building. A lift was installed linking the main foyer with the new stalls studio vestibule. 36.3 The studio spaces are now rather tired and would benefit from a major refit and reconfiguration in order to accommodate some of the original physical design and layout compromises that were caused by creating performances spaces from areas originally designed as public foyers and bars e.g. acoustic considerations, escape staircases, public circulation, toilets etc. 36.4 In 1998 a National Lottery grant enabled further building works. This created a new full size rehearsal room, a new scene dock, FOH offices, stage door and lift access to all backstage areas was built on the north side, and a new paint area on the south side. The old rehearsal room was divided in two to produce rehearsal rooms for the studios. New gas boilers were installed and the heating was upgraded once more. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 67The Theatre Building in 2011 37. Auditorium 37.1 The auditorium was originally designed to accommodate, by the licensing standards of 187535 something in excess of 2,000 people. The 1908 Stage Year Book states that the Royal Princesss Theatre, as it was then known, had capacity for 2,700 people!36 By 195037 the capacity had been reduced to 1,141, and today the capacity is cited as 45038 - less than a fifth of its 1908 capacity! 37.2 The theatre has doubtless undergone many changes and alterations during its long history. However, although it has evolved it is still fundamentally a theatre which was built in the early phase of what has been termed the -theatre building boom - complete survivors from this period are now extremely rare. Survivors with original stage machinery are unique. 37.3 The theatre has been under the management and control of many custodians during its long history. It has responded positively to the changing fashions in performance, it has also evolved and more importantly survived as a direct result of these changes. 38. Auditorium Decoration 38.1 The auditorium has been redecorated on many previous occasions. However, an examination of the fibrous plasterwork leads to the conclusion that much of the fabric has never been paint stripped. Careful analysis of the various areas coupled with descriptive account research should be able to put together a convincing paint history for the various historic areas within the auditorium. The listing description for the theatre (see Appendix 2) already provides useful information about the dates of re-decoration. 38.2 Whilst there are many philosophical considerations associated with the reinstatement of an original decorative scheme it will be important to understand the theatres original and early decorative and design philosophies. The theatre was not simply conceived by the architects from an architectural perspective, their design encompassed the curtains in the auditorium, the carpets, the soft furnishings and even the loose furniture in the saloons. 38.3 If the auditorium of the theatre was restored it would be essential to develop and reassess the Conservation Management Plan in collaboration with a full historic paint analysis study. The findings of such a report would help to confirm for instance whether the public boxes were a later addition by cross-correlation of the number of paint layers. It would also help to establish many of the unknown elements of the original decorative scheme. It is important to understand that this would establish the 35 Carson (ed.), L., The Stage Guide 1912, pub: London, The Stage, 1912, p.246. 36 Carson, (ed.), L., The Stage Year Book, 1909, pub: London, The Stage, 1909, p.255. 37 The Stage Year Book, 1950, pub: London, Carson & Comerford, 1950, p.204. 38 British Performing Arts Yearbook 2006/7, pub: London, Rhinegold, 2006, p.434. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 68starting point for the Design Team rather than define the finished product. Since the theatres construction the building has evolved in parallel with changing fashions and tastes. The requirements of a nineteenth century resident theatre company were and are quite different to those of a twenty-first century resident theatre company. In such a context as this a Conservation Management Plan would need to define the philosophies that would guide and define the overall conservation approach. 39. Front of House 39.1 The front of house spaces were created in response to the demolition of the surrounding properties and the need to create a large and spacious foyer. Improved public facilities and services were developed in response to the need for modernisation. The journey from street through foyer to auditorium is an eclectic mix of experiences which is now in need of reconsideration. Nevertheless the physical volume of the front of house spaces now provide an opportunity for further re-evaluation within the existing footprint. This is something which many nineteenth century theatres are simply unable to do as their front of house spaces are so very constrained. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 6940. Auditorium Circulation 40.1 It is clear that the auditorium periphery the side and rear walls have undergone a significant amount of alteration since the theatres original construction. It is likely, though not certain that the seating accommodation in the dress circle has been narrowed significantly by the insertion of the side aisle corridors. Although they appear on the 1909 architectural drawings they are atypical of the period and are likely to have been inserted in an attempt to provide additional and safer means of egress. Reponses of this kind are often brought about by accidents, fires and catastrophes in other often local theatres. An examination of the historical record provides the following dates which may be significant: Star Theatre of Varieties, Glasgow [From: The Graphic, Nov 8th, 1884, p.485.] January 14th 1869: Prince of Wales Theatre, Glasgow, - Fire began at 12.30a.m. probably caused by firearms. First observed from outside, nothing saved, one man injured. March 24th 1870: Alexandra Theatre, Glasgow - Fire began at 12.30a.m. origin of fire unknown, no lives lost. February 2nd 1879: Theatre Royal Fire began at 1.00a.m. on the stage. People in the building saved themselves by jumping from the windows. November 1st 1884: Star Theatre, Glasgow, 14 people crushed to death on the stairs after panic The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 70 March 1st 1895: Theatre Royal, Glasgow Fire began at 6.30p.m. before the performance and destroyed the auditorium roof and stage. Star Theatre of Varieties exterior and staircase where the incident occurred [From: The Illustrated London News, 8th November 1884, p.445.] 40.2 Given the nature of the analysis it seems likely that the authorities may have examined all the means of egress from theatres in Glasgow as a result of the Star of Varieties incident where 14 people, most being children, were crushed to death. We may therefore surmise that any changes to means of escape and access to the Citizens Theatre were made subsequent to this incident e.g. after November 1884 and before 1908 when the surviving architectural drawings clearly show existing dress circle side corridors. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 71 41. Auditorium Ventilation 41.1 Although not recorded in the built record of the City of Glasgow there have clearly been a number of later architectural interventions within the auditorium. These have been brought about by a need for physical change and changing fashion. 42.2 The principles and practices for theatre ventilation have changed significantly since the building was originally constructed. It would originally have been illuminated and ventilated by means of gas-lighting. The centre of the auditorium ceiling would originally have contained a sunburner similar to the one shown below. Theatre Ventilation Sunburner From: James Stott & Co., Trade Catalogue, c.1895. [From: theatresearch archive] 41.3 The sunburner provided ventilation in the auditorium by means of air displacement. The ventilator gas-burners created a thermal stack effect which forced the hot air in the auditorium, which had risen by convection up through a ventilation shaft above the sunburner which discharged out in the atmosphere at high level. Fresh air was introduced at low level, either by fresh air supply ducts or even building leakage. This kind of system endured well into the twentieth century many theatres being built as late as 1910 were still equipped with ventilating gas operated sunburners, even though the lighting in the auditorium was powered by electricity. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 72Auditorium Chandelier with Sunburner Grille Above Removed 41.4 The present electrolier was installed during a scheme of renovatiosn which took place in 1978. prior to this time there was a smaller brass electrolier with upward facing bulbs and small red lamp shades. The original ventilation chimney above the gas sunburner, which was used to exhaust vitiated air out of the auditorium has been sealed up. It is recommended that due consideration is given to the opportunities afforded by a wholly or partially naturally ventilated scheme within the auditorium. Naturally ventilated solutions can be extremely beneficial providing revenue cost savings whilst the conservation benefits significant e.g. reduced need to insert intrusive services through the historic fabric. 41.4 In later years, probably as late as 1946 the theatre heating and ventilation system was modernised and a new set of decorative ventilation grilles installed into the auditorium. These decorative grilles constituted a significant architectural intervention which attempted to integrate into the decorative fibrous plasterwork of the auditorium. They borrow decorative elements from elsewhere within the auditorium, whilst also being reminiscent of the ventilation grilles so popular in the super-cinemas of the 1920s and 30s. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 73Ventilation Grilles in Auditorium [Photo: theatresearch ] 41.5 It is interesting to note the designers attempt to use the architectural vocabulary of the public box (top left) within the vocabulary of the ventilation grille.The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 7442. Upper Circle/Amphitheatre Tier Upper Circle Tier Front Citizens Theatre [Photo: theatresearch ] Upper Circle Tier Front City Varieties Music Hall Leeds [Photo: theatresearch ] The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 7542.1 The details of the upper circle tier front at the Citizens Theatre are extremely interesting being very similar in design and form to the upper circle tier front at the City Varieties Music Hall in Leeds. The latter front was almost certainly installed in the 1880s (the original music hall dates from 1865) whilst both tier fronts are made of carton-pierre rather than fibrous plaster. 42.2 Given that the dress circle tier front at the Citizens Theatre is made from fibrous plaster this tends to suggest that the original fibrous plaster tier-front may have been replaced at a later date. Although no documentary evidence has been established to support this theory it could be tested by conducting historic paint analysis on the two tiers. 42.3 The formal layout of the upper tier was clearly altered when the Citizens Theatre took over the Princesss in 1945. A letter sent to C.E.M.A. in 1945 indicated the intention of the Citizens Theatre to reseat the amphitheatre and block off the gallery altogether. There was almost certainly a physical timber barrier set half way up the tier which created a formal distinction between amphitheatre seats at the front of the tier and gallery seats at the rear. The gallery was not separated by a stud partition wall until the present seating was installed in the 1990s when the original number of rows was reduced by half in order to create increased leg room and comfort. 42.4 An encoloured plan in the present production office clearly demonstrates this arrangement providing 249 seats in the amphitheatre and 194 in the gallery to the rear. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 76Upper Circle (Amphitheatre) seating showing 3 rows [Photo: theatresearch ] 42.5 This photograph clearly demonstrates the reduction of seating from 6 rows as shown on the encoloured plan to three rows as shown on the recent photograph. It is also important to understand that the formal decoration of the auditorium, specifically the fibrous plasterwork terminates precisely where the timber barrier originally separated amphitheatre from gallery. This physical distinction is also one which literally separated the social classes. 42.6 In any re-seating scheme it would be essential to undertake a sightline assessment from all locations. If it is the theatres desire to develop an artistic policy which might require the use of a forestage the impact on sightlines would be significant. Under such circumstances the seat, the seat height, and the tiering at every level would nee to be carefully reassessed. In doing so it would also be crucial to take account of any physical interventions that have taken place to the tiering carcass since its original construction. This information can only be gained by careful lifting and recording pof the physical evidence that may lay concealed below the existing tier levels.The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 7743. Dress Circle Tier 43.1 The earliest extant architectural drawings of the theatre which show the layout of the dress circle date from 1908. In consequence they do not show the earlier configurations of the tier. It is however likely that the present side corridors which now enclose the dress circle are a much later addition. 43.2 A theatre constructed in the 1870s would not normally have this kind of palatial circulation space even in the dress circle. The sightlines from the tier are significantly good enough to allow, certainly by nineteenth century standards, additional side seating in the dress circle. 43.3 It is unlikely that this will ever be proved beyond doubt without the discovery of some earlier plane. It is however possible that the sub-floors and historic paint layers within the tier may be able to provide additional evidence about the changes that have been wrought. 44. The Stalls 44.1 The introduction in the 1980s of the technical control positions and elevated seating positions at the rear of the stalls has created an intimacy within the auditorium which was probably not present, nor intended to be present previously. The work was carried out partly in response to poor acoustics under the dress circle tier.39 44.2 When originally constructed the rear of the stalls, known then as the pit, would have been furnished with rudimentary benches. In consequence the emphasis was on numbers of seats, rather than the quality of the seats. 44.3 It was not until the middle of the twentieth century that the pit became an altogether more desirable seating position within the theatre. The present intimacy is however typical of the post-war theatre movement, and something made fashionable through the little theatre movement which developed in the 1930s. 44.4 This area would benefit from an options appraisal analysis to see how technical facilities, audience comfort and perhaps a little additional conservation benefit could all be brought together to create an improved space for all concerned. This might include realignment of the floor levels, aisles, access doors and improvements to the technical control room etc. 39 As related to the writer by Ian Ribbens, former Technical Director of the Citizens Theatre. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 78 45. The Boxes. 45.1 The auditorium appears to have originally has stalls boxes which would have been sold to the public. These have long since been given over to both technical equipment and performers. 45.2 An examination of the fibrous plasterwork that adorns these boxes suggests that they are a later addition within the auditorium. It is clear that they have been physically attached to the structure at a later date. The photograph below supports the idea that they have been attached or clad to an earlier structure behind. Top of Dress Circle Box Showing Gap Behind [photo: theatresearch] 45.3 The quality of the box plasterwork is clearly by a different modeller and in the opinion of the writer is not of the same high order as the dress circle tier front.The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 7946. Seating 46.1 The quality of seating within any auditorium is fundamental to the enjoyment of the paying audiences. It is therefore critical for the theatre to provide comfort commensurate with the twenty-first century in order to maintain its audiences and by implication its financial viability. 46.2 The present seating does not fulfil the basic requirements of comfort, nor does it provide the kind of architectural ambience that is appropriate for a nineteenth century theatre. The style of seating has a significant impact on the decorative aesthetic of an auditorium and the present seating, which dates from the 1970s creates a sense of cinema rather live performance. 46.3 In recent years seating manufacturers have begun to combine modern comfort and historic authenticity to provide seats which feel and look far more appropriate for a nineteenth century auditorium. 46.4 In re-designing the seating arrangements for the theatre it is essential to take into account a significant number of inter-related issues. The original seating layouts were based upon a fundamental desire to create an auditorium where intimacy and line of sight were paramount. Thus, there was a direct relationship between every seat in the theatre and the rake of the stage as discussed previous. This complex three-dimensional gradient relationship between tiers and stage was a carefully formulated geometrical exercise, producing that intimate and special atmosphere so synonymous with a Victorian theatre. A well designed theatre of the period should have sightlines that are finely balanced - on one side of the scales the auditorium on the other the stage. It is therefore imperative that both the seating and the rake of the stage are re-appraised at the same time. 46.5 The present seats were designed with a sightline intended for cinematic not theatrical use - the difference is crucial. The two-dimensional experience of the cinema assumes that the sightline needs to be visually readable approximately 1100mm above the level of the stage at a fixed point e.g. the screen - clearly this is not the case within a theatre. Theatre is a three-dimensional experience and as such must provide a sightline that allows the audience to see wherever possible the performer from head to toe (not just the torso) at any point upon the stage. 46.6 Reinstatement of the original seating positions, specifically the seating height must be a key issue for consideration when the theatre is reseated. 46.7 The illustration below is taken from A.R. Deans trade seating catalogue of the nineteenth century and clearly shows the style of seat that would have used. The Design Team must understand that the seat design is a dominant and important feature of any historic auditorium. It performs a critical function whilst also contributing to the overall aesthetic of the space. It is therefore essential to understand that any re-seating of the theatre should ultimately take account of this factor. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 80A.R. Dean Seat c.1890 [From: A.R. Dean Trade Catalogue, theatresearch archive] 46.8 It is understood that the theatre intends to undertake a re-seating exercise in the near future and that the Kirwin and Simpson Lazarus chair has been selected as the preferred option for the stalls and dress circle. This seating design has been developed recently for the theatre heritage market and combines modern comfort with the architecture of a nineteenth century theatre seat. 46.9 The present seating is in urgent need of replacement and although it would have been preferable to wait until the major works commence this has proved to be impractical given the number of audience complaints concerning the existing seating. 47. Auditorium Roof Space 47.1 One of the great lost areas of the Citizens Theatre is the roof space above the auditorium. It is currently only accessible with great difficulty but it is a very large, impressive and architectural volume. The large exposed timber roof trusses, the remains of the auditorium sunburner ventilation shaft are all fascinating elements which could provide an exciting additional public space providing that adequate means of access and egress could be created for public or company use. 47.2 There might even be an opportunity to create a window (using pyro-glazing) into the stage fly tower grid. This would enable the public to observe safely the little known but fascinating area of a nineteenth century theatre. The design issues are significant but the potential benefits would be quite extra-ordinary. 48. Summary The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 81 48.1 There is no doubt that the Citizens Theatre is one of Glasgows great cultural assets, internally of immense historical importance representing an early example of Victorian theatre architecture. It is Scotlands oldest complete theatre auditorium and stage house 40- it therefore represents one of the most important remaining pieces of theatrical fabric in the British Isles. On that basis it deserves to be re-evaluated and conserved for future generations to enjoy whilst allowing the building to flourish and continue to evolve as a professional working theatre. 48.2 This is a significant challenge which needs to be developed carefully, with a highly detailed client brief and a Design Team which understands historic theatres, has exceptional conservation skills and experience, can assimilate and understand the needs of a working theatre and ultimately deliver a building that has been carefully crafted for the needs of the twenty-first century. 40 The Britannia Music Hall in Glasgow is a completely different building and belongs to the genre of the music hall, it is not a theatre in the true sense of the word. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 82 Conservation Management Plan - Defined Policies As a direct result of the assessment of the buildings significance a number of specific defined policies have been developed to cover various elements of the building and its operation. They are to be used as guidance and are intended to be used as a key measure against the proposals for conservation and restoration; change, alteration and adaptation; repair, renewal and replacement; recording and archiving of the building. 49. Recording & Archive Policy 49.1 The Citizens Theatre currently has no formal archive records system. The theatre retains some archival material, including nineteenth century programmes, recent programmes and playbills. It is recommended that specific attention is given to the development of a formal archive for research and educational purposes. 49.2 All known architectural drawings are listed in Appendix 10. There is clearly a wealth of material available for display and analysis, particularly relating to the phases of reconstruction between 1885-1914. 49.3 All survey drawings, especially current and as built of the Citizens Theatre should be deposited with both the theatre and the Mitchell Library in Glasgow. It is important that all drawings record the condition of the building prior to and after the completion of the work. 49.4 A comprehensive photographic record of the building has recently been undertaken by Historic Scotland. This will serve as a very useful basis for the development of a central photographic archive for the building. It should not however be considered to be definitive as the survey was largely superficial. When opportunities occur to open up they need to be carefully recorded in order to inform designers and historians who will surely follow in years to come. 49.5 A fundamental review of the way in which the history of the building is recorded, and the information managed will need to be undertaken, prior to the commencement of construction and restoration. This will need to take account of the following issues: x The collation and collection of all written documentary evidence on the theatre, this to include; all published articles, press cuttings, books, manuscripts and reports (both professional and amateur) x The collation of all photographic evidence from around the country, prints and wherever possible copy negatives should be obtained. Known locations of photographic and architectural drawings records include; Mitchell Library, Glasgow, Royal Commission Archives, Edinburgh, Scottish Theatre Archive, The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 83Glasgow, theatresearch archives, Citizens Theatre Archives and a number of private collections and commercial photographers. 49.6 The Citizens Theatre currently has an informal archive and records system operated informally by the staff. It is suggested that a more formal approach is adopted in order to provide adequate information and knowledge for both educational and future restoration purposes. 49.7 As a point of reference it is recommended that the following codes of practice are adopted as a standard working framework for the archiving of all documents: x Standing Conference on Archives & Museums, A Code of Practice on Archives for Museums and Galleries, 3rd edition, 2002. x Standing Conference on Archives & Museums, Archives in Museums, Information Sheet No.1, Collections Policy and Management. x Standing Conference on Archives & Museums, Archives in Museums, Information Sheet No. 2, Archival Listing and Arrangement. x Standing Conference on Archives & Museums, Archives in Museums, Information Sheet No.3, Archive Preservation and Conservation. x Standing Conference on Archives & Museums, Archives in Museums, Information Sheet No.4, Access to Archives. x Standing Conference on Archives & Museums, Archives in Museums Information Sheet No.5, Managing a Museums Administrative Records. All these documents can be downloaded from: http://www.hmc.gov.uk/scam/ 50. Systematic Recording Policy 50.1 Before systematic recording can commence, the collation of extant documentary evidence outlined above must be undertaken. This will provide a view of what material exists and just as importantly - what is known to be missing. Once a detailed inventory has been produced it should then be possible to begin the recording process. This should take account of all information currently apparent, but which is not actually recorded. New records will need to be more detailed than previous documentation, and there will therefore be an overlap of coverage in certain areas. 50.2 Photographic records should cover areas never before recorded, and should also provide photographs taken from exactly the same viewpoint as those taken on previous occasions. In this way there is an immediate comparison which will be able The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 84to inform future investigations. During the actual restoration work it will be important to record areas of the building which will for a time be opened up exposing areas that have never been recorded, and which will on completion be covered up for many years to come. 50.3 This demands a clearly defined piece of work that will follow and record the next phases of evolution for the building. The amount of work and the costs involved should not be underestimated, and specific provision needs to be set aside for this purpose within the cost plan. 50.4 Archive facilities within the theatre will need to be made capable of accessioning all this new material, storing it and making readily available for public consultation and research. All the material will need to be available in several formats, and a comprehensive catalogue produced, and made available on the theatres website. 50.5 Photographs will need particular care in cataloguing and conserving; it is suggested that they are duplicated in print, negative and digital form. In some instances it may also be useful to consider making copies in slide format. Similarly all architectural drawings will need to be made available in paper and digital formats. 50.6 Ideally all documents should be duplicated into a minimum of three copies; 1. Public consultation copies (kept within the theatre) 2. Permanent Citizens Theatre archive copies 3. Spare set deposited elsewhere e.g. Mitchell Library. 51. Educational Resource Policy 51.1 Clearly these elements impact significantly upon the many and various aspects of the national curriculum. Their development should create an all encompassing enabling device for educational purposes. However, an educational resource requires revenue funding and a permanent member of staff to facilitate and develop the relationships and partnerships that are so crucial to an innovative and proactive policy. 51.2 The funding of such a post is something that needs to be incorporated into both the business plan and the artistic strategy. Approaches should be made to both the Heritage Lottery Fund and other charitable trusts such as the Esme Fairbairn Foundation. 51.3 The Citizens Theatre will therefore need to create a number of dedicated spaces within the building e.g. educational resource space, to be complimented by a changing and stimulating programme of exhibitions and displays. Naturally the establishment of a permanent archive will also be fundamental. It should be borne in mind that education should address all aspects of the community, and provide for serious academic research as well as visits for young children. This is an important The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 85element, and the degree of difficulty required to deliver a successful and dynamic heritage and education policy should not be underestimated. 51.4 The Citizens Theatre provides some significant opportunities for heritage interpretation. It should not be viewed simply as a provincial theatre within this context. It is fundamentally a building of international significance, and one which reflects the changing fashions and attitudes of society between 1878 and the present day. The Citizens Theatre is therefore a mirror of society through many key moments in British history. This provides an opportunity to examine the separate elements of the Citizens Theatres history both individually and collectively to understand the evolution of such important elements as Britain through Empire, War and Industrial Revolution. 51.5 Physical built heritage is of course a fascinating element of the Citizens Theatres history but it is by no means the only nor perhaps in this context the most important element of any interpretation. Fundamentally the history of the Citizens Theatre needs to be analysed within the context of Glasgow, Scotland and Great Britain and should include some of the following issues: 51.6 Local and Regional Issues: x History of Entertainment in the Glasgow region x The development of touring theatre in the nineteenth century (including the influence of the railways) x The proliferation of provincial theatre architects in Scotland and North-East England x The economic competition between cinema, legitimate theatre and variety x The concept of economic partnership between theatre circuits 51. 7 National and International Issues: x The development of large-scale provincial theatre in Great Britain x The changing social attitudes to entertainment x The changing social attitudes to the class system x The comparative decline of theatre and the expansion of cinema x The impact on social-class and theatre-going caused by two World Wars 52. Conservation Philosophy & Policies The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 86 52.1 The Citizens Theatre is included in the national statutory list of buildings of special architectural or historic interest as Grade B. 52.2 The auditorium represents an important intimate volume created at a time when provincial architecture was just beginning to burgeon. 52.3 It is a theatre of intimate scale and manifestly restrained comparative style. The physical quality of the auditorium, the way in which the architecture draws in the audience, creates an atmosphere which allows the performers to reach out and relate to the audience on a one-to-one basis. 52.4 Fundamentally the proposed restoration of the theatre must retain and enhance this critical element of scale: x The scale and intimacy throughout the building; externally, front of house, and auditorium x The authentic ambience created by the architecture and associated fixtures and fittings, e.g. ironmongery, original doors, etc. 52.5 Objectives for the restoration must be clearly defined and create a coherent statement of intent, namely to: x Reverse poor and unhelpful or insensitive interventions of a previous period. x To improve the quality of the experience for the visitor, whilst retaining all aspects of cultural significance e.g. the insertion of improved ventilation in a sympathetic and understanding manner. x To reinstate lost elements of the original decorative and architectural elements, basing all such new interventions on authentic and well researched evidence. The date to which the restoration adheres to must be justified on historic and aesthetic grounds, supported by coherent reasoning. x To develop an architectural statement and identity that clearly defines, new high quality design that celebrates and most importantly respects the architectural heritage of the theatre. New intervention should be clearly recognisable, and pastiche or Neo-Victorian should be avoided, e.g. the upgrading of public toilets should be recognisable for what they are new toilets. x To sensitively restore and celebrate the definition and magnificent setting of the Citizens Theatre within the context of Gorbals Street and the surrounding environs. x To ensure that at all times, both now and in the future, that no historical evidence is discarded, destroyed, lost or defaced. Furthermore, to diligently manage the fabric of the theatre. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 87 x If intervention has to takes place for structural, conservation or other valid reasons, detailed recording is undertaken as necessary (see recording) x That the management and conservation of the theatre is seen as a key public access and interpretative tool that can used for the better understanding of the building and act as a community and education resource. x To consider the Citizens Theatre as a key heritage building in the Gorbals area of Glasgow and to understand and reinterpret its context within the surrounding and much changed streetscape. x To develop, in partnership with funders a long term capital renewal programme that addresses the needs of the building, respects the nature of the fabric, and above all provides a safe and secure long term future. x The scope of earthworks within the building envelope of the Citizens Theatre is likely to be extremely minimal and unless the proposals change there should be no requirement to commission a desk-top archaeological investigation of the site. x To sensitively reveal and celebrate the definition and island site setting of the Citizens Theatre within the context of Gorbals Street and the cityscape of Glasgow, restoring the external elevations and re-interpreting the auditorium in a rather more sympathetic and sensitive manner. x To ensure that at all times, both now and in the future, no historical evidence is discarded, destroyed, lost or defaced. Furthermore, to diligently manage the fabric of the theatre. x That the management and conservation of the Citizens Theatre is seen as a key public access and interpretative tool that can be used for the better understanding of the building acting as both a community and an educational resource. x To recognise the Citizens Theatre as a key heritage building within the city of Glasgow, recognising its architectural importance in both a local, national and international context. x To recognise the various stages of the buildings evolution and to preserve the architectural style and integrity of each individual phase. This will need to be clearly delineated, understood and managed accordingly. x To cement a long term partnership with the Glasgow City Council, creating both a long-term capital renewal programme with revenue support commensurate with the needs of this important building. x To deliver high-quality long-term conservation and sustainability of the Citizens Theatre in accordance with the stipulations, recommendations and requirements of PPG15. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 88 x To follow the principles relating to sustainable timber procurement as laid down in the HLF guidance note Commitment to Sustainable Timber Procurement and Guidance Note For Applicants. 52.6 This Conservation Management Plan has been developed on instruction and in collaboration with The Citizens Theatre Trust. The conservation aims and objectives of The Trust may be summarised as follows: a) To secure the future of this Grade B listed theatre by appropriate repair, restoration, and upgrading of the structure and fabric, as well as replacing and enhancing building services. b) To maintain the building for high quality theatre use as originally intended when the building first opened in 1878. To create a focus for the community, offering live performance, exhibitions and educational opportunities for all. To embrace the diversity of age, gender, physical impairment and ethnic cultural heritage. c) To enhance the streetscape of Main Street and the cityscape of Glasgow and its wider environs. d) To ensure and impose a regime of high-quality restoration, conservation, maintenance, and to ensure that any changes, additions or modifications are sensitive to the building and are always recorded. 52.7 The objectives set out above are sympathetic to both the original and intended use of the building. In this specific instance there is no conflict whatsoever between the original use and the current/future use. However there may be conflict between current operational practice and the way in which the building was originally run. For instance more staff accommodation may now be required in the twenty-first century. 52.8 The policies developed in this section are intended specifically for the future protection of the building, ensuring that at all times the well-being of the building is given paramount importance. There will always need to be a balance between pragmatic operational demands and conservation, but it is essential that the appropriate weighting and importance is given to issues relating to conservation and/or any proposed change. 52.9 It should always be remembered that the policies contained herein are intended as primary guidance in addition to rather than instead of national and local policy documents relating to both conservation and planning.The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 89 53. Conservation Philosophy Implementation and Review 53.1 The policies that have been identified above relate specifically to the Citizens Theatre, and must therefore be used only in this context for all proposed works both now and in the future. The future in this context is defined as the period prior to and during the restoration, but also the time beyond completion. Buildings change, there is never a true status quo and the Conservation Management Plan of the theatre must recognise this to ensure that day-to-day maintenance is not managed or carried out in a make-do fashion. All work within the building should be viewed in the context of restoration, wherever possible reinstatement, restoration and conservation should be regarded as fundamentals in all repair, maintenance and improvement. 53.2 An essential output of the restoration scheme will be the provision of a detailed maintenance manual containing: x detailed specifications of all fixtures, fittings, materials, and techniques employed x contact names and addresses of all suppliers and manufacturers x contact names and addresses of all professionals who worked upon the project 53.3 It is also suggested that a sensible supply of spare materials are set aside for future replacement e.g. wallpapers, lincrustas, light fittings, shades etc. The relatively small additional cost will reap significant long-term benefits for the conservation and maintenance of the theatre. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 90 54. Issues & Vulnerability 54.1 Impact upon the historic fabric of the building since its construction in 1878 has been significant. Issues relating to the current condition of the building have been highlighted by various studies undertaken by Glasgow City Council and their advisors. 54.2 It is understood that a fully invasive type 3 survey was not possible because of the operational and public access nature of the building. Under such circumstances it is quite possible that there is still some asbestos content within the building, though it is understood that a type 2 survey has not detected any. 55. Physical Condition 55.1 By way of introduction to this section it is important to understand that the Citizens Theatre has already carried out a significant amount of building maintenance and renewals over the past ten years. 55.2 The heating plant and specifically the gas boilers were renewed in 1978. Further associated equipment and boiler renewals were carried out in 1998. It is imperative that any future mechanical and electrical condition report provides a strategic overview of equipment on the whole site, its envisaged life cycle and efficiency. Proposals for renewal need to be carefully examined to take account of the many issues which include: x Energy efficiency and environmental impact x Opportunities for naturally ventilated and low emissions x Physical impact of plant and services on a listed building x Location of plant in relation to efficiency and building fabric impact x Future revenue cost implications of any new plant 55.3 Specifically the following issues will need to be addressed: x Renewal of electrical wiring where intervention is necessary in order to comply with the new 17th Edition of the IEE Regulations. This is likely to necessitate the complete re-wiring of the production lighting system when the production dimmers are renewed. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 91x Renewal and redesign of the present ventilation system, taking account of both conservation and green-related issues as well as current regulations and legislation x Inspection of all fibrous plasterwork, remedial works as required and issue of ceiling safety certificate to comply with bets practice and the guidance contained in The Local Government Miscellaneous Provisons Act of 1968. 56. Reversible Physical Intervention 56.1 The theatre has been subjected to significant and repeated intervention since its construction in 1878. Many of these changes have been identified in the preceeding narrative but it is useful to summarise the major interventions and changes which will need to be considered and addressed during the proposed restoration works. x Poor quality to Gorbals Street main elevation x Closure of the gallery and reduced seating capacity associated with front of house lighting positions x Loss of natural ventilation from the auditorium ceiling x Loss of the original tiling to floors? x Changes to box fronts x Loss of high quality doors and brassware to the auditorium entrances x Loss of high quality brassware throughout the theatre e.g. orchestra pit rail x Installation of cinema style seating within the auditorium x Drastic changes to the main elevation, entrance and foyers. x Introduction of box style seating to rear stalls 57. Non-reversible Physical Intervention The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 92 57.1 The theatre has since its construction evolved and changed in response to the changing fashions and levels of expectancy from the theatre-going public. In consequence the history of these changes is in many instances informative and beneficial, helping to sustain and secure the theatre for the future. 57.2 Whilst the loss of original front of house bars and saloons is regrettable it is certainly not possible, nor necessarily desirable to reinstate them. In consequence a very clear philosophy and policy must be adopted to make this important distinction between reversible and non-reversible intervention. 57.3 Elements that have been changed to such an extent as to make a return to the original structure impossible include: x The new main foyers x All other associated interventions to the front of house areas x All interventions recently undertaken in 2006-7 58. Statutory Controls 58.1 Changes and alterations to this building fall under a number of statutory controls that need to be observed accordingly. The building will require the following consents and approvals in order to instigate physical alteration: x Formal planning consent under Town & Country Planning Act (1990) x Listed Building Consent under Listed Buildings and Conservations Areas Act including statutory consultees e.g. The Theatres Trust x Alteration and adaptation of accommodation etc Building Regulation approval 58.2 It is inevitable that from time to time, particular where a grade B listed building is involved, that there is likely to be conflict between the many rules, regulations and laws that govern building regulation. In the specific instance of the Citizens Theatre, it is absolutely imperative that a common sense, pragmatic and above all sensitive approach is taken to respect the fabric of the building. Invoking regulation in a verbatim manner will simply lead to disastrous results. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 9358.3 It is therefore essential for the Design Team to make an assessment of areas of potential conflict prior to detailed design in order to mitigate such conflict. In doing so they will also need to take account of the following regulations, codes, and best practice: a) Local licensing requirements specific to entertainment buildings b) Issues associated with DDA and accessibility in the broadest sense c) Building Regulation in relation to historic glazing d) Means of escape from entertainment buildings e) Toilet provision for audiences in entertainment buildings f) Appropriate but sensitive signage for the visually impaired g) Compliance with the Association of British Theatre Technicians and District Surveyors Association code of practice Technical Standards for Places of Entertainment (2008) h) Compliance with Model National Standards for Places of Entertainment (2002) i) Compliance with Fire Safety Risk Assessment in Theatres, Cinemas and Similar Premises (2006) j) Compliance with Local Government Miscellaneous Provisions Act in relation to auditorium ceiling safety certification 58.4 The list simply serves to indicate the plethora of information that needs to be absorbed, considered, sifted and analysed before a balanced series of arguments can be presented about the historic sensitivities of the building. It is essential that such consideration takes place prior to application for both planning and listed building consent. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 94Further Investigation Work 59. Acoustic Investigation 59.1 Acoustic issues are always an important element of a performance related building. In this instance the acoustic impacts are likely to be less severe than with a building that is about to undergo significant change or alteration from its original concept. 59.2 In such instances as this an acoustic audit of the auditorium will certainly be required, but not until the details of proposed carpet finishes and specifications have been considered. Floor coverings and soft furnishings are elements which have a significant impact on the acoustics of a building. The acoustic impact of any changes wrought by new seating will need to be carefully assessed in conjunction with any other changes that are proposed. 59.3 It is essential to understand that all these issues are inter-related and cannot therefore be considered in isolation. Similarly the fullness and weight of any associated curtains, loose seating. And soft fabric surfaces all contribute to the overall clarity of the acoustic, which in this instance needs to able to serve both recorded sound, the spoken word and live music. 60. Sightlines 60.1 The current problems associated with the sinking of the stage demand that the whole structure of stage is reassessed. This is likely top involve significant conservation work which would also provide the theatre with an opportunity to resolve the rake of the stage once and for all. The work carries out in 2002 involved the overlaying of a new stage on top of the variable rake stage. In consequence the stage is higher than originally intended and sightlines from the stalls reduced commensurately. 60.2 The overlaying of the recent stage has also increased the disparity between the rear of the stage and the adjoining scene dock. In any future work these issues need to be carefully considered and ultimately resolved once and for all. In undertaking a sightline study it will also be essential to give careful consideration to the artistic desire to use an extended forestage within the auditorium. 60.3 In addition consideration needs to be given to the sightlines in the upper circle (amphitheatre) and the gallery should this be re-assimilated into the main auditorium. Similarly any seating changes in the stalls, particularly in the elevated rear stalls needs further careful consideration, but only in direct conjunction with any proposed changes to the level of the stage. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 9561. General Policies 61.1 That the statements relating to Local and National Significance are accepted as the bench-marks for this exceptional building, and that this is taken into account in all future planning, conservation and business development. 61.2 That all future conservation, restoration and development of the building is carried out in accordance with the principles of the Burra Charter. (see: www.icomos.org/australia) 61.3 That the approach and specific recommendations contained within the Conservation Management Plan are adopted as a basis for future architectural design and development work. 61.4 That the operational use of the building is not allowed to compromise the historic fabric of the building, and that operational practices are not allowed to over-ride adopted conservation policy. 61.5 That the treatment of this grade B building, the fabric, structure, artefacts and finishes is carried out using the following criteria: x A Exceptional: Preservation and restoration x B Considerable Restoration, reinstatement, adaptation and supplementary new construction. x C Some Restoration in-situ to current standards or Replacement to original standard: or full removal. x D Little Retention if deemed appropriate; or removal and replacement with new construction or removal x NEG Negative Removal or repair or replacement or modification to reduce the negative element. 61.6 In broad terms, though every instance must be carefully examined on its own merit, a negative effect or impact on any element or item of significance which constitutes the building in the broadest sense (including artefacts) may be considered for implementation under certain circumstances provided that: The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 96a) There are no practical alternative solutions b) The action assists the long term viability of the site and the building c) It helps the recovery of other aspects of greater or higher significance d) Care is taken to minimise the effect e) The action is wherever practicable reversible 61.7 Instances of this kind may occur for instance where there is a conflict between two different phases of the buildings life. 62. Interpretation & Public Access Policy 62.1 Whilst the Citizens Theatre unlike many other historic buildings is by definition a public space, it is only usually accessible in the evening or during a performance. On such occasions as this access is orientated towards watching a performance within the auditorium. This inevitably creates both a visual and psychological focus which can be unhelpful to the understanding and consideration of a building such as this. 62.2 The potential educational value of a building of this kind cannot be under-estimated, but the resources required to sustain and develop the element of a buildings potential quite often are. Successful interpretation relies on vision, motivation and an ever-changing environment with new material, exhibitions, ideas and performances. The Citizens Theatre should never be viewed as a one-off visit or a been there done that building. The ever changing events within the building must encourage repeat visits. There is always a danger that these repeat visits will be made by a limited audience, whereas the true goal of public access and interpretation should be the development of a broad and exciting offer which encourages all sections of the community, especially those who may not have visited a theatre before. 62.3 Whilst the building is of course the greatest exhibit within any interpretative package, the opportunities for differing themes, subjects and exhibitions are almost endless. The Citizens Theatre is in effect a mirror of social society, and it has responded throughout that time to the changing values and desires of its audiences. The mere fact that it is still standing (unlike so many provincial theatres) is testament to the way in which it has re-invented itself on several occasions. 62.4 The appreciation of these diverse elements can all be featured within the building, but they are best dealt with individually and with ever changing and evolving displays and exhibition material. The nature of the material can be used in a very creative way to target audiences that are currently under-represented within the attendance profiles of the Citizens Theatre. 62.5 It is strongly recommended that the Citizens Theatre builds relationships with other performance related organisations who have already been through this process. The sharing of such experiences can often create opportunities for partnership as well as learning through other experiences. The Georgian Theatre Royal, in Richmond, The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 97North Yorkshire has a highly successful heritage and learning programme which provides a multitude of opportunities including: x A visitor centre and exhibition area x Small visiting exhibitions x An active youth theatre x Training on the job for volunteers and staff x Networking with other museums in the locality x Developing/participating in local, regional and international Heritage Trails x Hosting international theatre conferences and tours 62.6 Other organisations which have been through a similar process but which continue to evolve include; Grand Theatre & Opera House, Leeds and the Royal Theatre & Opera House in Northampton. 62.7 Performance is a fundamental building-block of education today. In an environment such as this the opportunities for innovation are almost endless. Developments in new technology whether on the stage, in the projection room or as a learning aid provide exceptional opportunities for people of all ages. There is no greater fulfilment than to enjoy the process of learning. 63. Operational Management Policy 63.1 The Operational Management Policy of a working historic building is a crucial document that must be developed and reviewed by the people who will use it. They must at all times have belief and respect for the policy confirmation that they have will be obvious from the condition of the building. Quality operational management is always mirrored by the condition and quality of the finishes throughout the building. 63.2 When a building is being used for the purpose for which it was originally intended there should be less potential risk to the historic fabric. Logic suggests that the original design is likely to take account of many of the potential hazards that befall a building of this kind. It is unlikely for instance that there will be high quality decorative finishes in non-public areas. Nevertheless, operational requirements evolve and change and it is essential that the people responsible for managing the building on a day to day basis review, evolve and change their practices accordingly. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 9863.3 Inevitably there will be areas of potential conflict between operational requirements and historic fabric. The obvious example is the manual handling of scenery and equipment through the auditorium onto the stage or into the orchestra pit. This is potentially fraught with risk the operational management policy must mitigate this risk in the absence of an alternative solution. This should include: x Removable industrial floor and wall coverings to protect decorative features x Careful design of wall finishes; corner protection, hard durable finishes x Appropriate staff training, induction and instruction 63.4 Even though the building will continue to be used for the purpose for which it was designed it will inevitably evolve and gradually change to reflect the changes and demands of the entertainment industry. The studio theatre once served the theatre admirably, yet changing attitudes. Approaches and above all expectations have now rendered this space impractical. It is therefore essential that all policies are reviewed from time to time to take account of these changes. In consequence the following policies will need to be maintained and re-considered accordingly: a) To maintain, respect and conserve the building in this instance the definition of the building is its totality b) To ensure that the use of the building for the purpose for which it was intended does not compromise the fabric or dramatically increase the need for replacement, alteration or intervention. c) To ensure that all the historic fixtures and fittings, including loose equipment and furniture are maintained and managed, recorded, and that an inventory is checked on a regular basis. d) To manage the operational changes and practices within the building ensuring that at all times the building rather than the programme is the primary driver. e) Locate new facilities in a way which respects the physical integrity of the building, utilising wherever possible areas of the building that are less sensitive to change and/or under-utilised. f) To ensure that all building services changes and intervention are completed in a sensitive, traditional manner. In such instances it is essential that both visual appearance and scale are carefully considered. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 9964. Site & Context Management Policies 64.1 The site of the Citizens Theatre creates a dominant impression to Gorbals Street and the surrounding environs. As a grade B listed building it is essential that all works carried out during the proposed restoration conform to accepted conservation standards using high quality materials and wherever practicable replacement should be on a like for like basis. 64.2 The exterior of the Citizens Theatre in this context should be considered as every external surface and not just the Gorbals Street elevation. The building has both a theatrical persona and a functional persona e.g. street frontage, scenery access etc. 64.3 In response to this the following design principles have been established: a) Gorbals Street massing elevations to be recognised, celebrated and conserved using appropriate original and traditional materials. . b) That the main roof of the building is maintained to a high standard to ensure the protection of the internal architecture. c) That the exposed side elevations to be given careful consideration and is re-invigorated with appropriate doors, windows and most importantly appropriate sympathetic natural finishes at street level. d) That all original door furniture fixtures and fittings are reinstated and that there is precise and careful attention to detail. e) That all rainwater management goods are always replaced in cast-iron and sized accordingly. f) That the incorporation of advertising hoardings, poster cases etc., is a designed element of the exterior and not a later add on or after thought g) To incorporate as far as is reasonable practicable and without detriment to the building access for maintenance, security, emergency services, street lighting. Any physical changes to the building which are essential should be carried out in a sensitive manner and special care should be taken in both the choice of materials and equipment. h) The various scales of grandeur and intimacy are maintained within the various areas of the building and that any restoration, intervention or renewal is commensurate with the original scale. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 10064.4 Careful consideration should also be given to developing partnerships within the immediate environs of the building. These partnerships should include: a) Discussions with owners and leaseholders of surrounding buildings to develop a micro community for the betterment of the immediate vicinity. b) Design provision and discussions with Glasgow City Council with regard to waste management from the building, ensuring adequate storage, regular collections, and operational practices that do not threaten the fabric of the building. c) That a continuing dialogue is established between the Citizens Theatre and Glasgow City Council in relation to the upkeep and management of the Citizens Theatre . d) That a continuing dialogue is established with Glasgow City Council in relation to streetscape, townscape and parking strategies including disabled vehicular access, stage equipment deliveries and set-down. 65. Statutory Body Liaison Policy 65.1 Prior to and during the process of restoration both the Design Team and the Client will have extensive discussion and negotiations with all the statutory bodies. There is always a danger with this kind of project that the relationships, assistance and sense of partnership that has been established is then allowed to fade away. 65.2 The Citizens Theatre should therefore engage in a continuing dialogue with the statutory bodies to ensure that everyone is kept informed of both progress and development within the organisation. A designated officer from the Citizens Theatre should be appointed to maintain this dialogue with the relevant officers which will include: Historic Scotland, Glasgow City Council (this will require a number of contact officers for the various disciplines including leisure, conservation, finance etc.) and The Theatres Trust. 66. Access Management Policy 66.1 The balance between Access and the Historic Environment is a delicate one which needs sensitivity and understanding from all parties concerned. Lisa Foster as author of the definitive publication Access to the Historic Environment:Meeting the The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 101Needs of Disabled People41 provides excellent advice and guidance for owners and managers of Grade B listed buildings. 66.2 It is essential that all restoration proposals are considered in parallel with the needs and requirements of accepted national access policies and practice. It is suggested that the proposals will be audited by an experienced access management practitioner at an appropriate stage in the design process. 66.3 Accessibility can often be a challenge to a project of this kind, but the recommendations and solutions that will be proposed must deliver maximum effect with minimum intervention. 66.4 Once again as with all these policies management and review are crucial elements. The Citizens Theatre must in all aspects of access be innovative and pro-active rather than simply reactive to changes in the surrounding environment. 67. Conservtion & Maintenance of the Building 67.1 With a building of this kind it is crucial that the primary ambition will always be conservation, repair and restoration rather than replacement, renewal and alteration. There should always be a presumption against the latter when considering the approaches available to a particular issue. In developing such approaches there should always be an intention to use traditional solutions that encompass both quality materials and accepted good practice. With such an approach as this there is less potential to damage unintentionally the fabric for those who will surely follow. As custodians of the building the Citizens Theatre Trust and their representatives must manage all works, (whether in the current scheme or in the future) using the following principles: a) Always engage a professional Design Team experienced in the field of work to be undertaken. Ensure that the individuals from the various practices have this kind of experience, and that any practices interviewed field the team that will be delivering the project. b) Ensure that all works are clearly specified in detail, that they conform to current standards and that a record is made prior to commencement of work and that a record is maintained throughout the various stages to completion. (see recording policy) c) That all works are covered with detailed drawings, schedules and written specifications of the work to be undertaken. Clearly define areas of conservation restoration and repair against areas of renewal and alteration. 41 Foster, Lisa, Access to the Historic Environment:Meeting the Needs of Disabled People, pub: Donhead Publishing Ltd., 1995. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 102d) Develop a methodology for cost estimate which takes account of the standards and quality that are required. e) Ensure that the contractors tendering for the work have a relevant and recent track record in this field. Examine other similar projects by the contractors and take advice from previous clients sourced if possible independently. f) Develop a positive relationship with the contractor(s) and encourage an open dialogue driven by a solution rather than a problem culture. g) Ensure close involvement and liaison between client, design team and contractors. h) Ensure that everyone understands precisely the nature of the task what it is that it trying to be achieved and what the operational demands are once the work is complete. If this is not clearly conveyed then there is likely to be a lack of understanding about the fundamental requirements of the clients business. i) Apply the above criteria in an appropriate manner for the scale of the project, but even with small works make an assessment based on the criteria contained within the philosophies and policies section of this Conservation Management Plan 68. New Components, Finishes and Fittings 68.1 The installation of new contemporary equipment within the Citizens Theatre must be an accepted given in order to allow the building to be sustainable. The delivery of quality food within modern kitchen facilities is an absolute necessity for the building to survive in an ever competitive commercial market. Similarly the public expect high quality toilet facilities, accessible, clean, and efficient long queues for limited facilities may have been acceptable in the nineteenth century but this is no longer the case. 68.2 In such instances as these the installation of contemporary fixtures and fittings should be seen as a crucial element of the design philosophy which underpins the continued evolution and sustainability of the building as an exceptional example of a working and functioning theatre. In this respect the installation of this kind of equipment needs to be recognisable for what it is honest positive intervention. However it should not necessarily follow that the space within which it is installed should be drastically altered as well. The physical volumes always need to be considered separately and evaluated accordingly. Some alteration and modification may be necessary, but it should not be a foregone conclusion. 68.3 The construction methodology of any changes should also be carefully considered. Where physical changes have been deemed necessary both traditional The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 103techniques and contemporary techniques may be equally appropriate. The important factor is to consider which would be most appropriate in each individual instance. In certain circumstances modern techniques may have the advantage they may for instance be easier to reverse should the necessity arise. Fundamentally, before a decision is made this question needs to be evaluated accordingly. 69. Conservation Management Policy Review 69.1 It is likely that there will be a hiatus between the delivery of the first phase of restoration and the authentic restoration of the auditorium. In such circumstances it is crucial that there is an organisation and management policy which deals with this situation. In a vacuum such as this there is always a danger for people to undertake temporary or ad hoc repairs to the building in the belief that no damage will be done. 69.2 It is therefore essential that the Citizens Theatre Ltd takes specific action to ensure that this will not happen. Moreover, a mechanism and process needs to be in place which ensures that all building works, maintenance, painting, minor alterations and improvements are officially approved, designed and where appropriate all official consents and permissions are obtained prior to any works commencing. 69.3 The project timescales are at the time of writing are still in development, but it is important to understand that different timescales may require different approaches, methodologies and techniques in order to ensure that the building is maintained and conserved. In this context the definitions of both maintenance and conservation may be one and the same or wholly different. If timescales change, then the approach will need to be reviewed and formally modified accordingly. It is critical to ensure that all conservation policies are up to date, appropriate, and above all effective in securing long-term solutions. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 104 70. Conservation Philosophy - Implementation 70.1 The policies that have been identified above relate specifically to the Citizens Theatre, and must therefore be used only in this context for all proposed works both now and in the future. The future in this context is defined as the period prior to and during the restoration, but also the time beyond completion. Buildings change, there is never a true status quo and the Conservation Management Plan must recognise this to ensure that day-to-day maintenance is not managed or carried out in a make-do fashion. All work within the building should be viewed in the context of restoration, wherever possible reinstatement, restoration and conservation should be regarded as fundamentals in all repair, maintenance and improvement. 70.2 An essential output of the proposed restoration works will be the provision of a detailed maintenance manual containing: x Asbestos Management Policy identifying any remaining asbestos, procedures health and safety information and management of these specific areas x Detailed specifications of all fixtures, fittings, materials, and techniques employed x Contact names and addresses of all suppliers and manufacturers x Contact names and addresses of all professionals who worked upon the project x Health & Safety and operational manuals x Staff training and Induction Manuals 70.3 It is also suggested that a sensible supply of spare materials are set aside for future replacement e.g. wallpapers, light fittings, shades etc. The relatively small additional cost will reap significant long-term benefits for the conservation and maintenance of the theatre. 71. Conservation - Key Priorities 71.1 The following pages provide an indication of the conservation priorities associated with the forthcoming works. It should be made quite clear that they are not intended as a list of priorities in the event of value engineering. They are intended to indicate the relative importance of the areas under consideration and no apology is made for the consistently high gradings attributed thereto.The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 105 Restoration Key Priorities Phase 1 [Indicative ONLY] Priority Narrative External Elevations Gorbals Street High Detailed survey work required Gorbals Street Medium Restoration and conservation of rough sandstone elevations External Lighting Medium This forms a fundamental part of the theatres presentation at night Windows Medium Few original frames survive make good where appropriate or replace if missing or damaged beyond repair reinstate original glazing bars etc. External Doors High As above few survive Door Furniture High None of the original main door furniture survives Streetscape Medium/High Liaison required with Glasgow City Council External Roofscape External Roof Covering High Existing roof coverings need to be maintained to a high standard Rainwater Goods High These need to be maintained in cast-iron on all pre-1960 portions of the building Ground Floor Main Foyer New Foyers High Atmospheric light fittings, and loose fitments to form essential elements of foyer entrances High Light Fittings High Light fittings to be re-assessed Floor Tiling Medium Further design investigation required Doors & Door Furniture High Lobby entrances into stalls to be re-assessed for acoustic separation and fire-rating Signage High Appropriate and differing style of signage system to be reinstated through foyer and Auditorium The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 106 Restoration Key Priorities [Indicative ONLY] Priority Narrative Main Foyer Appropriate carpets High Re-evaluation required of new foyer spaces Light Fittings High Light fittings to be reinstated adequate budget provision for bespoke work Stalls Stalls Entrance Doors Medium Restore/replace painted doors and reinstate with appropriate brassware New Seating High Replace existing seating with authentic Victorian style seating Stalls Exits High Brassware, leaded lights, doors to be reinstated Orchestra Pit Rail High Original (demountable) brass orchestra pit rail reinstated with several location options available Stalls Box Fronts High Boxes to be re-evaluated for technical equipment use Dress Circle Dress Circle Entrance Doors High Restore/replace painted doors and reinstate with appropriate brassware New Seating High Replace existing cinema seating with authentic Victorian style seating Upper Circle Upper Circle Entrance Doors High Restore/replace painted doors and reinstate with appropriate brassware Gallery Seating Consider re-introducing gallery volume back into auditorium assess seating benefits Amphitheatre Seating High Replace existing cinema seating with authentic Victorian sit on the tier style seating The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 10772. Heritage Impact Assessment 72.1 This Heritage Impact Assessment looks specifically at the changes and elements of restoration that are currently under consideration. It will at a later date be developed to take account of the Design Teams proposals and makes an assessment of the sensitivity and appropriateness of the proposed works. 72.2 Specific attention needs to be drawn to the potential for unforeseen eventualities and discoveries that may be made during the course of opening up works and necessary demolitions. Opening up of many volumes and voids has already taken place to mitigate this risk. Nevertheless, a process of notification and action needs to be in place prior to the commencement of works on site. This should involve: x Formal recording of all opening up both photographic and written or drawn as appropriate x Immediate contact on any discovery between main contractor and architect/contract administrator x Assessment of importance and significance x Assessment of project impact does this require changes or alterations to the proposals? x Appropriate consultation/notification with statutory authorities x Ramifications of changes cost time operational etc. 72.3 Prior to the development of the Heritage Impact Assessment Theatresearch has developed in collaboration with the client team a formal Heritage Benefit Appraisal as shown below. It sets out the key heritage issues and how these currently sit with the design aspirations that will need to be developed by the appointed Design Team. This is merely a starting point for the development of a full and detailed client brief which identifies the aspirations and needs whilst also flagging up the key heritage and conservation issues and priorities at this early stage. The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 108The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 109Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 110 73. Conservation Risk Assessment 73.1 In any major building construction project, historic buildings and their artefacts are always potentially at risk. It is essential that both the Design Team and the Main Contractor sign up to the principles and philosophies contained in the Conservation Management Plan. They must also adopt a Conservation Risk Assessment process from inception to completion. 73.2 A process of this kind provides for prevention of damage to the historic fabric of the building and the loss of historic artefacts contained within it. All too often the management and protection of historic artefacts removed from site during restoration is neglected. Specifically elements included in the following list should be given careful consideration: x Door furniture x Light fittings x Soft furnishings x Historic signage x Historic fire-fighting equipment x Loose equipment of a historic nature 73.3 It is not adequate for the items simply to be removed and stored in a site office or similar. They should only be removed from site after ensuring that due process has taken place. The whereabouts, security arrangements, name of persons responsible etc., should all be contained within an accepted formal control system common to all. 73.4 The restoration of certain historic elements will by definition be of a higher risk than others. Absolute certainty on condition and damage cannot always be ascertained prior to construction, however potential risk can be assessed and quantified. The tables above will serve as a check-list for the conservation risk of the project. It should not however be considered as definitive as it will need to be reviewed throughout the design process by both the Client and the Design Team. Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 111Citizens Theatre Conservation Management Plan AppendicesCitizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 112Extant Historic Architectural Drawings of the Citizens Theatre Appendix 1 Drawing Title Architect Petitioner Archive Ref. Scale App Date Acc. Date Comments/Notes Alterations & Additions to Backstage Thomson & Sandilands John Morrison 1/3537 1/8:1 foot Nov 1894 Plan of Stage & Surrounding Rooms (existing?) Thomson & Sandilands John Morrison 1/3537 1/8:1 foot Nov 1894 Plan of Basement & Surrounding Rooms (existing?) Thomson & Sandilands John Morrison 1/3537 1/8:1 foot Nov 1894 Plans of First Floor Thomson & Sandilands John Morrison 1/3537 1/8:1 foot Nov 1894 Plan of Second Floor Thomson & Sandilands John Morrison 1/3537 1/8:1 foot Nov 1894 Basement Floor Plan Thomson & Sandilands John Morrison 1/3537 1/8:1 foot Nov 1894 Stage Floor Plan Thomson & Sandilands John Morrison 1/3537 1/8:1 foot Nov 1894 First Floor Plan Thomson & Sandilands John Morrison 1/3537 1/8:1 foot Nov 1894 Second Floor Plan Thomson & Sandilands John Morrison 1/3537 1/8:1 foot Nov 1894 Elevation to Lane Thomson & Sandilands John Morrison 1/3537 1/8:1 foot Nov 1894 Princesss Theatre: J. Thomson & R.D. Sandilands John Morrison 1/3817 1/8:1 foot Plan of Ground Floor J. Thomson & R.D. Sandilands John Morrison 1/3817 1/8:1 foot Plan of First Floor J. Thomson & R.D. John Morrison 1/3817 1/8:1 foot Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 113Sandilands Drawing Title Architect Petitioner Archive Ref. Scale App Date Acc. Date Comments/Notes Plan of Second Floor J. Thomson & R.D. Sandilands John Morrison 1/3817 1/8:1 foot Plan of Upper Floor J. Thomson & R.D. Sandilands John Morrison 1/3817 1/8:1 foot Front Elevation (to Rear Lane) J. Thomson & R.D. Sandilands John Morrison 1/3817 1/8:1 foot Site Plan J. Thomson & R.D. Sandilands John Morrison 1/3817 1/8:1 foot National Palace H & D Barclay Richard Waldon 2/1482 1/8:1 foot 27.8.1906 Gallery Exit H & D Barclay Richard Waldon 2/1482 1/8:1 foot 27.8.1906 Stalls Circle Exit H & D Barclay Richard Waldon 2/1482 1/8:1 foot 27.8.1906 Royal Princesss Theatre: Alterations H & D Barclay Richard Waldon 2/2190 1/8:1 foot 16.4.1908 Managers Office & Toilets H & D Barclay Richard Waldon 2/2190 1/8:1 foot 16.4.1908 Princesss Theatre:Alterations to Entrance Vestibule Charles McNair Princesss Theatre B4/12/1919/180 1/8:1 foot 29.5.1919 Block Plan Charles McNair Princesss Theatre B4/12/1919/180 1/8:1 foot 29.5.1919 Plan of Upper Floors of Tenement & Grand National Halls Charles McNair Princesss Theatre B4/12/1919/180 1/8:1 foot Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 114Plan of Ground Floor as Proposed Charles McNair Princesss Theatre B4/12/1919/180 1/8:1 foot 29.5.1919 Drawing Title Architect Petitioner Archive Ref. Scale App Date Acc. Date Comments/Notes Paybox Elevation from Crush Charles McNair Princesss Theatre B4/12/1919/180 1/8:1 foot 29.5.1919 Hall: Section DD Charles McNair Princesss Theatre B4/12/1919/180 1/8:1 foot 29.5.1919 Vestibule Screen: Section CC Charles McNair Princesss Theatre B4/12/1919/180 1/8:1 foot 29.5.1919 Front Elevation: Section AA Charles McNair Princesss Theatre B4/12/1919/180 1/8:1 foot 29.5.1919 As Existing & Proposed: Section FF Charles McNair Princesss Theatre B4/12/1919/180 1/8:1 foot 29.5.1919 Plan of Ground Floor as Existing Charles McNair Princesss Theatre B4/12/1919/180 29.5.1919 Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 115 Drawing Title Architect Petitioner Drawing Ref. Scale Date Comments/Notes Paint Shop - Sections John Crallan et. al. No.1 Bar 1977 Paint Frame - Axonometric John Crallan et. al. No.2 Bar 1977 Stage Machinery Details John Crallan et. al. No.3 Bar 1977 Bridge Understage Axonometric John Crallan et. al. No.4 Bar 1977 Fly Floor & Grid Plan John Crallan et. al. No.5 Bar 1977 Auditorium & Stage Plan John Crallan et. al. No.6 Bar 1977 Basement & Mezzanine Plan John Crallan et. al. No.7 Bar 1977 Longitudinal Section John Crallan et. al. No.8 Bar 1977 Stage Transverse Section John Crallan et. al. No.9 Bar 1977 Paint Shop Plans John Crallan et. al. No.10 Bar 1977 Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 116 Drawing Title Architect Petitioner Drawing Ref. Scale Date Comments/Notes Lower Basement Floor Plan GNW Associates V009-01 1:100 Oct 2010 Stage Cellar Basement Floor Plan GNW Associates V009-02 1:100 Oct 2010 Ground Floor Plan GNW Associates V009-03 1:100 Oct 2010 Ground Mezzanine Plan GNW Associates V009-04 1:100 Oct 2010 First Floor Plan GNW Associates V009-05 1:100 Oct 2010 Second Floor Plan GNW Associates V009-06 1:100 Oct 2010 Third Floor Plan GNW Associates V009-07 1:100 Oct 2010 Gorbals Street (West) Elevation GNW Associates V009-08 1:100 Oct 2010 Car Park (South) Elevation GNW Associates V009-09 1:100 Oct 2010 Clelland Lane (East) Elevation GNW Associates V009-10 1:100 Oct 2010 Stage Door (North) Elevation GNW Associates V009-11 1:100 Oct 2010 Stage Cross-Section Transverse GNW Associates V009-12 1:50 Oct 2010 Audit & Stage Long Section GNW Associates V009-13 1:50 Oct 2010 Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 117 Appendix 2 Listing Description HBNUM:33512 ITEM NO:3356 119 Gorbals Street Citizens Theatre Group with Items: CAT: B Map Ref.: NS 5905 Group Cat.: 6925 Date of Listing: 15th December 1970 Description Campbell Douglas 1878, Exterior destroyed 1977, leaving rubble walls Interior: Circle and balcony on cast-iron columns with ornate capitals, panelled plaster ceiling and 2 elaborately decorated boxes 4 muses on tall pedestals, copies of the statues by John Mossman which formerly crowned the front of the theatre References: M. Hay - Glasgows Theatres and Music Halls - A Guide (1980), pp.108-9 Information by Courtesy of Buildings of Scotland Research Unit Notes: Originally Her Majestys Theatre, rebuilt as the Royal Princesses Theatre in 1878, becoming the Citizens in 1945 Interior decoration by Joseph Sharp, overhauled 1883, by J.F. Edgar and C.S. Finlay, in 1887 by Alexander Skirving, A. Dunbar, and J. Sharp, and proscenium decorated 1895 by Thomas Lawrie. 6 Mossman statues and the columns from D. Hamiltons Union Bank are now in store.42 42 There seems to be some doubt about the accuracy of this statement. Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 118 Appendix 3 Curtains!!! or A New Life For Old Theatres Citizens Theatre Entry *** [three star, the highest rating] Gorbals Street (Formerly Her Majestys Theatre, Royal Princesss Theatre). 1878, Campbell Douglas & Sellars Theatre The theatre formerly had an imposing faade with a giant order of Tuscan columns. This was sadly demolished in 1977, together with the adjacent Palace Theatre. Very fine auditorium (793 seats) with two lyre-shaped balconies with rich plasterwork, supported by iron columns with large ornamented capitals. Superimposed stage boxes with caryatids above. There are no actual sides to the proscenium arch the opening being framed by the inner pilasters of the boxes which are capped with caryatids. Flat, plain ceiling with deep, panelled coves at the sides. Dramatic new colour scheme in 1979. Proscenium 30ft., stage depth 42ft., grid 52ft. Well preserved stage machinery. The proposed southern flank of the so-called inner ring road (which in fact involved the destruction of large tracts of the central area) originally threatened the theatre, but this has now been indefinitely postponed. The theatre is the home of the distinctive Glasgow Citizens Theatre Company whose flamboyant style of production and of dcor has given it a special place in contemporary European theatre. [From: Curtains!!! or A New Life For Old Theatres, p.119.] Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 119Appendix 4 The Theatres Trust Guide To British Theatres 1750-1950 Citizens Theatre Entry *** [three star, the highest rating] 119 Gorbals Street Other names: 1878 Her Majestys Theatre, 1879 Royal Princesss Theatre Original architects: 1878, Campbell Douglas & Sellars Later works: 1989 BDB Architects: new faade and foyer Listed: Grade B Current use: Theatre Capacity: 605 A fine theatre with a well-deserved national reputation for the quality of its work over many years. Located in Gorbals a once densely populated inner-city area which has suffered drastic redevelopment, the Citizens formerly had a magnificent faade (by James Sellars) with a giant order of Tuscan columns. This was unfortunately destroyed in 1977 together with the adjacent Palace Theatre. In 1989, the present undistinguished yellow brick frontage was added which externally resembles social work offices. The theatre is entered beneath a fully-glazed pediment, especially effective when illuminated at night. Within, it is spacious and decorated with statuary and terms rescued from the Palace. The fine auditorium retains its dark allure. Two lyre-shaped balconies with fine plasterwork are supported by slender columns with large capitals. The proscenium opening is framed by the inner pilasters of the boxes. The ceiling is flat and plain with deep panelled coves round the perimeter. In 1989 an adjacent studio theatre was added as part of a major renovation and the existing Victorian auditorium was renovated with modern Pullman seats. There is still a remarkably well-preserved set of Victorian wood machinery below the stage, the best survival of its kind in Scotland. [From: The Theatres Trust Guide To British Theatres 1750-1950, pp.66-7.] Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 120 Appendix 5 Bibliography Bridie, James, The Glasgow Citizens Theatre, Theatre, July 1945, No.1, pp.1-12. Carson, L. (ed.), The Stage Year Book 1908, Pub:London, The Stage, 1908. Carson, L. (ed.), The Stage Guide 1912, pub:London, The Stage, 1912. Carson & Comerford Ltd., The Stage Year Book incorporating The Stage Guide 1950, pub: London, Carson & Comerford Ltd., 1950, p.222. Citizens Theatre Theatre Memories Project 1943-2003, pub:2003. Cowan, James, From Glasgows Treasure Chest A Miscellany Of History, Personalities And Places, pub: Craig Wilson, Glasgow, Glasgow, 1949, pp.239-242. Hay, M., Glasgows Theatres and Music Halls - A Guide, pub: Glasgow, 1980. Louden, T., The Cinemas of Cinema City, n.d., n.p. Mackintosh, Iain & Sell, Michael, (eds.), Curtains!!! or A New Life For Old Theatres, pub:Eastbourne, John Offord, 1982. Maloney, Paul, Scotland and the Music Hall 1850-1914, pub: Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2003. Peter, Bruce, Scotlands Splendid Theatres, pub: Edinburgh, Polygon, 1999. Sell, Michael & Earl, John, (eds.) Theatres Trust Guide to British Theatres 1750-1950, pub: London, A&C Black, 2000. Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 121 Appendix 6 Opening Newspaper Accounts For The Theatre This charmingly decorated and admirably contrived Theatre opened for the first time on Saturday evening to an audience which literally crammed it from floor to ceiling within a few minutes of the opening of the doors. The Theatre promises to be one of the most commodious, elegant, and comfortable in the city. No decorations can be more tasteful and unique the acoustics are excellent, and the lighting, which is principally from a splendid sunlight, is in every respect satisfactory. Glasgow Daily Mail The new playhouse in Main-street, Gorbals, which has been christened Her Majestys Theatre and Opera House, was opened for the first time on Saturday night, and the event attracted an audience which crammed the building from floor to ceiling. Both externally and internally Her Majestys Theatre is a model of elegance. It is divided into stalls, pit, front and back boxes, and gallery, and an ample view can be had of the stage from every part of the auditorium. The arrangements for ingress and egress are exceedingly commodious, and the comfort generally of those in front has been attended to with considerable care and with much success. The Theatre, which has been leased to Mr. J.F. McFadyen, under whose management it was opened on Saturday with a Pantomime on the familiar subject of Ali Baba. Glasgow Evening Citizen [Extracts reprinted in: The Era, 5th January 1879, p.3.] Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 122Opening of Her Majestys Theatre and Opera House, Glasgow This magnificent Theatre, which has been in course of erection during the past seven months, was opened to the public on Saturday evening, 28th December 1879, under the management of Mr. J.F. McFadyen. The event is one of the more than ordinary importance in the theatrical annals of Glasgow, inasmuch as the new house is on the south side of the river, where, hitherto, no place of dramatic entertainment has ever existed. Within the last few years several schemes for the erection of a south-side Theatre have been proposed, and in one instance endeavours were made to promote a joint-stock company with that object in view. Plans were even prepared, and a prospectus issued pointing to the purchase of an eligible site in Carlton-place; but there the matter ended, and our fellow citizens across the water were yet without a dramatic retreat of their own. That state of affairs has now, however, been altered by the enterprise of Mr. John Morrison, the Proprietor and builder of Her Majestys, which for elegance, comfort, and completeness is unsurpassed in Scotland. The building, which also comprises a commodious suite of assembly halls, is situated in Main-street, Gorbals, one of the most populous districts of the city. The frontage is in the Doric style, with a row of six fluted columns supporting an ornamental entablature, which is surmounted by six large figures. At the two extremities are capital statues of Shakespeare and Burns, the figures between them representing Tragedy, Comedy, Music, and Burlesque. The general effect of the faade is at once graceful and imposing. The principal entrance from Main-street is 12 feet wide, and leads first of all into a vestibule 30 feet by 25 feet, from which access is gained to stalls and dress-circle, the former being fitted up with luxurious chairs in crimson velvet. The circle is also upholstered in the same rich material. A separate door, 11 feet wide, in Hutherglen-road, leads to the pit and gallery, the latter being reached by a substantial stair, and being seated for 750 persons. The pit is seated for the same number, and the house can accommodate in all 2,500 persons. The circle and gallery above are both constructed in horseshoe shape, and rise gently towards the rear. There is a corresponding incline from the stalls to the back of the pit, Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 123and a clear view of the stage can thus be had from all parts of the house. From the stage to the back of the pit the distance is 60 feet, with a width of 55 feet, while the measurement from footlights to middle of circle is 30 feet. The roof is covered to the height of eight feet with ornamental ribs rising to the circular ceiling in the centre, from which depends a large sunlight, having a ventilator shaft above communicating with the various air openings throughout the structure. Similar sunlights are introduced in other parts of the house, and serve the double purpose of lighting and ventilating. The decorations, which are of the most chaste and elegant description, were designed by and executed under the personal supervision of our clever local artist, Mr Joseph Sharpe, on whom they reflect a world of credit. The prevailing tints are maize, pink, and green, picked out with gold. The embellishment of the balcony consists of alternate scrolled panels, with puffings of crimson satin, and ornamental trusses bearing miniature caraytids, which support the coping. All the doors in the building are made to open outwards, and special modes of egress have been provided in case of emergency, while hydrants are placed at convenient stations throughout the building ready for immediate use. All parts of the house are provided with well-ventilated lavatories. &c., stalls and circle having additional accommodation in the shape of cloak and retiring rooms for both ladies and gentlemen. Altogether, the arrangements for the comfort of the audience are thoroughly satisfactory and complete in every respect. The proscenium opening is 27 feet wide, and on each side are two fluted pilasters, surmounted by emblematical figures which, as well as those on the faade, are the work of Mr. Young, Dumbarton-road. Behind the curtain the stage has a depth of 42 feet, with a width equal to that of the auditorium, while the depth of the cellar is 28 feet. The usual galleries are run along the side walls at a height of 25 feet above the stage, and on this level also, but at the very back of the stage, is a spacious painting room. The stage itself is fitted up with all the most modern machinery and appliances that money could procure. The comfort of the artists, too, has received the most careful attention. The dressing-rooms, of which there are a great many, have each a fire-place and a plentiful supply of water. There is also a Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 124green-room, band-room, large supers-room, property-room, and wardrobe, all of which, as well as the dressing-rooms, are in the rear of the stage, while on either side are a scene dock and carpenters shop. The lime-light tanks the finest in Scotland and gas-meter are in a shed outside the main building; so that, should any accident occur, the audience will be beyond danger. No cost has been spared in the construction of the Theatre, the end in view being completeness in all departments, and that end has certainly been attained. The architect is Mr George Douglas West, George-street, Mr Morrison (proprietor) himself being the builder. The woodwork was executed by Mr James Morrison, the gas-fitting and ventilating by Messrs D. and G. Graham, the machinery of the stage by Mr Farrel (resident carpenter) and assistants, the upholstering by Messrs F. and T. Smith, Union-street, and the painting by Mr Edgar. The splendid act-drop is the work of Mr John Connor, and when disclosed excited great admiration. It may be added that the walls of the building and also the staircases are constructed of stone. The Pantomime of Ali Baba; or the Forty Thieves, was the opening attraction. Previous, however, to the commencement of the performance the National Anthem was sung by the entire strength of the company. As might have been expected, the house was crowded in all parts. [The Era, 5th January 1879, p.12] Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 125Appendix 7 James Sellars - Biography This is Mr James Sellars, Jun., of the well-known firm of Messrs. Campbell Douglas and Sellars. Mr Sellars, who is Glasgow born and bred, is still in early middle life. His introduction tot eh profession was gained in the office of Messrs Barclay and Watt, and up till the year 1870 he pursued the ordinary humdrum existence of an architects assistant. It was as the successful competitor for the Stewart memorial fountain, in the West-End Park, that the Man you Know first became known to the public. Unlike what has occurred in connection with the competition which is the raison detre of the present article, the sum set aside at the outset by the Town Council for the fountain was too extravagant, and after Mr Sellars design had been premiated it was thrown overboard, and a new competition was invited, the cost of the fountain in this case being fixed at one-half of the amount originally named. Happily for himself, our friend was successful in the second as he had been in the first competition, and the construction of the memorial was accordingly entrusted to his care. About this time Mr Sellars became a member of the firm to which he still belongs. Associated with his partner, Mr Douglas, he has helped to design and direct many of the most important edifices erected in Glasgow during the last ten years. Among these are the offices for the Scottish Amicable Insurance Company, the Bank of Scotland Buildings in George Square, the building in Glassford Street intended for the City of Glasgow Bank, the New Club, St. Andrews Halls, and the Herald office in Buchanan Street, together with numerous churches and piles of building in our leading thoroughfares. In everything done by Mr Sellars there is a marked degree of individuality and even distinction. His thought is always his own. Whether we approve of his designs or not, it is impossible not to recognise in them an abundant force of character, and an ample appreciation of the possibilities of his site and his material. All round, indeed, the Man you Know is an able and judicious architect. He cannot only design Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 126well, but he understands how much the success of a building depends on every detail in its progress towards completion, and how outward harmony and interior comfort can only be secured by constant and careful supervision. Although devoted, both by natural inclination and business training, to architecture, Mr Sellars is sufficiently wide in his sympathies to take an eager interest as well in the art of the painter and the art of the sculptor as in the art of the architect. His figure is a familiar one in all literary and artistic circles in the city. Of a determined nature, and possessed of a temper of his own, he is yet genial and pleasant in his proper person. Those who know him best, like him best. [The Bailie, No.420, 3rd November 1880] Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 127Appendix 8 James Sellars Obituary The Late Mr. James Sellars We regret to announce the death, at the early age of forty-five years, of Mr. James Sellars, of Glasgow, the architect of the International Exhibition now open in that city, and junior partner in the firm of Campbell Douglas and Sellars. Mr. Sellars, who died from blood-poisoning on Tuesday, at his residence, Montgomerie-quadrant. Kelvinside, was a native of Glasgow, and served his apprenticeship to Mr. Hugh Barclay, a local architect. His first success was the selection in competition of his design for the Stewart Memorial Fountain, which was carried out, and is a Gothic structure placed in Kelvingrove Park. On the completion of his articles, Mr. Sellars entered the office of Mr. Campbell Douglas, and afterwards joined him in partnership. His works are chiefly designed in various phases of Early Gothic, although he possessed great versatility in design, and successfully worked in many and diverse styles, and are prominent features of modern Glasgow and its suburbs. The works by the firm include the New Club, additions to the Trades Hall (won in competition), banking premises for the Bank of Scotland, George square, and the City of Glasgow Bank (since converted into a business establishment), University Union Debating Club, Childrens Infirmary, the Scottish Amicable and Queens Insurance Offices, the Victoria Infirmary (of which the Queen laid the foundation stone), the Medical School, Andersons College, and numerous churches in the city and its vicinity, the best of these being, perhaps, Belhaven U.P. Church, designed in the Renaissance style, and Hillhead Established Church, in which Greek was happily adapted to modern requirements. Among buildings outside Glasgow may be mentioned the Town Hall at Ayr and Sinclair-town, and the Spiers Endowed School at Beith, the latter built at a cost of 12,000, and opened so recently as the 24th ult. Mr. Sellars served as President of the Glasgow Institute of Architects, of the Architectural Section of the Glasgow Philosophical Society, and as honorary president of the Glasgow Architectural Association; his name is on the agenda of the latter body as having promised to read a paper before the members at the closing meeting of the present session, the 19th of February Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 128next. A draughtsman of remarkable industry, power, and vigour, and quick to apprehend the requirements of his clients, he imbued all his work with his own hand or personally revised by him before being put into execution. He had not the advantages possessed by most professional men of the opportunities for foreign travel or leisured study in early life, nevertheless his tastes were refined, his judgment shrewd and independent. He held a foremost position among all Northern architects, and his removal in the zenith of his powers, and in the prime of middle life, will be regretted by all who were brought into contact with his genial presence, and even by those who only knew him by his works. He leaves a widow and young family. [The Building News, 12th October 1888, p.492.] Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 129Appendix 9 Timeline for The Citizens Theatre, Glasgow 1878 Theatre first opens as Her Majestys Theatre & Opera House [20.12.1878] under the management of James McFadyen 1879 Theatre closes July 1879 1879 Theatre re-opens under the name of The Royal Princesss Theatre [20.12.1879] under the management of Harcourt Cecil Beryl 1888 Richard Waldon becomes the manager of the theatre 1888 James Sellars, architect of the theatre dies [9.10.1888] 1922 Richard Waldon dies 1922 Harry McKelvie becomes manager and proprietor of the theatre 1945 Final performance of a Princesss Theatre pantomime [7.4.1945] 1945 Theatre re-opens in September as The Citizens Theatre 1947 Harry McKelvie dies 1948 Caf and restaurant created front of house 1951 James Bridie, first Chairman of the Citizens Theatre and playwright dies [29.1.1951] aka Dr. O.H. Maver 1952 New proscenium house curtains fitted by Beckwin Theatre Furnishings 1969 Giles Havergal, Philip Prowse and Robert David MacDonald form the artistic triumvirate resident at the Citizens Theatre 1970 Theatre first listed on 15th December 1970 1971 New lighting board and dimming equipment installed 1973 Close Theatre contained in the National Hall burnt out 1974 Theatre re-seated and re-carpeted Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 1301977 Palace Theatre adjoining the Citizens Theatre is demolished. 1978 Glasgow City Council undertake major refurbishment work 1988 Demolition of old foyer and bars and major redevelopment of the front of house areas 1989 Installation of counterweight system into the fly tower 1991 Creation of two new studio theatre spaces opening in January 1992 1998 Backstage extension works to create additional rehearsal space, scene dock, stage door, lift access etc.Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 131 Appendix 10 Citizens Theatre Conservation Management Plan Original Extant Architectural Drawings Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 132Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 133Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 134Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 135Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 136Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 137Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 138Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 139Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 140Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 141Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 142Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 143Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 144Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 145Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 146Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 147Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 148Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 149Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 150Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 151Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 152Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 153Appendix 11 Citizens Theatre Conservation Management Plan Sensitivity Plans Key to Sensitivity Drawings Green: Areas of Low Sensitivity Blue: Areas of Medium Sensitivity Red: Areas of High SensitivityCitizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 154Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 155Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 156Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 157Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 158Citizens Theatre, Glasgow: A Conservation Management Plan 159

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