a case study in nationalism: german unification, 1815-1871

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A Case Study in Nationalism: German Unification, 1815-1871. Meeting of all the German Confederation monarchs, 1863. Setting the Scene: The Congress of Vienna. Blue = Prussia Yellow = Austria Gray = other German states. Creation of the German Confederation (GC) 39 states, led by Austria - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Nationalism German Unification

A Case Study in Nationalism: German Unification, 1815-1871Meeting of all the German Confederation monarchs, 1863

Setting the Scene: The Congress of ViennaCreation of the German Confederation (GC)39 states, led by AustriaPrussia allowed to be independent AND part of GC

Major powers of GC were rivalsAustria: Hapsburg dynasty to South of GCPrussiaMilitary power in North

Blue = PrussiaYellow = AustriaGray = other German statesAustria and Prussia, mid 19th CenturyAustria weakNature of Empire (11 nationalities, 15 languages spoken)Struggle with nationalist movementsLost Russia as ally in 1850s (Crimean War, Slavic nationalism

Austrian Empire Coat of ArmsAustria and Prussia, Mid 19th CenturyPrussia strongMost industrialized state in GermanyMore coal, iron than AustriaBetter and longer road, rail networkFavorable trade alliances with GC states & standardized currencySuperior leadersPrussian coat of arms

Prussian LeadersKaiser Wilhelm I (1799-1888)Soldier, diplomat: not well educated (3rd son of dad)Prince of Grapeshot: turned cannon on own people during Const. crisis in 1848Became king in 1861Appointed good people to run State

Prussian LeadersOtto Von Bismarck (The Iron Chancellor)Appointed Minister-President by Wilhelm I in 1862Conservative who supported MonarchyIncredibly loyal to KaiserGoalsUnify North German StatesWeaken AustriaMake Berlin center of GermanyStrengthen King of Prussia against Parliament, called the Reichstag

Bismarck as Chancellor, 1871Prussian LeadersHelmut Von MoltkeChief of Staff, Prussian Army, 1857-1887Improved strategy, tactics of Prussian ArmyStrategy = big picture in war planning, etcTactics = actual fighting first to use war games to practice attack plansCreated first modern General Staff, to plan warNo battle plan survives contact with the enemy

Plan for German Unification: Phase OnePrussia went to war against Denmark, took land (circled)Then fought Austrians in 1867 (7 week war)North German Confederation created, under Prussian controlAustria promised to stay out of NGC affairs, pay reparations ($ for war)

Red = PrussiaSalmon =Other NGerman StatesGray = SouthGerman States

Hot pink line is Boundary of NGCFranco-Prussian War, 1870-71France was afraid of Prussia getting strongerBismarck used diplomacy to isolate France from alliesRussia, Italy promised to stay neutral in warProvoked war with France: The Ems TelegramEms a resortFrench demanded public withdrawalBismarck sent along two copies

Germany threatening France(French newspaper cartoon, 1870)Franco Prussian War, 1870-71French mobilize 100k reg. troops, declared war against ALL of GermanyResult: Southern German states join NGCFr. figured their army would grow as mobilization continuedGermans reacted with swift attackMobilized 1 million troops in 10 daysTransported to Fr borderParis captured in Jan 1871

Franco-Prussian War, 1870-71Treaty of FrankfurtFrance lost Alsace-LorrainePaid indemnity of $500 million to PrussiaSouthern German States unified with NGC when France declared war = Germany was complete!!Was German unification inevitable?Yes; economic coop. = unification eventual, but Bismarck sped it up

Results of Franco-Prussian War

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