A brief history from the Prophet Muhammad to the Mughal brief history from the... · A brief history…

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<ul><li><p>A brief history from the Prophet Muhammad to the Mughal Empire </p><p> How do we get from the Prophet in Arabia to Mughal India? </p><p> How do Muslims establish political power in India? </p><p> How can we understand the multiethnic nature of Muslim empires? </p><p>Prophet Muhammad was alive from 570-632CE </p><p> Lived in Mecca and Medina in what is today Saudi Arabia </p><p> Muhammad fought battles internally in order to establish religious freedom; he did not </p><p>engage in conquests outside of the Arabian Peninsula </p><p>After Muhammads death, conquests outside of Arabia begin </p><p> Conquest led largely by the Rashidun caliphs, centered in Mecca, 632-661, and the </p><p>Umayyad caliphs, centered in Damascus, 661-750 </p><p> Arab-led conquests largely completed by mid-8th century </p><p>Who did they conquer? </p><p>Maps: </p><p>Muslim world circa 1000CE: </p><p>https://cmes.uchicago.edu/sites/cmes.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/Maps/Map%20-</p><p>%20Islamic%20World%2C%201000.pdf </p><p>Muslim world to 1500CE: </p><p>https://cmes.uchicago.edu/sites/cmes.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/Maps/Map%20-</p><p>%20Islamic%20Expansion%20to%201500.pdf </p><p> Time period: 630s-750s </p><p> Byzantine Syria, Palestine, Armenia, Egypt, North Africa, Cyprus </p><p> Byzantine Empire is not officially conquered until the conquest of Constantinople in </p><p> 1453 by Osmali Turks (not Arabs, though Arabs did try to conquer Constantinople in the </p><p> 670s and 710s) </p><p> Sassanid Empire </p><p> Afghanistan </p><p> Transoxiana = Central Asia/Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan </p><p> Spain 711-1492 (conquered by Berber North Africans and Arabs) </p><p> Sicily 827-1300 (Berber and Arab) </p><p> Caucasus/Georgia from 736-1122 </p><p>https://cmes.uchicago.edu/sites/cmes.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/Maps/Map%20-%20Islamic%20World%2C%201000.pdfhttps://cmes.uchicago.edu/sites/cmes.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/Maps/Map%20-%20Islamic%20World%2C%201000.pdfhttps://cmes.uchicago.edu/sites/cmes.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/Maps/Map%20-%20Islamic%20Expansion%20to%201500.pdfhttps://cmes.uchicago.edu/sites/cmes.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/Maps/Map%20-%20Islamic%20Expansion%20to%201500.pdf</p></li><li><p>India </p><p>Military campaigns into northwest India from Persia 664-712 </p><p> War chest and extension of conquest of Persia </p><p> No durable conquests but Islam introduced </p><p>Delhi sultanate 1206-1526 </p><p>Map: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/30/Delhi_History_Map.png </p><p> Established via Turkic slave in Afghanistan, Qutub l-Din Aibak </p><p> Didnt rule all of India, but significant political influence </p><p> Minority ruling over majority </p><p>Mughal Empire 1526-1857 </p><p>Map: Mughal Empire to 1707: </p><p>https://cmes.uchicago.edu/sites/cmes.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/Maps/Map%20-</p><p>%20India%20Mughals.pdf </p><p> The name says it allthey draw their lineage to the Mongols, not to Arab Muslim imperialists </p><p> 1st Mughal ruler = Babur </p><p> --Babur was a direct descendent of Timur on his fathers side and Chinggis Khan on his </p><p> mothers side </p><p> --Timur = Tamerlane (born 1336; r.1370-1405) </p><p> --First ruler of the Timurid Dynasty </p><p> --Took control of Chagatai Khanate/Samarkand and Bukhara, todays Uzbekistan </p><p> --Led long list of military campaigns through Persia/Il Khanate, and Golden </p><p> Horde/Russia, emerging Ottoman lands </p><p> --Timur wanted to restore the glory of the Mongols </p><p> --Timur attacked Delhi Sultanate in 1398 but didnt take over </p><p> Babur conquered Delhi Sultanate and established Mughal Empire in 1526; ruled 1526-30 </p><p> --Muslims did not rule all of India at this time despite the fact that they unified most of </p><p> the subcontinent; for example there was a Hindu kingdom in southern India called </p><p> Vijayanagara (1336-1646), flourished in 15thc. </p><p> -- Portuguese trading post empires beginning in late 15thc. </p><p> Baburs grandson Akbar (3rd ruler) took over in 1556-1605 </p><p> Indian-Persian-Turkic culture </p>https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/30/Delhi_History_Map.pnghttps://cmes.uchicago.edu/sites/cmes.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/Maps/Map%20-%20India%20Mughals.pdfhttps://cmes.uchicago.edu/sites/cmes.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/Maps/Map%20-%20India%20Mughals.pdf</li></ul>