95/01603 Anaerobic digestion of silk industry wastes

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    QWO603 Anwrobk digoatlon of sllk industry wrrtro %ml610 A now catrlyat for the catalytk gulfkatlon of -. V&wa+h, P. and Nand, K- Bioresource Tcchnolo& 1994, 49, (3),

    - . In order to determine biogas potential of defatted silk worm pupae waste, anaerobic batch digestion was carried out in a l-l bioreactor and, based on the results, further experiments were conducted in a 20-l KVIC (Khadi and Villa c Industries Commission) type digester under semi-continuous feed-

    #h big. e effect of seven loading rates was studied. The maximum yield of biogas (0.53 m kg- volatile solids (VS) added) and methane

    I 0.38 m3 kg

    TS added) was accomplished at a loading rate of 1 kg total so ids m- day - . The methane content was as htgh as 70%. The hydraulrc retentton ttme

    of 30&y digestion exhibited maximum yield of btogas and methane.

    blomur Arauxo, 3. et al., Energy&Fuels, Nov.-Dec. 1994,8, (6), 1192-11%. Various kinds of catalysts are being developed and tested for the pyrolytic gasification of biomass using the Waterloo Fast Pyrolyisis Process technol- ogy. The present report describes gasification tests with wood in a continu- ous bench scale fluidixed bed reactor but with no added air or oxygen in the region of SOO-700C and at short gas contact times, using a crystalline nickel aluminate catalyst. The objective was to determine the most appro-

    ~~~&6?ir@t!#s~~lt&& @h~&!I?$e&~~&f?~ & with this catalyst in both inert and reactive gasification media, but without any oxygen or air addition.

    %I01604 Fairchild, C.

    Around the world on soy and ??unrhlne Solar T&y, Jan.-Feb. 1995, 9, (l), 18-20.

    Describes how soybean-based biodiesel proves to be a dependable alterna- tive fuel, even to a man alone at sea. Bryan Peterson left San Francisco Bay on 4 July 1992 to begin a trip around the world in a 24-foot Zodiac Hurricane rescue boat powered by 100% so particularly appropriate for the marine E

    -based biodiesel. Biodiesel is mar et because it is nontoxic and

    biodegradable and because it produces fewer haxarous emissions than petroleum diesel.

    9WOW% rgrofore8try In Chlni Wang, X. and Feng, 2

    Atmorpherk carbon requestratlon through

    Energy, Feb. 1995, 20, (2), 117-121.

    %I01 611 the mzymatk hydrolysk

    Pretrwtmrnt of bagaue by nonlonk surfrctant for _

    Kurakakc, M. et aL, Bioresource Technolo Enzymatic hydrolysis of bagasse was

    1994, 49, (3), 2472.51. acce erated by pretreatment with ff

    3.33% wt nonionic surfactant (Tween 29; polyoxyethy!ene. sorbitan mono- laurate) at 170-19oOC. The amount of the bgnm remammg m the pretreated bagasse decreased by about 22-2796 and the enxymattc hydrolysis rate increased, because of an increase in the surface area of cellulose accessible to enzyme, compared to those pretreated with water. The effect is based on the fact that surfactant makes hydrophobic degradation roducts extracta- ble to water. The pretreatment effect varied with the &t (hydrophile- lipophile balance) values of surfactant.

    %/ol!j2_ @cycling and morgy utllkation of warto from the Agrofomstry is an important alternative to modem agriculture and forestry. It 1s useful m ameliorating environmental degradation, such as desertttica- tion and land erosion. D * this anroforestrv svstems in the 7

    study on biomass and productivity of orth Chma Plain the authors found that

    ahfore& his a greater potential for storing and absorbing carbon from the atmos here than had land cultivation. Furthermore, agroforestry Sp-

    IO&? terns p uce timber and firewood that will bring profit to peasants and rexiuce the release of CO, into the atmosphere.

    wood Indurtrle8 ISWA, Bremerholm I, DK-1069 Copnhagen V, Denmark, DKr54.

    (Europe) DKri34 (others).

    %/01613 Surtalnabk fonatty mmagemont in devekplng countrlrr. Experkncer horn Ask DSilva, E. et al., Natural Resources Forum, Nov. 1994,18, (S), 251-262. The central message of tbis pa and multiple users. The paper 8

    r is that natural forests have multiple uses escribes tbe crisis in Asian forestry and four

    failures which lie bebind tbe crisis. The first failute is related to economic policy wbicb has consistently underpriced timber, not accounting for the true cost of replacing the felled trees or the value of non-timber goods and services (including environmental services). One is tbeir role as a source of fuelwood, which accounts for four-fifths of Asias timber demand.

    %Al1006 Charactorlutlon and onumontlon of mkroorga- nlsmr auoclated with ??naorobk dlgwtlon of tomato-procrrr- Ing wart0 SaIad& R. and Joseph. R. Bioresource Technology, 1994, 49, (3),

    - . Different physiological groups of microorg~ cellulolytics, xyla- nolytica, pectinolyttcs, proteolytica, lipolytica and metbanogens were enu- merated and monitored during the anaerobic digestion of tomato- processing waste.

    %I01014 Swolllng khrvlour of kmft bkck liquor and k organk condltuonta Alert, R. Bioresource Technology, 1994.49, (2). 99-103. The swelling bebaviour of pine and birch kraft black liquors and their main orxanic comnonents (limun and hydroxy carboxylic acids) was studied ____

    98iO1607 Flnlta ??kment anrly8lr of coupled hoot, mar,, and prouura tranrhr In porour blomatrrlrlr budayaraj, J. and Wu, y. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A, Sep. 1994, 26, (3), 337-350.

    transfer model showed a marked difference from the results obtained by tbc heat and mass transfer model.

    d&g heat&g treatmetit under a -stag&t inert ~atmosphem. Tbe black liquors began to swell considerably in .tbe tempe+re range of 180- 27OCNo marked dtffemnces m tbe swell~&~~;pe~v~r$;~ were found. On tbe basts of a comparison o organic components of the black liquors to tbat of the whole li uors, it was concluded tbat the aliphatic acid fraction is the main soutce o? tbe volatile _.__

    while the lignin fraction has

    95/01616 Thormochemkal convonlon d bkmau to chrr- cork colkctkn and characterkatlon of byproduct Kandpal, J. B. and Maheshwari, R. C. Fuel Sci. TechnoL Ink, 1994,12.

    k 1) iS-83. e paper descriis the tbennocbemical conversion of biomass which was carried out using a laboratory pyrolyxcr at temperatures of 280-500. The charcoal yield v&d from 72 m-4046, respectively, and the tar yield at the above temperatures varied from 2.0 to 4.2%. Upon increasing the reaction temperature, tbe heating value and fixed carbon content of the fuel increased, whereas volatiles content and moistum content decreased, The structures of charcoal and tar were determined by IR and NMR.

    %I01 606 Qmn onorgy m&ton report No. 8. Blofuok Economatters, 82 Rivington St., London EC2A 3AY, fiO.00.

    A report on the use, hading cbaracteristica, technologies and benefits of biofuels defined as forestry and agricultural wastes and by-products as well ascropsgmwnasfuel. _

    9SlO1808 A low-coot bloroactor for cyanobacterkl blomaro production Geothermal Energy

    Sathiyamoorthy, P. and Shanmugasundaram, S. Bioresource Technology, 1994, 49, (3). 279-280. A simple, inexpensive, adaptable system for growing autotrophs has been devel

    R could d. The culture vessel was made up of a polypropylene bag which

    old 2040 litres of medium. The cyanobactenal biomass produced by this bioreactor was comparable to that from large volume, open-air systems. The unique advantage in using the bioreactor was the ability to produce contamination-free cultures at an affordable cost. Experiments with various diameters (30,45,60 and 70 cm) of photobioreactor showed that column hei ht and diameter of culture vessel played an important role in biomass pm d uction of photoautorophic organisms.

    Aerial thermal Infrared mapplng of the Walmmgu- !$&!fi geothermal region, Now Zuland Man llo, M. A.

    I!& Geothcrmicr, On-Dec. 1994.23, Q, 511-526.

    A G SCAn MkII aerial multispectml scanner was used to acquire night- ime thermal infrared (TIR) imagery over an area extending from southern Lake Tarawera to northern Repoma as

    ztt of a surface geothermal featw:

    mapping and monitoring project. This ta, which covers a 180 km2 area at a ground spatial resolution of about 3m, was obtained in stx contiguous channels spanning the wavelen

    $ range 8.4-11.6 microns. Results from

    the preliminary analysis of ban 20 are presented in the paper.

    110 Fuel and Energy Abstracts March I%5