87:6166 zonal climate of the world ocean

1
OLR (1987) 34 ( I I) B. Marine Meteorology 937 other cloud parameter, relative brightness, shows good linear correlation with it. Inst. for Atmos. Phys., H-1675, Budapest, P.O.B. 39, Hungary. 87:6165 Tarabukhina, I.M., 1986. Reflection of sunlight from horizontally inhomogeneoos media with aniso- tropic scattering. Izv. A tmos. Ocean Phys. (a translation of Fiz. Atmos. Okeana), 22(5):427- 428. Equations for the intensity of the light reflected by a horizontally inhomogeneous layer are solved for the more general case of anisotropic scattering: the scattering indicatrix is represented in the form of a Legendre polynomial series. Univ. of Leningrad, USSR. BII0. Climate, climatology 87:6166 Gulev, S.K. and S.S. Lappo, 1986. Zonal climate of the World Ocean. Phase differences, heat flows, and interlatitudinal exchange. Soy. Met. Hydrol. (a translation of Meteorologiya Gidrol.), 10:50- 56. Based on a new integral approach the authors analyze the calculated mean latitudinal phase dif- ferences of the annual course and heat fluxes for the World Ocean. Differences between oceans are discussed in terms of their role in global heat exchange. Values of the meridional heat fluxes reveal an asymmetry of fluxes in the Pacific and the Atlantic. State Oceanogr. Inst., USSR. 87:6167 Halpert, M.S. and C.F. Ropelewski, 1987. Seasonal climate summary: the global climate for June-- August 1986. Dry conditions plague parts of the Northern Hemisphere. Mon. Weath. Rev., 115(3):705-720. For the second consecutive summer, significant areas of the Northern Hemisphere experienced drier than normal conditions. One of the most severely affected was the southeastern United States. In addition, drier than normal conditions were again prevalent in the monsoon regions of India, southeast Asia, and the African Sahel and also affected southwestern France and northern Spain during June and July. In contrast, abundant to excessive rainfall fell throughout parts of the Southern Hemisphere. Areas of central Australia received 400-500% of their average wintertime precipitation. During December-February and March-May, trop- ical Pacific indicators of the warm phase of the Southern Oscillation exhibited mixed signals, and indications continued to be ambiguous during the June-August 1986 season. Climate Analysis Center, NMC, NWS, NOAA, Washington, DC 20233, USA. 87:6168 Lockwood, J.G., 1987. Hydrological interactions between the land surfaces and the atmosphere as a factor in climatic change. Progress report. Lead- ing Edge, 6(6): 103-111. 87:6169 Peng, Li, M.-D. Chou and Albert Arking, 1987. Climate warming due to increasing atmospheric CO z. Simulations with a multilayer coupled atmosphere-ocean seasonal energy balance model. J. geophys. Res., 92(D5):5505-5521. The multilayer energy balance model of Peng et al. (1982) has been further developed to study long-term transient climate response to CO~ increase. For a hypothetical doubling of atmospheric CO_,, the model approximates an equilibrium response of global mean surface temperature in 9-35 yr, de- pending upon the probable range of vertical heat diffusivity in the ocean. In response to a generally accepted CO 2 trend, the model's transient response in annually and globally averaged surface temper- ature is 60--75% of the equilibrium response. When the CO x level doubles in about a century, global mean surface temperature increases by 1.5-2.0C °. Local warming at certain times of the year, however, may be 2-3 times greater. The pattern of seasonal and latitudinal distribution of transient response remarkably resembles that of the equilibrium re- sponse. The model also shows that CO2 increases prior to 1975 have minimal effects on model responses after the year 2000. Univ. Space Res. Assoc., American City Bldg., Columbia, MD 21044, USA. 87:6170 Smithson, P.A., 1987. Developments in synoptic and dynamic climatology. Progress report. Leading Edge, 6(6): 121-132. Recent advances in synoptic and dynamic clima- tology are reviewed with an emphasis on ENSO events, teleconnections, and monsoon climatology. Special mention is made of the extensive review of climate and circulation in the tropics by Hastenrath (1985) and a monograph by Das (1986) on mon- soons. Dept. of Geogr., Univ. of Sheffield, UK. (llt) 87:6171 Verbitskiy, M.Ya. and D.V. Chalikov, 1986. Simu- lation of the present climate by a model of the ocean-atmosphere-ice system. Izv..4 tmos. Ocean

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OLR (1987) 34 ( I I) B. Marine Meteorology 937

other cloud parameter, relative brightness, shows good linear correlation with it. Inst. for Atmos. Phys., H-1675, Budapest, P.O.B. 39, Hungary.

87:6165 Tarabukhina, I.M., 1986. Reflection of sunlight from

horizontally inhomogeneoos media with aniso- tropic scattering. Izv. A tmos. Ocean Phys. (a translation of Fiz. Atmos. Okeana), 22(5):427- 428.

Equations for the intensity of the light reflected by a horizontally inhomogeneous layer are solved for the more general case of anisotropic scattering: the scattering indicatrix is represented in the form of a Legendre polynomial series. Univ. of Leningrad, USSR.

BII0. Climate, climatology 87:6166

Gulev, S.K. and S.S. Lappo, 1986. Zonal climate of the World Ocean. Phase differences, heat flows, and interlatitudinal exchange. Soy. Met. Hydrol. (a translation of Meteorologiya Gidrol.), 10:50- 56.

Based on a new integral approach the authors analyze the calculated mean latitudinal phase dif- ferences of the annual course and heat fluxes for the World Ocean. Differences between oceans are discussed in terms of their role in global heat exchange. Values of the meridional heat fluxes reveal an asymmetry of fluxes in the Pacific and the Atlantic. State Oceanogr. Inst., USSR.

87:6167 Halpert, M.S. and C.F. Ropelewski, 1987. Seasonal

climate summary: the global climate for June-- August 1986. Dry conditions plague parts of the Northern Hemisphere. Mon. Weath. Rev., 115(3):705-720.

For the second consecutive summer, significant areas of the Northern Hemisphere experienced drier than normal conditions. One of the most severely affected was the southeastern United States. In addition, drier than normal conditions were again prevalent in the monsoon regions of India, southeast Asia, and the African Sahel and also affected southwestern France and northern Spain during June and July. In contrast, abundant to excessive rainfall fell throughout parts of the Southern Hemisphere. Areas of central Australia received 400-500% of their average wintertime precipitation. During December-February and March-May, trop- ical Pacific indicators of the warm phase of the

Southern Oscillation exhibited mixed signals, and indications continued to be ambiguous during the June-August 1986 season. Climate Analysis Center, NMC, NWS, NOAA, Washington, DC 20233, USA.

87:6168 Lockwood, J.G., 1987. Hydrological interactions

between the land surfaces and the atmosphere as a factor in climatic change. Progress report. Lead- ing Edge, 6(6): 103-111.

87:6169 Peng, Li, M.-D. Chou and Albert Arking, 1987.

Climate warming due to increasing atmospheric CO z. Simulations with a multilayer coupled atmosphere-ocean seasonal energy balance model. J. geophys. Res., 92(D5):5505-5521.

The multilayer energy balance model of Peng et al. (1982) has been further developed to study long-term transient climate response to CO~ increase. For a hypothetical doubling of atmospheric CO_,, the model approximates an equilibrium response of global mean surface temperature in 9-35 yr, de- pending upon the probable range of vertical heat diffusivity in the ocean. In response to a generally accepted CO 2 trend, the model's transient response in annually and globally averaged surface temper- ature is 60--75% of the equilibrium response. When the CO x level doubles in about a century, global mean surface temperature increases by 1.5-2.0C °. Local warming at certain times of the year, however, may be 2-3 times greater. The pattern of seasonal and latitudinal distribution of transient response remarkably resembles that of the equilibrium re- sponse. The model also shows that CO2 increases prior to 1975 have minimal effects on model responses after the year 2000. Univ. Space Res. Assoc., American City Bldg., Columbia, MD 21044, USA.

87:6170 Smithson, P.A., 1987. Developments in synoptic and

dynamic climatology. Progress report. Leading Edge, 6(6): 121-132.

Recent advances in synoptic and dynamic clima- tology are reviewed with an emphasis on ENSO events, teleconnections, and monsoon climatology. Special mention is made of the extensive review of climate and circulation in the tropics by Hastenrath (1985) and a monograph by Das (1986) on mon- soons. Dept. of Geogr., Univ. of Sheffield, UK. (llt)

87:6171 Verbitskiy, M.Ya. and D.V. Chalikov, 1986. Simu-

lation of the present climate by a model of the ocean-atmosphere-ice system. Izv..4 tmos. Ocean