#7 andrew jackson
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DESCRIPTION#7 Andrew Jackson. 1829-1837. “Old Hickory”. Born: March 15, 1767 in Waxhaw South Carolina Parents: Andrew and Elizabeth (Hutchinson) Wife: Rachel Donelson (Robards) Children: Andrew Jackson Jr. (Adopted son) Lyncoya (Adopted Creek Son). Background. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
#7 Andrew Jackson1829-1837
Old HickoryBorn: March 15, 1767 in Waxhaw South CarolinaParents: Andrew and Elizabeth (Hutchinson)Wife: Rachel Donelson (Robards)Children: Andrew Jackson Jr. (Adopted son) Lyncoya (Adopted Creek Son)
BackgroundJacksons parents were Scotch-Irish, and both of them were born in Ireland.They had been mill workers in Ireland but became struggling farmers in the U.S.Andrews father died three weeks before the future president was born.Andrews mother was a strong, independent woman who raised her three children at her sisters farm.
Jacksons YouthAs a young boy Jackson received semi-regular schooling.The action of the American Revolution moved to the South when Jackson was about 11 years old.At 13, Jackson joined a local regiment as a courier (Message Carrier).
Jacksons Youth ContinuedAndrew and his brother Robert were captured by the British.A British officer swiped at Andrew with his saber when the boy refused to shine his shoes. Jackson was left with permanent scars on his head and arm.
Youth Pt. 3While he was a prisoner, Jackson and his brother contracted small pox. Robert died shortly after his mother secured their release.Jacksons oldest brother, who was serving, died of heat stroke.Jacksons mother died as she was nursing wounded soldiers.Andrew was orphaned by the time he was 14.
Self-Made ManJackson worked for a time in a saddle shop, and even as a school teacher (though he could not read at a high level and could not spell or use proper grammar)Jackson studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1787, and developed into a successful country attorney in what is now Tennessee. Jackson served in several local government positions and developed a strong reputation.
Early Political CareerJackson was a member of Tennessees Constitutional Convention.He was a elected to the House of Representatives and later to the U.S. Senate.He left that office to serve as a member of the Tennessee Supreme court for 6 years.During this period, Jackson earned a reputation for honesty and integrity.
MarriageJackson married Rachel Donelson in 1791. She had filed for divorce from her first husband and believed it had been finalized when she married Jackson.The couples legal marriage took place in 1794.This unconventional marriage was a cloud on Jackson for the rest of his life.
Military CareerJackson served as a courier in the Revolution.Jackson fought Native Americans on the frontier as a young man.During the War of 1812 Jackson served as a General of Tennessee Militia.He defeated the Creek Indians and forced them to cede their lands (even those that had aided him).
Battle of New OrleansJackson led a force of 5,000 regular army soldiers, Tennessee and Kentucky militiamen, pirates, and some free-black men against over 7,000 British Regulars.Jacksons victory made him a huge American hero and the biggest since Washington.
Seminole WarIn 1817 Seminole Indians from Florida had been raiding the Georgia frontier (Also escaped slaves were joining the Seminoles).President Monroe ordered Jackson to stop the Seminoles, and Jackson did, by using extreme force and exceeding his orders (when some called for Jacksons censure he was supported by his future nemesis John Quincy Adams who was Sec. of State)He also deposed the Spanish governor, and hanged two British citizens.Spain agreed to sell Florida to the U.S. after this.Jackson was selected as Floridas first territorial governor.
A Real CharacterJackson was a strong-willed and independent man, doing what he felt was the right thing to do regardless of what others thought.Jackson was extremely stubborn when it came to changing.He had a tremendous temper and would hold grudges against enemies for years.Jackson was known to enjoy horse racing, cockfighting, card playing, and any form of gambling that he encountered.
DuelingAndrew Jackson fought 13 duels for certain, and some estimate that the number is really much higher.He killed Charles Dickinson in a duel, letting Dickinson, an expert shot, fire first. The bullet lodged in Jacksons chest, before he aimed carefully and fired the fatal blow. (The bullet was so close to his heart it could not be removed)
Road to the Presidency1824 Jackson lost the Dirtiest Election Ever to John Quincy Adams, despite winning the popular vote. Jackson swore revenge for the corrupt bargain between Adams and Henry Clay.Jackson ran again in 1828, and won by a landslide.
Important Actions as PresidentJackson initiated the spoils system by placing his friends in government positions.Jackson enforced the Indian Removal Act, forcing southern tribes to move to the Indian Territory of Oklahoma.He ignored the Supreme Court ruling that granted the Cherokees their land, and removed them as well.When the Seminoles tried to fight back, he sent troops into Florida to fight the Second Seminole War.
Trail of Tears
Important Presidential Actions ContinuedWhen South Carolina declared a federal tariff null and void, Jackson called this treason, and insisted that the union was indissoluble. Vice President John C. Calhoun resigned.Jacksons veto of a bill to renew the Second National Bank was widely unpopular (due to terrible inflation) in the Northeast, but he won re-election in 1832 with support of the South and West. Jackson ordered the removal of federal money from the bank and placed it in private pet banks. He was censured for this, but a protest message expunged the censure.
Presidential Actions Pt. 3While congress was out of session, Jackson ordered that all federal land be purchased with coin money, believing that this would end speculation (Congress repealed this order when they returned).
Presidential StyleAs president Jackson displayed his characteristic boldness, doing what he thought was right, based on his own reasoning.His policy was to issue a standing veto for any bill he had not approved.He vetoed more bills than all of his predecessors combined.Jackson vetoed a bill that would have payed for a road in Kentucky, ending federal attempts at internal improvements again.
After His PresidencyJackson retired to his estate in Tennessee called the Hermitage.The estate was fairly prosperous and Jackson owned as many as 300 slaves at some points
Jacksons LegacyJackson was a genuine hero in his own time, due to his military exploits and his bravery displayed in duels.Jackson is considered the first self-made man to become president, rising from dire circumstances to the highest office of the land.
Legacy ContinuedJacksons presidency was the first one to reflect the will of the common man, as he was elected by farmers and frontiersmen from the West and South, not by eastern elites and the Southern Aristocracy. Jackson was the first president to flagrantly use the spoils system as a reward to political friends.Jackson was upheld the union against states rights, demonstrating the power of the federal government.His strict economic policies eliminated the national debt, which has been achieved by no president before or since.
Negative LegacyJackson lacked formal education, and did not read at a high level and was a terrible writer (He did receive an honorary degree from Harvard)Jackson is considered to represent the racism of the time against both Native Americans and African Americans.Many of Jacksons policy were harmful to the nations commerce.
DeathJackson died on June 8th 1845 and is buried at the Hermitage along side his wife Rachel.
ReferencesKane, J. & Podell, J (2009). Facts about American presidents 8th ed. New York: H.W. Wilson CompanyMcPherson, J. (2000). To the best of my ability : The American presidents. New York: Dorling Kindersly Publishing, Inc.Partin, J. (2006). Life of Andrew Jackson. 3. Kessinger Publishing. pp.381-385.