6th international symposium on new quinolones

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6th International Symposium on New Quinolones Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on New Quinolones, Denver, Colorado, USA, November 15-17, 1998 Organizing Committee Ethan Rubinstein (Co-Chairman) Claude Carbon (Co-Chairman) Dieter Adam Robert C. Moellering Jr Francis A. Waldvogel Editorial development by Adis International Limited This supplement is a cooperative publishing venture of Adis International Limited and the 6th ISNQ Organizing Committee Copyright: © 1999 Adis International Limited. All rights reserved throughout the world and in all languages. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted or stored in any form or by any means either mechanical or electronic, including photocopying, recording or through an information storage and retrieval system, without the written permission of the copyright holder. Drugs is indexed in Index Medicus, Medline, EMBASE/Excerpta Medica, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, Current Contents/Life Sciences, B10SIf> Database, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA) and CABS. Individual articles are available through the ADONIS document delivery service and on-line via the World Wide Web through BioMedNet. Further details are available from the publisher.

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Page 1: 6th International Symposium on New Quinolones

6th International Symposium onNew Quinolones

Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on New Quinolones,Denver, Colorado, USA, November 15-17, 1998

Organizing CommitteeEthan Rubinstein (Co-Chairman)Claude Carbon (Co-Chairman)

Dieter AdamRobert C. Moellering Jr

Francis A. Waldvogel

Editorial development by Adis International Limited

This supplement is a cooperative publishing venture of Adis International Limitedand the 6th ISNQ Organizing Committee

Copyright: © 1999 Adis International Limited. All rights reserved throughout the world and in all languages. No part of this publicationmay be reproduced, transmitted or stored in any form or by any means either mechanical or electronic, includingphotocopying, recording or through an information storage and retrieval system, without the written permission of the copyrightholder.

Drugs is indexed in Index Medicus, Medline, EMBASE/Excerpta Medica, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, Current Contents/LifeSciences, B10SIf> Database, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA) and CABS. Individual articles are available through theADONIS document delivery service and on-line via the World Wide Web through BioMedNet. Further details are available from thepublisher.

Page 2: 6th International Symposium on New Quinolones

Vol. 58, Supplement 2,1999

Contents

List of Contributors xv-xvi

Foreword xvii

ORAL PRESENTATIONS

The Future of the Quinolones 1-5VTAndriole

Mode of Action of Fluoroquinolones 6-10DC Hooper

Mechanisms of Fluoroquinolone Resistance: An Update 1994-1998 11-18LJVPiddock

Activity of Quinolones Against Mycobacteria 19-22MR Jacobs

Activity of Newer Fluoroquinolones In Vitro Against 23-28Gram-Positive BacteriaGM Eliopoulos

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of 29-36Fluoroquinolones/ Turnidge

Toxicity of Quinolones 37-42R Stahlmann,HLode

Fluoroquinolones in Paediatrics 43-48HS Jafri, GH McCracken Jr

Quinolones in the Aged 49-51LE Nicolle

Quinolones in the Treatment of Typhoid Fever 52-54HEAkalin

Quinolone Use in the Developing World: State of the Art 55-59TE Tupasi

Quinolone Activity Against Anaerobes 60-64PC Appelbaum

Effect of Quinolones on Intestinal Ecology 65-70C Edlund, CE Nord

Cost -Effectiveness of Quinolones in Hospitals and the Community 71-77PDavey

Activity of Quinolones Against Chlamydia pneumoniae 78-81MR Hammerschlag

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Contents

Fluoroquinolone Treatment of Skin and Skin Structure Infections 82-84AW Karchmer

Use of Quinolones in Osteomyelitis and Infected 85-91Orthopaedic ProsthesisDP Lew, FA Waldvogel

Quinolones in Sexually Transmitted Diseases: State of the Art 92-95GL Ridgway

The Quinolones and Renal Infection 96-98A Ronald

Newer Quinolones in the Long Term Prophylaxis of Recurrent 99-102Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)S Krcmery, f Hromec, M Tvrdikova, M Hassan, D Gulla

Outcome of Antibiotic Therapy with Ciprofloxacin in Chronic 103-106Bacterial ProstatitisW Weidner, M Ludwig, E Brdhler, HG Schiefer

POSTER PRESENTATIONS

Activity of Quinolones Against Anaerobes and Other Pathogens

Antimicrobial Activity of Gatifloxacin Against Campylobacter jejuni 107-109and Anaerobic BacteriaME Erwin, RN Jones, MS Barrett, MA Pfaller, CL Hayward,GVDoem

Antianaerobic Activity of Grepafloxacin Compared with Ofloxacin, 110-112Ciprofloxacin, Clindamycin, Metronidazole and 5 p-LactamsL Dubreuil, E Singer, MF Odou, F Leblanc

Antianaerobic Activity of Gatifloxacin 113-116LM Ednie, MR Jacobs, PC Appelbaum

Resistance of Quinolones

Grepafloxacin vs Pneumococci Resistant to Fluoroquinolones 117-118by a Putative Efflux MechanismNPBremvald, MJ Gill, R Wise

Mutations to Quinolone Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa 119-120and Enterococcus faeciumS Jalal, N El Amin, N Gotoh, B Wretlind

Activity of Trovafloxacin Against Topoisomerases and GyrA/GrlA 121-122Mutants of Staphylococcus aureusTD Gootz, RPZaniewski, SL Haskell, FS Kaczmarek, AE MauriceOfloxacin Selects First-Step ParC Mutations in Mycoplasma hominis 123-124Whereas Sparfloxacin Selects for First-Step GyrA MutationsGE Kenny, PA Young, FD Cartwright, KE Sjostrom, WM Huang

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Contents

Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mutations in the DNA 125-127Topoisomerase II Genes of Viridans Group StreptococciClinical IsolatesD Balas, I Gonzalez, M Georgiou, F Alcaide, J Linares AG De La Campa

Nosocomial Superinfections with Gram-Negative Pathogens 128-129and Quinolone Resistance after Treatment with Ciprofloxacinvs OfloxacinY Canneli, MH Samore

Resistant Mutants of Staphylococcus aureus with Ofloxacin 130-131in Comparison with CiprofloxacinY Rio, FJurin, J DidionMechanisms and Frequency of Resistance to Moxifloxacin 132-133in Comparison with Ciprofloxacin in Staphylococcus aureusD Ince, R Aras, DC Hooper

Mechanisms and Frequency of Resistance to Gatifloxacin 134-135in Comparison with Ciprofloxacin in Staphylococcus aureusD Ince, R Aras, DC Hooper

Mutational Resistance to Quinolones in Staphylococci: 136-137Trovafloxacin vs CiprofloxacinKS Thomson, ES Moland, CC Sanders

Comparative In Vitro Activity of Grepafloxacin Against Selected 138-140Mutants and Clinical IsolatesCJ Soussy, F Leblanc

Antibacterial Activity of Quinolones

Synergistic Activity of Trovafloxacin with Other Agents 141-143MA Visalli, S Bajaksouzian, MR Jacobs, PC Appelbaum

Antimicrobial Activity of Moxifloxacin and Levofloxacin 144-145Photodegradation ProductsCM Tobin, J Sunderland, APMacGowan, AJ Hedges, LO White

Comparative Postantibiotic Effect of Sitafloxacin and Trovafloxacin 146-148on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureusEJ Giamarellos-Bourboulis, P Grecka, H Sambatakou, Z Chryssouli,H Giamarellou

Synergistic In Vitro Activity of Clinafloxacin 149-150MB Perri, MJ Zervos

Comparative Antibiotic Activity Versus Vancomycin 151-153Intermediate-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureusMD Huband, MA Cohen, JW Gage, SR VanderRoest

Activity of Trovafloxacin Against Micro-Organisms Isolated from 154-155Diabetic Patients with Lower Extremity InfectionsK Weiss, M Laverdiere, C Restieri, L Poirier

Moxifloxacin: Comparative Inhibitory Bactericidal Activity Against 156-159Susceptible and Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Positive BacteriaA Speciale, G Aleo, K La Ferla, R Musumeci, F Caccamo, G Nicoletti

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Contents

Antistaphylococcal Activity of Moxifloxacin 160-161A Dalhoff

Antimicrobial Activity of Gatifloxacin Tested Against 1676 162-163Gram-Positive Cocci Resistant to Ciprofloxacin: A MulticentreOrganism Sample from North and Latin AmericaRN Jones, MA Pfalter, GV Doern, M Beach, SENTRY Participants Group

Antistreptococcal Activity of Gatifloxacin 164-165RN Jones, DM Johnson, ME Erwin, ML Beach, DJ Biedenbach

Antibacterial Activity of Gatifloxacin in Obstetrics and Gynaecology 166-168K Izumi, H Mikamo, K Kawazoe, T Tamaya

In Vitro Antibacterial Activities of Gatifloxacin (AM-1155) Against 169-170Clinical Pathogens Recently Isolated from Various InfectionsY Tsurutnaki, HManda, M Takei, Y Oomori

Ofloxacin Photodegradation Products Possess Antimicrobial Activity 171-172J Sunderland, CM Tobin, LO White, AP MacGowan, AJ Hedges

Antimicrobial Spectrum of Gatifloxacin in the SENTRY Program 173-175RN Jones, MA Pfaller, GV Doern, M Beach, SENTRY Participant Group

Gatifloxacin Susceptibility Testing Interpretive Criteria and Quality 176-177Control Guidelines for Dilution and Disk Diffusion MethodsKC Kugler, RN Jones, DJ Biedenbach, ME Erwin, MA Pfaller, GV Doern,Quality Control Study Group

In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Gatifloxacin Against N. gonorrhoeae 178-179and H. influenzaeDJ Biedenbach, RN Jones, ML Beach, MS Barrett, DM Johnson, MA Pfaller,GV DoernAntimicrobial Activity of Gatifloxacin Against Stenotrophomonas 180-181maltophilia and Burkholderia spp.DJ Biedenbach, RN Jones, SA Marshall, DM Johnson, MAT CrocoActivity of Moxifloxacin Against Klebsiella pneumoniae 182-183A Dalhoff

Serum Bactericidal Activity of Moxifloxacin 184-185A Dalhoff, H Stass, S Obertegger

Current Activity of Ciprofloxacin Against Gram-Negative Bacilli 186-187in the United StatesC Thornsberry, MK Marsilio, ME Jones, KM Tomfohrde, BH Heller,G Piazza, DF Sahm

Comparison of In Vitro Activity of Trovafloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and 188-189Ceftazidime on Clinical IsolatesB Ongen, A Kaygusuz, L Oksiiz, K ToreciComparative Activity of 7 Quinolones Against Non-Glucose 190-192Fermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Cancer PatientsM Balakrishnan, HMago, B LeBlanc, KV1 Rolston

Susceptibility of Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods to Trovafloxacin 193-194M Litterio, L Castello, A Rollet, A Di Martino, G Greco, L FernandezCanigia, MI Fernandez, S Predari, H Bianchini

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Comparative In Vitro Activity of Trovafloxacin Against 195-199Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Clinical Isolates from ArgentinaA Sucari, D Stepanik, JM Casellas, G Tome, L Clara, M Marin, A Rossi,M Galas, J Smayevsky, L Dufranc, H Lorenzo, L de Vedia, H Lopez

In Vitro Activity of Trovafloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Azithromycin, 200-202Roxithromycin and Clarithromycin Against 355 Clinical Isolateswith Different Resistance PatternsJM Casellas, G Tome, M Gilardoni, G Pagniez, S Ivanovic

Trovafloxacin: In Vitro Activity and Comparison with Other 203-206Antibacterial Agents: WHONET-Resisnet Program, 1998A Rossi, M Tokumoto, M Galas, L Guelfand, H Lopardo,WHONET-Argentina Collaborative Group

Activity of Trovafloxacin Against P. aeruginosa, 207-208Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus and PneumococciLM Kelly, MR Jacobs, PC Appelbaum

Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Cystic 209-210Fibrosis Patients to CiprofloxacinA Bauernfeind, R Jungwirth, F Ratjen

Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Levofloxacin and 211-213Trovafloxacin Based on MICs for Ciprofloxacin and OfloxacinKB Waites

Susceptibility of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia to Moxifloxacin, 214-216Trovafloxacin, Ofloxacin and CiprofloxacinHB Hawley, HM Polenakovik, JS Czachor, SS Mueller

Clinafloxacin Antibacterial Activity 217-221LM Ednie, MR Jacobs, PC Appelbaum

Pharmacokinetic Features of Fluoroquinolones

Single Dose Pharmacokinetics of the R~ and S-Enantiomers of 222-224Gatifloxacin in VolunteersH-J Stahlberg, K Goehler, M Guillaume, AMignot

Basic Pharmacokinetics of Moxifloxacin 225-226H Stass, D Kubitza

Absorption and Bioavailability of Moxifloxacin 227-228HStass

Distribution and Tissue Penetration of Moxifloxacin 229-230HStass

Metabolism and Excretion of Moxifloxacin 231-232H Stass

Pharmacokinetics of Moxifloxacin in Special Populations 233-234H Stass, 7 Lettieri

Interaction Profile of Moxifloxacin 235-236H Stass, D Kubitza

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Contents

Advances in Bioanalytical Methodology Used to Characterise 237-238Clinical Pharmacokinetics of MoxifloxacinJ-G Moller, H Stass, W Muck

Determination of Moxifloxacin by HPLC and Bioassay: Practicality 239-241and LimitationsA Dalhoff, H Stass

Impact of Neutropenia on Tissue Penetration of Moxifloxacin and 242-245Sparfloxacin in Infected MiceR Garraffo, C Roptin, A Boudjadja

Effect of Age on Clinafloxacin Pharmacokinetics in Healthy 246-247VolunteersEJ Randinitis, R Abel, NJ Bron, NJ Hounslow, G Rausch, AB Vassos

Effect of Clinafloxacin on the Pharmacokinetics of Theophylline 248-249and CaffeineEJ Randinitis, JR Koup, G Rausch, AB Vassos

Clinafloxacin Pharmacokinetics in Renal Patients 250-251EJ Randinitis, JR Koup, G Rausch, NJ Bron, NJ Hounslow, AB Vassos,AJ Sedman

Pharmacokinetics of Oral and Intravenous Clinafloxacin 252-253EJ Randinitis, J Brodfuehrer, AB Vassos

Drug Interaction Studies with Clinafloxacin and Probenecid, 254-255Cimetidine, Phenytoin and WarfarinEJ Randinitis, JR Koup, NJ Bron, NJ Hounslow, G Rausch, R Abel,AB Vassos, AJ Sedman

Effects of Food and Antacid on the Pharmacokinetics of 256-257ClinafloxacinC Alvey, EJ Randinitis, G Rausch, AB Vassos

In Vitro Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Aspects of 258-259THP-1 Human Monocyte Uptake, Distribution and Efflux of14C-Grepafloxacin under Different ConditionsMA Dietrich, JD Butts, PAlford, TJ Ives, IH Hall

Fluoroquinolones in Miscellaneous Severe Infections

Clinafloxacin in Serious Infections Caused by Multiply Resistant 260-262PathogensKJ Tack, I Eiseman, M Zervos

Ciprofloxacin in the Treatment of Nosocomial Meningitis 263-265in Neonates and Infants: A Report of 12 Cases7 Filka, J Uher, H Kurak, T Sagdt, J Tuharsky, I Novak, T Urbanova,K Kralinsky, S Dluholucky, T Krcmery ova, V Krcmery Jr

Bacteraemia and Fungaemia During Ofloxacin Prophylaxis in 266-268Cancer PatientsV Krcmery Jr, J Trupl, A Demitrovicova, E Kukuckova,M Studena, F Mateicka

Pharmacodynamics of Trovafloxacin vs Ceftriaxone in 269-270Streptococcus pneumoniaePD Lister, CC Sanders

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Contents

Use of Intravenous Ciprofloxacin in a Canadian Medical Centre 271-272JA Karlowsky, AS Gin, R Cooper, DJ Hoban, GG Zhanel

Treatment of Pneumonia with Fluoroquinolones

A Critical Pathway for the Treatment of Community-Acquired 273-275PneumoniaTJ Marrie, CY Lau, SL Wheeler, CJ Wong, MK Vandervoort, BG Feagan,capitaL Study Investigators

The Microbiological Eradication Rate of First-Line Antibiotic 276-277Treatment is a Key Cost Driver in the Treatment of Acute BacterialExacerbations of Chronic BronchitisLF Lacey, T Volmer, AM Harris

The Clinical Failure Rate of First-Line Antibiotic Treatment is 278-279the Key Cost Driver in Community-Acquired Lower RespiratoryTract InfectionsH77 van Barlingen, T Volmer, LF Lacey

Efficacy of Gatifloxacin in Pneumococcal Respiratory Infection 280-281R Soejima, A Saito

Ofloxacin Once Daily Versus Twice Daily in Community-Acquired 282-283PneumoniaV Krcmery Jr on behalf of the Slovak GP Study Group

Fluoroquinolones in Surgical Infections

Oral Trovafloxacin Versus Intravenous Cefoxitin in Elective 284-285HysterectomyDR Luke, Trovafloxacin Surgical Prophylaxis Study Group

Alatrofloxacin Versus Cefotetan in Prophylaxis of Colorectal 286-287SurgeryDR Luke, Trovafloxacin Surgical Prophylaxis Study Group

Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Once-Daily Oral 288-290Trovafloxacin and 3-Times-Daily Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid forthe Treatment of Complicated Skin and Soft-Tissue InfectionsR Daniel, Trovafloxacin Study Group 'Once-Daily Oral Trovafloxacin in the Treatment of Diabetic Foot 291-292Infections: Results of an Open-Label, Noncomparative,Multicentre TrialR Daniel, Trovafloxacin Study Group

Trovafloxacin Once Daily vs Flucloxacillin Four Times Daily in the 293-294Treatment of Uncomplicated Skin and Skin-Structure InfectionsR Daniel, Trovafloxacin Study Group

Comparison of Intravenous to Oral Trovafloxacin vs Intravenous 295-297Imipenem/Cilastatin to Oral Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid inComplicated Intra-Abdominal InfectionsDR Luke, Trovafloxacin Intra-Abdominal Infection Study Group

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Failure of Alatrofloxacin in Patients with Deep Surgical Infection 298-300V Gandhi, K Patel, EM Sordillo

Trovafloxacin in Respiratory Tract Infections

Oral Trovafloxacin vs Oral Cefuroxime ± Erythromycin 301-303in Community-Acquired Pneumonia7 Peterson, Trovafloxacin Study Group

Trovafloxacin vs High Dose Amoxicillin in the Treatment of 304-305Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia: Results of aMulticentre, Double-Blind StudyR Daniel, Trovafloxacin Study Group

Trovafloxacin vs Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid in the Treatment of 306-308Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive BronchitisR Daniel, Trovafloxacin Study Group

IV-to-Oral Switch Therapy with Trovafloxacin Compared with 309-311IV Ceftazidime/Oral Ciprofloxacin in the Treatment ofNosocomial PneumoniaHP Bassaris, D Williams Hopkins, R Daniel, Trovafloxacin Study Group

Trovafloxacin vs Clarithromycin in Patients with Ambulatory 312-314Community-Acquired PneumoniaD Williams Hopkins, Trovafloxacin Study GroupTrovafloxacin vs Amoxicillin in the Oral Treatment of Acute Bacterial 315-317Exacerbations of Chronic BronchitisR Daniel, Trovafloxacin Study Group

Trovafloxacin vs Ceftriaxone/Cefpodoxime ± Erythromycin in 318-319Hospitalised Community-Acquired PneumoniaD Williams Hopkins, R Daniel, Trovafloxacin Study Group

Oral Trovafloxacin Compared with Amoxicillin 320-322(plus Optional Erythromycin) for the Treatment ofMild to Moderate Community-Acquired PneumoniaR Daniel, Trovafloxacin Study Group

Trovafloxacin vs Ciprofloxacin ± Clindamycin/Metronidazole in 323-325Patients with Nosocomial PneumoniaD Williams Hopkins, R Daniel, Trovafloxacin Study Group

Fluoroquinolones in Otitis and Sinusitis

Oral Levofloxacin Compared with Clarithromycin in Acute Sinusitis 326-327B Lasko, CYLau, RJ Anstey, C St-Pierre, AY Martel, F Diaz-Mitoma,Canadian Collaborative Sinusitis Study Group

Ciprofloxacin and Cefuroxime Axetil in Acute Community-Acquired 328-329RhinosinusitisM Weis, K Hendrick, K Gravelle, G Tillotson, Rhinosinusitis InvestigationGroup

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Fluoroquinolones in Urinary Tract Infections

Are the Fluoroquinolones Comparable in the Treatment of Urinary 330-334Tract Infections?KG Naber

Effects of Ciprofloxacin in Urinary Tract Infections Using Different 335-338Dose RegimensK Janicki

Efficacy and Safety of Ofloxacin in Ureaplasma Infections of the 339-340Upper Urinary TractJD Dimitrakov, DJ Dimitrakov, G Rawadi

Ciprofloxacin in the Treatment of Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis 341-343KG Naber, J Focht, WBusch, German Prostatitis Study Group

Fluoroquinolone Activity Against Respiratory Pathogens

Activity of Moxifloxacin Against Moraxella catarrhalis 344-345and AtypicalsA Dalhoff

The Activity of Fluoroquinolones and Other Antimicrobial Agents 346-348Against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, andMoraxella catarrhalisC Thornsberry, P Ogilvie, HPHolley, ML Hickey, ME Jones, IA Critchley,DF Sahm

Activity of Moxifloxacin Against H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae 349-350ADalhoff

Antipneumoccal Activity of Moxifloxacin 351-353A Dalhoff '

Inhibition of Pneumococcal Topoisomerases by Sitafloxacin 354-355I Morrissey, JT George

Serum Bactericidal Activity of Trovafloxacin Against 356-357Drug-Resistant Respiratory PathogensGE Stein

Grepafloxacin Activity Against 3000 Canadian Respiratory 358-360Tract PathogensDJ Hoban, GG Zhanel, L Palatnick, B Weshnoweski, L Vercaigne,JA Karlowsky

Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance among Respiratory Tract 361-363Pathogens in the United States, 1997 to 1998C Thornsberry, ML Hickey, J Kahn, YMauriz, DF Sahm

International Surveillance of Susceptibility to Levofloxacin and 364-365Other Agents among Respiratory PathogensC Thornsberry, ML Hickey, ME Jones, IA Critchley, GP Park, DF Sahm

Levofloxacin and Clarithromycin Antipneumococcal Activity 366-368CL Clark, MR Jacobs, PC Appelbaum

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Antipneumococcal Activity of Gatifloxacin by Time-Kill 369-371MethodologyG Lin, MR Jacobs, PC Appelbaum

Antipneumococcal Activity of Gatifloxacin by Agar Dilution MIC 372-373DB Hoellman, MR Jacobs, PC Appelbaum

Susceptibility of Respiratory Pathogens to Grepafloxacin 374-375R Cisterna, M Gobernado, JA Garcia Rodriguez

Bactericidal Activity of Grepafloxacin Against Respiratory 376-377PathogensF Daschner, U Frank, K Huber

Postantibiotic Effect of Levofloxacin Against Pneumococci 378-380SK Spangler, G Lin, MR Jacobs, PC Appelbaum

MICs for Streptococcus pneumoniae with Reduced Penicillin 381-382SusceptibilityVA Luna, MC Roberts

Development of High Level Quinolone Resistance in Streptococcus 383-384pneumoniae During Sequential Quinolone TherapyB Suh, B Lorber, S Gelone, AL Truant, TD Gootz

Safety and Side Effects of Fluoroquinolones

Chondrotoxicity and Target Tissue Kinetics of Ofloxacin 385-387in Immature Rats after Multiple DosesR Schwabe, E Lozo, I Baumann-Wilschke, R Stahlmann

Chondrotoxicity of Ciprofloxacin in Immature Beagle Dogs 388-389R Stahlmann, S Kiihner, M Shakibaei, R Schwabe, D van Sickle

Effects of Ofloxacin on the Ultrastructure of Achilles Tendon in Rats 390-392M Shakibaei, K Pfister, R Schwabe, R Stahlmann

Supplementation with Magnesium and Tocopherol Diminishes 393-394Quinolone-Induced Chondrotoxicity in Immature RatsR Stahlmann, R Schwabe, K Pfister, E Lozo, M Shakibaei, J Vormann

Clinical Safety Profile of Grepafloxacin 395-396H Lode, F Vogel, W Elies

Phototoxic Potential of Gatifloxacin, a New Fluoroquinolone 397-399Antimicrobial7 Ferguson, J McEwen, K Gohler, A Mignot, D Watson

Activity of Fluoroquinolones Against Mycobacteria andIntracellular Pathogens

Comparative Antimycobacterial Activity of BAY 12-8039 and 400-401GatifloxacinH Saito

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Fluoroquinolones in the Treatment of Atypical Mycobacterial 402-403Infections in AIDSM Bassetti, C Bussolino, M Cruciani, A Collida, V Del Bono, A Di Biagio,G Mazzarello, E Pontali, E Mantero, G Gatti, D Bassetti

In Vitro Activity of Grepafloxacin Against Chlamydia trachomatis 404-405F Poutiers, S Dessus-Babus, F Leblanc, C Bebear, B de Barbeyrac

Susceptibility of Mycoplasma hominis to Moxifloxacin by E-Test and 406-407Agar DilutionKB Waites, KC Canupp, GE Kenny

Infection Models

Therapeutic Effects of Sitafloxacin in Rat Uterine Endometritis 408-409H Mikanto, K Kawazoe, K Izumi, T Tamaya

Pharmacodynamics of Trovafloxacin and Ciprofloxacin Against 410-411Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Viridans StreptococciPD Lister, CC Sanders

Therapeutic Efficacy of Sitafloxacin Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 412-414in a Rat Model of Urinary Tract InfectionY Kurosaka, Y Ishida, E Yamamura, T Otani, H Kumon

Quinolone Activity Against Respiratory Pathogens 415-416B Wiedemann

Pharmacodynamic Activity of Levofloxacin in an In Vitro Model 417-419Against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative BacteriaB Wiedemann, E Pfeil