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Research objective, Research Questions, and Hypotheses
Dr.Naglaa Ibrahim Gida
- Introduction- Research aim - Research objective-Research Questions - Research Hypotheses
*IntroductionAny research must have clear aims and objectives.
The aim (goal ) and objectives must be stated at the very beginning of the study, since they will guide the researcher during the process formulating research questions and hypothesis.
They will enable the reader or consumer of the work to judge whether the researcher had achieved these objectives or not.
What are aims Aims are simple and broad statements of intent that describe what the study wants to achieve.
Problem statementEffect of Problem Based Learning on The Achievement of Nursing Students in Postpartum UnitsAim of the study:To study the effect of problem based learning on the achievement of nursing students in postpartum units.
Definition of Research Objective
Objectives refer to expected or intended researcher outcomes. Specific knowledge, skills, or attitudes that researcher are expected to achieve through their college experience.
Research ObjectivesThe research objectives should be:Closely related to the research questionCovering all aspects of the problemVery specificOrdered in a logical sequenceStated in action verbs that could be evaluated e.g. to describe, to identify, to measure, to compare, etc.Achievable, taking into consideration the available resources and timeMutually exclusive, with no repetitions or overlaps
SMART ObjectivesS SpecificM MeasurableA AchievableR RelevantT Time-bound
Research objectivesProperly formulated, specific objectives will facilitate the development of the research methodology and will help to orient the collection, analysis, interpretation and utilization of data.
Research areaCardiologyResearch topicIschemic heart disease Research problemsThe effect of reducing serum cholesterol on the occurrence of myocardial infraction.Research question Does hypocholesterolemic agent "A" decrease the risk of myocardial infraction?Research aimTo contribute in prevention of ischemic heart disease.ObjectiveTo determine the effect of reducing s. cholesterol on the incidence of myocardial infraction.
Research Questions:The formulation of research question is a process of refinement of the research objectives into a simple questions that the study should answer
1-Question is consider the fundamental of research , it help the research to clarify in her mind those questions which need to be answer. 2-Help to understand stage of the research process. 3-Variety of question formats reflects the type of research carried out and the personal preference of researchers.
3-The terms and concepts used by the researcher must be defined in ways that can be understood by others who read the article or report.
Is a concise, interrogative statement that is worded in the present tense and include one or more variables. Research question may be description of variable, orExamination of relationship among variables, orDetermination of differences between two or more group regarding selected variable.
1- How is a variable X described in a specified population? description .2- What is the relationship between variable X and, Y in a specified population? Relational.3- Is there difference between group 1, and 2 regarding variable X ? difference
*4- Is there is relationship between using nursing care and the incidence of pressure sores?5- Is there a policy on the prevention and treatment of pressure sores?6- Do nurses have the necessary knowledge required and skills to prevent and treat pressure sore?
Definition of hypotheses: Hypothesis is a statement of the research question in a measurable formHypothesis is a formal statement of the expected relationships among variables.Hypothesis is a statement of predicted relationships between two or more variables. A testable hypothesis states the anticipated association between one or more independent and one or more dependent variables.
Wording of Hypotheses
A good hypothesis is worded in simple, clear, and concise language.
The hypothesis statement should be specific enough so that readers understand what the variables are and whom researchers will be studying.
When is a hypothesis formulated?A hypothesis is formulated after the problem has been stated It is formulated when the researcher is totally aware of the theoretical and empirical background to the problem.
The purpose and function of a hypothesis:It offers explanation for the relationships between variables that can be tested.It Provides a proof that the researcher has sufficient background knowledge to enable him/her to make suggestions in order to extend existing knowledge.It gives direction to investigation.It structures the next phase in the examination of the problems.
Characteristics of good hypothesis:It is testableIt is logicalIt is directly related to the research problemIt is factually or theoretically basedIt states a relationship between variablesIt is stated in such a form that it can be accepted or rejected.
1. Simple and ComplexSimple Hypothesis contains one independent variable and one dependent variable.Examples of a simple hypothesis:
1-There is relationship between smoking [IV] and lung cancer [DV]
Simple and ComplexComplex Hypothesis Predicts the relationship between 3 or more variablesExample of a complex hypothesismultiple independent variables:
Among breast cancer survivors, emotional wellbeing [DV] is influenced by the womens self-esteem [IV1], their resourcefulness [IV2] and their degree of social support [IV3]
2- Directional and Non-DirectionalDirectional Hypothesis Tells the reader the direction of the relationship between the two variables = more specific about the nature of the relationshipDirectional hypothesis may read,is more than.., will be lesser..Example:
Children with high IQ will exhibit more anxiety than children with low IQ
Directional and Non-Directional Hypothesisb. Non-Directional Hypothesis Do not specify the nature of the relationship between the variablesIt may read, ..there is a difference between..
Example:There is a difference in the anxiety level of the children of high IQ and those of low IQ.
3-Null HypothesisA null hypothesis
Is a statement that there is no actual relationship between variables.Example: There is no significant difference in the anxiety level of children of High IQ and those of low IQ.Passive smoking has no relation to lung cancer
LOCATING RELEVANT LITERATURE FOR A RESEARCH REVIEW
1-Electronic resourcesThe two electronic databases that are most likely to be useful to nurse researchers: 1- CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature). WWW. Cinahl. com 2- MEDLINE (Medical Literature On-Line).2-Print resources