การผลิตไบโอดีเซลจากน้ำมันสบู่ดำโดยใช้เถ้าธรรมชาติเป็นตัวเร่งปฏิกิริยา...

Download การผลิตไบโอดีเซลจากน้ำมันสบู่ดำโดยใช้เถ้าธรรมชาติเป็นตัวเร่งปฏิกิริยา (Biodiesel production from  Jatropha curcas L

Post on 15-Apr-2017

965 views

Category:

Science

3 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Biodiesel

    1

    (Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. seed oil using natural wood-ashes as catalysts)

    485020167-0

    :

  • Biodiesel

    2

    .

    .. () 2524

    ..() 2528

    Ph.D.(Analytical Chemistry) University College Cork, Ireland 2534

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    3

    1.

  • Biodiesel

    4

    1.1

    -

    - -

  • Biodiesel

    5

    - (greenhouse effect) ( , 2549)

    Diesel Biodiesel Blend:Diesel+Biodiesel

  • Biodiesel

    6

    .. 2554 (biofuel) (biodiesel) (bio-ethanol) ( , 2547)

  • 1.2

    Biodiesel

    7

    1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3

    1.2.4

    1.2.5

  • 1.3

    Biodiesel

    8

  • 1.4

    Biodiesel

    9

    1.4.1 3

    1.4.2 , 25 oC, 25 oC,

  • 1.4 ()

    Biodiesel

    10

    1.4.3

    1.4.4

    1.4.5 60, 90, 120, 150 180

  • 1.4 ()

    Biodiesel

    11

    1.4.6 50 oC, 55 oC, 60 oC, 65 oC 70 oC

    1.4.7 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8

    1.4.8 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 2.5

  • 1.5

    Biodiesel

    12

    1.5.1

    1.5.2

    1.5.3

    1.5.4

    1.5.5

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    13

    1.6 1.6.1 (Acid Value; A.V.) Free Fatty Acid (FFA)

    1

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    14

    1.6 () 1.6.2 (Iodine Value; I.V.)

    100

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    15

    1.6 ()

    1.6.3 (Saponificaion Value; S.V.) () 1

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    16

    1.6 ()

    1.6.3 (Saponificaion Value; S.V.) () 1

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    17

    1.7 1.7.1

    123 .16 . . . . 40002

    1.7.2 3

    180 12 . . . . 40000

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    18

    2.

  • Biodiesel

    19

    2.

    (Biodiesel) ?

    + (ethanol) (methanol) (ethyl esters) (methyl esters) ( , 2549)

  • Biodiesel

    20

    2.

    (transesterification)

    (transesterification) (triglyceride)

  • Biodiesel

    21

    2.

    (transesterification) - - - - -

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    22

    Catalyst

    Triglyceride 3Methanol

    +

    glycerol 3Methyl Ester

    + 3 H-O-CH3 +

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    23

    ()

    :

    1

    2

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    24

    ()

    3

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    25

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    5. ( //)

    6.

    ( , 2549)

    8.3

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    26

    : Jatropha curcas L.

    : Euphorbiaceae

    : Physic nut

    :

    :

    : /

    :

    :

  • Biodiesel

    27

    2.

    -Hydrocyanic acid

    -Phorbol ester

    - Curcin

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    28

    1. 5.05+0.09

    2. 46.34+0.87

    3. 22.00+0.29

    4. 14.80+0.57

    5. 5.00+0.06

    ( , 2549)

    8.3

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    29

    (21.59%)

    - Palmitic acid (16:0) 14.66+0.17

    - Stearic acid (18:0) 6.93+0.02

    (78.41%)

    - Palmitoleic acid (16:1) 0.82+0.02

    - Oleic acid (18:1) 42.36+0.48

    -Linoleic acid (18:2) 35.21+0.56 - ( , 2549)

    8.2 -

    8.3

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    30

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    31

  • Biodiesel

    32

    4.

  • Biodiesel

    33

  • Biodiesel

    34

  • Biodiesel

    35

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    36

    - KOH

    - CaO

    - MgO

    -Ca(OH)2 - K2CO3 - CaCO3

    - pH : 12-13.5

    -

  • Biodiesel

    37

    %yield FAME

    4.

    Foidl (1996) - - 92

    (2549) 6 : 1

    Psuedomonas fluorescens 65

    (2544) NaOH - 80.45

    (2549) 3 % 6 : 1 8 60 oC 70.13

  • Biodiesel

    38

    %yield FAME

    4.

    (2549) 70.6

    CaO

    20 :1

    63 oC

    2

    (THF)

  • Biodiesel

    39

    %yield FAME

    4.

    (2549) 98.215 1.2% NaOH

    6 :1

    63 oC

    80

  • Biodiesel

    40

    4.

    Sridharan, Mathai (1974)

    Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC)

  • Biodiesel

    41

    4.

    Freedman, Pryde (1984) 2.0 1.0% 0.5%

  • Biodiesel

    42

    4.

    Kumar (2003)

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    43

    3.

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    44

    3.

    -

    3.1

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    45

    1.

    2.

    3.2 /

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    34

    (1) Methyl heptadecanoate standard (99.5 %), Fluka, Switzerland.

    (2) Methyl linoleate standard (99 %), Sigma, USA.

    (3) Methyl oleate standard (99 %), Sigma, USA.

    (4) Methyl palmitate standard (99 %), Sigma, USA.

    (5) Methyl stearate standard (99.5 %), Fluka, Switzerland.

    (6) B100 (99 %) , K.S. Line Company, Thailand.

    3.3

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    34

    - ()

    - Acetone (99.8%) AR grade, Carlo Erba, Italy.

    - Calcium oxide (95.0%) AR grade, Carlo Erba, Italy.

    - Carbontetrachloride (99.8 %) AR grade, Carlo Erba, Italy.

    3.3

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    35

    5.3.1 ()

    - Diethyl ether (99.5%) AR Grade, VWR International Ltd. England.

    - Hexane (99.0%) AR Grade , Labscan Asia Co.,Ltd , Thailand.

    - Hydrochloric acid (96.0%) AR grade, Carlo Erba, Italy.

    - Iodine (99.8%) AR Grade, Riedel-de Han, USA.

    - Methanol (99.9%) AR Grade, Labscan Asia Co.,Ltd , Thailand.

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    36

    5.3.1 ()

    - Methyl heptadecanoate standard (C17 : 0) , Fluka, France.

    - Petroleum ether 40-60 0C AR Grade , Labscan Asia Co.,Ltd , Thailand.

    - Phenolphthalein (99.9%) AR grade, Carlo Erba, Italy.

    - Potassium hydroxide (94.0%) AR grade, Merck KGaA, Germany.

    - Potassium hydrogenphthalate (99.7%) AR grade, Carlo Erba, Italy.

    - Potassium iodide (99.5%) AR grade, Merck KGaA, Germany.

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    37

    5.3.1 ()

    - Propanol (99.5%) AR Grade , Labscan Asia Co.,Ltd , Thailand.

    - Sodium sulphate anhydous (99.0%) AR grade, Carlo Erba, Italy.

    - Sodium hydroxide anhydrous (97.0%) AR grade, Carlo Erba, Italy.

    - Sulfuric acid (96.0%) ;18 M AR Grade , Labscan Asia Co.,Ltd ,

    Thailand.

    - Toluene (99.0%) AR grade, Carlo Erba, Italy.

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    38

    5.3.2

    - 3

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    39

    5.3.3

    - Analytical balance (4 point); Model AB204 ,Metler toledo, Switzerland.

    - Filter paper; Whatman No.1 & 42 , Whatman International, England.

    - Hot plate; Model MR 3001, Heidolph, Germany.

    - Laboratory test sieve; ASTM E11 Mesh No.100(150m), Endecotts Ltd, England.

    - Low pressure rotary evaporator; Model R-114, Buchi, Switzerland.

    - Magnetic stirrer; SP 46920-26, Barustead Thermolyne, USA.

  • 1

    Biodiesel

    40

    5.3.3 ()

    - pH meter; Model 251, Denver Instrument, USA.

    - Shaker; Model SA-31, Lab focus Co.,Ltd, UK.

    - TLC sheets (silica gel 60 F254), Merck KGaA, Germany.

    - Thermometer (-20-200 oC)

    - Oven ; D 06062 Model 600, Memmert Gmloh Co.KG, UK.

    - Viscometer

  • Biodiesel

    41

    5.4.1

    5.4

  • Biodiesel

    42

    5.4.2 -

    (1) (Acid Value; A.V.) Free Fatty Acid (FFA) ASTM D 664

    (2) (Iodine Value; I.V.) EN 14111 Wijs method

    (3) (Saponificaion Value; S.V.)

    (4) (Viscosity) ASTM D 445 Viscometer

  • Biodiesel

    43

    5.4.3

    - pH meter total base

  • Biodiesel

    44

    5.4.4

    (yield) 5

    (1) 1

    (2) 5

    0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 2.5

  • Biodiesel

    45

    5.4.4

    ()

    (3)