5 factors affecting learners language strategies!

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<p> 1. 5 factors affecting learners language strategies! :3 2. Motivation Carnegie Mellon Students will be more motivated if theyknow what goals are they working towards. No goals means that they would not havethe spirit to learn because there are no target to achieve. 3. Motivation is divided into two (Kendra Cherry)INTRINSICEXTRINSIC Own satisfaction Performing an activity for the sake of its own sake rather than external reward. We are motivated to do something to get reward or to avoid a punishment. 4. Mc Intyre and Noels (1996) More motivated learners used more LLS andthey tend to use it more frequently compared to the less motivated learners. Motivated learner adopt more LLS and usedthem more frequent compared to the less motivated.Oxford and Nyikos (1989) Motivation is an important factor influencing theLLS usage. 5. Tamada (1996) Integrative and instrumentalmotivation had a significant effect on learners choice of LLS. 6. LEVEL OFINTELLIGENCE 7. OMalley et al (1985b) Intermediate student uses moremetacognitive strategies than the beginner. Translation strategies was used more bybeginners. Chen (1990) Low-proficiency students employed morecommunication strategies than the highproficiency ones. 8. Chen (2002) Cognitive and metacognitive strategies showedvery high correlations with the proficiency level of the participants and were used by highproficiency learners. Compensation strategies favored by both high-and low-proficiency students with the lowproficiency students outperforming the highproficiency students in their use of such strategies. 9. (Ehrman and Oxford, 1990 ; Rossi- Le, 1995; among others) Individuals learning styles preferencesinfluence the type of LLS they use.Rossi- Le (1995) Learners who favors group study areshown to use social and interactive strategies, such as working with peers or requesting clarification. 10. ( Politzer, 1983 ; Hashim and Salih, 1994; Wharton, 2000) Females have consistently been reported as using LLSmore frequently than males do.Oxford and Nyikos (1989) Females use more LLS than males of formal practicestrategies, general study strategies, and conversational input elicitation strategies. As for example, asking to speak slowly, requestingpronunciation correction and guess what the speaker will say. 11. Ramirez (1986) Years of learning affected the use of nine(out of 50) strategies indicated in the inventory. Purdie and olivers (1999) study showed that student who had been inAustralia for a longer period of time ( 3 or less years or 4 or more) obtain significantly higher mean scores for cognitive strategy and for memory strategies.</p>