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  • 4G WIRELESS VIDEOCOMMUNICATIONS

    Haohong Wang

    Marvell Semiconductors, USA

    Lisimachos P. Kondi

    University of Ioannina, Greece

    Ajay Luthra

    Motorola, USA

    Song Ci

    University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA

    A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Publication

    ayyappan9780470745175.jpg

  • 4G WIRELESS VIDEOCOMMUNICATIONS

  • Wiley Series on Wireless Communications and Mobile ComputingSeries Editors: Dr Xuemin (Sherman) Shen, University of Waterloo, Canada

    Dr Yi Pan, Georgia State University, USA

    The Wiley Series on Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing is a series of comprehensive, practicaland timely books on wireless communication and network systems. The series focuses on topics ranging fromwireless communication and coding theory to wireless applications and pervasive computing. The books provideengineers and other technical professionals, researchers, educators, and advanced students in these fields withinvaluable insight into the latest developments and cutting-edge research.

    Other titles in the series:

    Misic and Misic: Wireless Personal Area Networks: Performance, Interconnection, and Security with IEEE 802.15.4 ,January 2008, 978-0-470-51847-2

    Takagi and Walke: Spectrum Requirement Planning in Wireless Communications: Model and Methodology forIMT-Advanced , April 2008, 978-0-470-98647-9

    Perez-Fontan and Espineira: Modeling the Wireless Propagation Channel: A simulation approach with MATLAB,August 2008, 978-0-470-72785-0

    Ippolito: Satellite Communications Systems Engineering: Atmospheric Effects, Satellite Link Design and SystemPerformance, August 2008, 978-0-470-72527-6

    Lin and Sou: Charging for Mobile All-IP Telecommunications , September 2008, 978-0-470-77565-3

    Myung and Goodman: Single Carrier FDMA: A New Air Interface for Long Term Evolution , October 2008,978-0-470-72449-1

    Hart, Tao and Zhou: Mobile Multi-hop WiMAX: From Protocol to Performance, July 2009, 978-0-470-99399-6

    Cai, Shen and Mark: Multimedia Services in Wireless Internet: Modeling and Analysis , August 2009,978-0-470-77065-8

    Stojmenovic: Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks: Algorithms and Protocols for Scalable Coordination andData Communication, September 2009, 978-0-470-17082-3

    Qian, Muller and Chen: Security in Wireless Networks and Systems , January 2010, 978-0-470-51212-8

  • 4G WIRELESS VIDEOCOMMUNICATIONS

    Haohong Wang

    Marvell Semiconductors, USA

    Lisimachos P. Kondi

    University of Ioannina, Greece

    Ajay Luthra

    Motorola, USA

    Song Ci

    University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA

    A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Publication

  • This edition first published 2009 2009, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.,

    Registered officeJohn Wiley & Sons, Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ, United Kingdom

    For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services and for information about how to apply forpermission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at www.wiley.com.

    The right of the author to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with theCopyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, inany form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted bythe UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.

    Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not beavailable in electronic books.

    Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand namesand product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks oftheir respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. Thispublication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered.It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professionaladvice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:

    4G wireless video communications / Haohong Wang . . . [et al.].p. cm.

    Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 978-0-470-77307-9 (cloth)

    1. Multimedia communications. 2. Wireless communication systems. 3. Videotelephone. I. Wang, Haohong, 1973-

    TK5105.15.A23 2009621.384 dc22

    2008052216

    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

    ISBN 978-0-470-77307-9 (H/B)

    Typeset in 10/12pt Times by Laserwords Private Limited, Chennai, India.Printed and bound in Great Britain by Antony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham, Wiltshire.

    www.wiley.com

  • Contents

    Foreword xiii

    Preface xv

    About the Authors xxi

    About the Series Editors xxv

    1 Introduction 1

    1.1 Why 4G? 11.2 4G Status and Key Technologies 3

    1.2.1 3GPP LTE 31.2.2 Mobile WiMAX 4

    1.3 Video Over Wireless 51.3.1 Video Compression Basics 51.3.2 Video Coding Standards 91.3.3 Error Resilience 101.3.4 Network Integration 121.3.5 Cross-Layer Design for Wireless Video Delivery 14

    1.4 Challenges and Opportunities for 4G Wireless Video 15References 17

    2 Wireless Communications and Networking 19

    2.1 Characteristics and Modeling of Wireless Channels 192.1.1 Degradation in Radio Propagation 192.1.2 Rayleigh Fading Channel 20

    2.2 Adaptive Modulation and Coding 232.2.1 Basics of Modulation Schemes 232.2.2 System Model of AMC 252.2.3 Channel Quality Estimation and Prediction 262.2.4 Modulation and Coding Parameter Adaptation 28

  • vi Contents

    2.2.5 Estimation Error and Delay in AMC 302.2.6 Selection of Adaptation Interval 30

    2.3 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing 312.3.1 Background 312.3.2 System Model and Implementation 312.3.3 Pros and Cons 33

    2.4 Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Systems 342.4.1 MIMO System Model 342.4.2 MIMO Capacity Gain: Multiplexing 352.4.3 MIMO Diversity Gain: Beamforming 352.4.4 Diversity-Multiplexing Trade-offs 352.4.5 Space-Time Coding 36

    2.5 Cross-Layer Design of AMC and HARQ 372.5.1 Background 382.5.2 System Modeling 392.5.3 Cross-Layer Design 412.5.4 Performance Analysis 442.5.5 Performance 45

    2.6 Wireless Networking 472.6.1 Layering Network Architectures 482.6.2 Network Service Models 502.6.3 Multiplexing Methods 512.6.4 Connection Management in IP-Based Data Networks 532.6.5 QoS Handoff 54

    2.7 Summary 55References 56

    3 Video Coding and Communications 59

    3.1 Digital Video Compression Why and How Much? 593.2 Basics 60

    3.2.1 Video Formats 603.2.1.1 Scanning 603.2.1.2 Color 613.2.1.3 Luminance, Luma, Chrominance, Chroma 64

    3.3 Information Theory 643.3.1 Entropy and Mutual Information 653.3.2 Encoding of an Information Source 663.3.3 Variable Length Coding 683.3.4 Quantization 71

    3.4 Encoder Architectures 733.4.1 DPCM 733.4.2 Hybrid Transform-DPCM Architecture 773.4.3 A Typical Hybrid Transform DPCM-based Video Codec 793.4.4 Motion Compensation 823.4.5 DCT and Quantization 833.4.6 Procedures Performed at the Decoder 84

  • Contents vii

    3.5 Wavelet-Based Video Compression 863.5.1 Motion-Compensated Temporal Wavelet Transform Using Lifting 90

    References 94

    4 4G Wireless Communications and Networking 97

    4.1 IMT-Advanced and 4G 974.2 LTE 99

    4.2.1 Introduction 1014.2.2 Protocol Architecture 102

    4.2.2.1 E-UTRAN Overview Architecture 1024.2.2.2 User Plane and Control Plane 1024.2.2.3 LTE Physical Layer 106

    4.2.3 LTE Layer 2 1074.2.4 The Evolution of Architecture 1104.2.5 LTE Standardization 110

    4.3 WIMAX-IEEE 802.16m 1124.3.1 Network Architecture 1134.3.2 System Reference Model 1144.3.3 Protocol Structure 114

    4.3.3.1 MAC Layer 1144.3.3.2 PHY Layer 120

    4.3.4 Other Functions Supported by IEEE 802.16m for Further Study 1254.4 3GPP2 UMB 125

    4.4.1 Architecture Reference Model 1264.4.2 Layering Architecture and Protocols 127

    Acknowledgements 133References 133

    5 Advanced Video Coding (AVC)/H.264 Standard 135

    5.1 Digital Video Compression Standards 1355.2 AVC/H.264 Coding Algorithm 138

    5.2.1 Temporal Prediction 1395.2.1.1 Motion Estimation 1405.2.1.2 P and B MBs 1425.2.1.3 Multiple References 1435.2.1.4 Motion Estimation Accuracy 1435.2.1.5 Weighted Prediction 1445.2.1.6 Frame and Field MV 1445.2.1.7 MV Compression 145

    5.2.2 Spatial Prediction 1475.2.3 The Transform 148

    5.2.3.1 4 4 Integer DCT and Inverse Integer DCT Transform 1495.2.3.2 8 8 Transform 1505.2.3.3 Hadamard Transform for DC 151

  • viii Contents

    5.2.4 Quantization and Scaling 1515.2.5 Scanning 1515.2.6 Variable Length Lossless Codecs 152

    5.2.6.1 Exp-Golomb Code 1535.2.6.2 CAVLC (Context Adaptive VLC) 1545.2.6.3 CABAC 154

    5.2.7 Deblocking Filter 1555.2.8 Hierarchy in the Coded Video 156

    5.2.8.1 Basic Picture Types (I, P, B, BR) 1575.2.8.2 SP and SI Pictures 157

    5.2.9 Buffers 1585.2.10 Encapsulation/Packetization 1595.2.11 Profiles 160

    5.2.11.1 Baseline Profile 1605.2.11.2 Extended Profile 1625.2.11.3 Main Profile 1625.2.11.4 High Profile 1625.2.11.5 High10 Profile 1635.2.11.6 High 4:2:2 Profile 1635.2.11.7 High 4:4:4 Predictive Profile 1635.2.11.8 Intra Only Profiles 163

    5.2.12 Levels 1635.2.12.1 Maximum Bit Rates, Picture Sizes and Frame Rates 1645.2.12.2 Maximum CPB, DPB and Reference Frames 164

    5.2.13 Parameter Sets 1675.2.13.1 Sequence Parameter Sets