48260989 business research chapter 1 copy

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Research Methods for Business

A skill Building Approach

Fourth Edition

Uma Sekaran2

Introduction to Research. Scientific Investigation. Technology and Business Research. The Research Process: Steps 1 to 3: The Broad Problem Area, Preliminary Data Gathering, Problem Definition. The Research Process: Steps 4 and 5: Theoretical Framework Hypothesis Development. The Research Process: Step 6: Elements of Research Design.3

Measurement of Variables: Operational Definition and Scales. Measurement: Scaling, Reliability, Validity. Data Collection Methods. Sampling. Data Analysis and Interpretation. The Research Report.


What is Research.Research involves a series of well-thought-out and carefully executed activities that will enable the manager to know how org. problems can be solved, or at least considerably minimized. OR Organized, systematic, data-based , critical, objective, scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific problem, undertaken with the purpose of finding answers or solution to it. Quantitative (structured questioner) Qualitative (Open-ended questioner)5

What is Research.Organized, systematic, data-based, critical, objective, scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific problem, undertaken with the purpose of finding answers or solution to it.


Business Research.Is usually primarily conducted to resolve problematic issues in or interrelated among, the areas of business. 1. Accounting 2. Finance 3. Management 4. Marketing


Accounting: budget control system, Practices and procedure, inventory costing method, Cash recovery, taxation Planning. Finance: Operation of financial institutions, financial ratios, leverage, mortgage, merger, acquisition etc.


Management: Employees attitude and behavior, human recourses management, impact of changing demographic on management practices, production operations. Marketing: Branding image, advertising, after sale services, Consumer preferences, new product development etc.9

Fundamental Type of Research1. Applied Research:

To solve the current problem. Research done with intention of applying the results of the finding to solve specific problems currently being experienced in the organization is called applied research.


Fundamental Type of Research2. Basic / Pure /Fundamental Research To improve our understanding about problems. Research done chiefly to enhance the understanding of certain problems that commonly occur in organizational setting and seek method of solving them.


Fundamental Type of Research2. Basic / Pure /Fundamental Research

To generate a body of knowledge by trying to comprehend how certain problems that occur in organizations can be solved. e-g Multiculturalism, ethnicity, demographic factors etc. Various organization General Electronic Company Professors in universities .12

Fundamental Type of Research2. Basic / Pure /Fundamental Research

Objective of Basic research is to equip oneself with additional knowledge of certain phenomena/ problems that occur in several organizations.


Effect of Nasal Spray on FluA research scientist surveys 1000 employees in different organization setting to study the efficacy of several type of nasal sprays in controlling the flu virus. He subsequently publishes his finding in a high respected medical journal.14

Why should a manager know research? Facilitates good decision making. Become able to discriminate about research findings. Prevents vested (personal) interests Educates to share pertinent/ significant and relevant information with researcher.


Why should a manager know research? Help for calculation of risks and probabilities attached. Understand the complexity of the variables in organization. Integrate research with profession. Hire /select researcher /consultant more effectively.16

The Manager Researcher Relationship Each should know his /her role. Trust level Value system Acceptance of findings and implementation Issues of inside versus outside researchers.17

INTERNAL RESEARCHERSAdvantages Better acceptance from staff Knowledge about organization Would be an integral part of implementation and evolution of the research recommendations. Less fresh ideas Power politics could prevail Possibility not valued as experts by staff.18


EXTERNAL RESEARCHERSAdvantages Divergent and convergent thinking Experience from several situations in different type of organizations. Better technical training, usually. Take time to know and understand the organizational system. Rapport and corporation from staff not only easy. Not available for evaluation after implementation cost. 19