4-3 notes elements, isotopes, & ions chapter 4, lesson 3

Download 4-3 Notes Elements, Isotopes, & Ions Chapter 4, Lesson 3

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  • Slide 1
  • 4-3 Notes Elements, Isotopes, & Ions Chapter 4, Lesson 3
  • Slide 2
  • Atomic Number and the Periodic Table An element is a pure substance that can be identified by the number of protons in its nucleus. 6 C Carbon 12.01 6 protons
  • Slide 3
  • Atomic Number and the Periodic Table Each atom of a particular element always has the same number of protons. 6 C Carbon 12.01 6 protons
  • Slide 4
  • Atomic Number and the Periodic Table The atomic number tells you the elements number of protons. 6 C Carbon 12.01 6 protons
  • Slide 5
  • Atomic Number and the Periodic Table Elements are organized onto a chart called the Periodic Table of the Elements.
  • Slide 6
  • Atomic Number and the Periodic Table Elements are arranged horizontally (left to right) by increasing atomic number.
  • Slide 7
  • Atomic Number and the Periodic Table They are arranged vertically in columns of elements with similar chemical properties.
  • Slide 8
  • Atomic Number and the Periodic Table Elements in the periodic table are mostly metals, but also include nonmetals and semimetals (or metalloids).
  • Slide 9
  • Isotopes Different Numbers of Neutrons The number of protons for an element can NOT change. The number of neutrons CAN change. Isotopes http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0078741858/student_view0/brainpop_movies.html#
  • Slide 10
  • Isotopes Different Numbers of Neutrons Atoms of the same element that contain different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.
  • Slide 11
  • Isotopes Different Numbers of Neutrons The atomic mass of an atom is a decimal, and it represents the average mass of all isotopes of an element. 6 C Carbon 12.01 Atomic Mass
  • Slide 12
  • Isotopes Different Numbers of Neutrons The mass number of an atom is the total number of neutrons plus protons in the atom. You find it by rounding the atomic mass to a whole number. 6 C Carbon 12.01 Atomic Mass Number rounds DOWN to 12 Atomic Mass
  • Slide 13
  • Isotopes Different Numbers of Neutrons To calculate the number of neutrons, subtract the atomic number from the mass number. 6 C Carbon 12.01 Atomic Mass Number Atomic Number 12 6
  • Slide 14
  • Isotopes Different Numbers of Neutrons Isotopes with more neutrons are heavier than isotopes with fewer neutrons.
  • Slide 15
  • Isotopes Different Numbers of Neutrons The isotope Carbon-14: 14 is the mass number (# of protons + # of neutrons).
  • Slide 16
  • Isotopes Different Numbers of Neutrons Some isotopes are radioactive, and radioactive decay occurs when an unstable nucleus changes into another nucleus by emitting one or more particles and energy. All elements with atomic numbers higher than 92 are synthetic & radioactive elements and exist only because scientists create them.
  • Slide 17
  • Isotopes Different Numbers of Neutrons An isotope of americium is shown releasing an alpha particle. After losing two protons, americium becomes the element neptunium.
  • Slide 18
  • Isotopes Different Numbers of Neutrons
  • Slide 19
  • The half-life of a radioactive element is the time it takes to decay to half its original mass. Some elements have a half life of millions of years, some less than a second.
  • Slide 20
  • Half-life of a Carbon-14 isotope is 5730 years.
  • Slide 21
  • Isotopes Different Numbers of Neutrons Hydrogen has three isotopes, called: protium, deuterium, and tritium.
  • Slide 22
  • Isotopes Different Numbers of Neutrons Hydrogen has three isotopes, called: protium, deuterium, and tritium.
  • Slide 23
  • Isotopes Different Numbers of Neutrons Hydrogen has three isotopes, called: protium, deuterium, and tritium.
  • Slide 24
  • Isotopes Different Numbers of Neutrons Hydrogen has three isotopes, called: protium, deuterium, and tritium.
  • Slide 25
  • Isotopes Different Numbers of Neutrons Hydrogen has three isotopes, called: protium, deuterium, and tritium.
  • Slide 26
  • Ions Gaining or Losing Electrons The number of electrons CAN change. If this happens, the atom no longer is overall neutral. The atom does not have the same number of protons (+) and electrons (-) An ion is an atom that no longer is neutral because it has gained or lost electrons.
  • Slide 27
  • Ions Gaining or Losing Electrons
  • Slide 28
  • When it loses an electron, it has more protons (positives) than electrons (negatives), and has an overall positive charge. An atom with a positive charge is called a positive ion.
  • Slide 29
  • Ions Gaining or Losing Electrons When it gains an electron, it has more electrons (negatives) than protons (positives). An atom with a negative charge is called a negative ion.
  • Slide 30
  • Ions Gaining or Losing Electrons Positive ions and negative ions attract each other and form compounds. +-
  • Slide 31
  • new element molecule isotope ion
  • Slide 32
  • The carbon element has several isotopes. How is carbon-14 different from carbon-13? ACarbon-14 has a positive charge. BCarbon-13 has a positive charge. CCarbon-14 has one more neutron than carbon-13. DCarbon-14 has one less neutron than carbon-13. 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D
  • Slide 33
  • What is the number of protons in an element called? Aisotope Batomic number Catomic mass Dradiotope 4.3 Elements, Isotopes, and Ions How Atoms Differ 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D
  • Slide 34
  • How does a neutral atom become a negative ion of the same element? AIt gains a proton. BIt loses a proton. CIt loses an electron. DIt gains an electron. 4.3 Elements, Isotopes, and Ions How Atoms Differ 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D
  • Slide 35
  • An atom contains 10 electrons, 11 protons, and 11 neutrons. What is the charge on the atom? A1A1 B1+ C2C2 D2+
  • Slide 36
  • Elements with the same number of protons but differing numbers of neutrons are called ____. Aions Belectrons Ctritium Disotopes
  • Slide 37
  • The atomic mass of an atom is equal to ____. Athe number of protons Bthe number of neutrons Cthe number of protons and neutrons Dthe number of electrons and protons SCI 3.a
  • Slide 38
  • The atomic number of carbon is 6. Carbon-14 contains ____. A7 protons and 7 neutrons B6 protons and 8 neutrons C8 protons and 6 neutrons D6 protons and 6 neutrons SCI 7.b
  • Slide 39
  • What happens when an atom gains a negative charge? AThe atom gains an electron. BThe atom gains a proton. CThe atom loses an electron. DThe atom loses a proton. SCI 3.a
  • Slide 40
  • How long would an 80 g sample of barium-131 take to decay to 5 g if the half-life is 12 days? A12 days B6 days C36 days D48 days 7.2 Isotopes and Radioactivity 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D
  • Slide 41
  • 80 grams 40 grams 20 grams 10 grams 5 grams 12 days 24 days 36 days 48 days
  • Slide 42
  • How long would an 80 g sample of barium-131 take to decay to 5 g if the half-life is 12 days? A12 days B6 days C36 days D48 days 7.2 Isotopes and Radioactivity 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

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