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3A/3B MENTAL SKILLS TRAINING www.flickr.com/photos/bryangeek/2814817972/ 1 Slide 2 Distinction between stage 2 and stage 3 content Overview of the role of mental skills Overview of stage 3 mental skills Periodisation of mental skills Tapering Peaking Recovery Overtraining Burnout Introduction to Models of Behaviour Social learning Theory Social Cognitive Learning Theory Theory of Reasoned Action Contents 2 Slide 3 Theory of Planned Behaviour Transtheoretical Model of Change Exercise Adherence Introduction to Psychological and Sociocultural Issues and Changes Transition from Junior to Senior Sport Transition from Amateur to Professional sport Transition from Elite Sport to Retirement Values and Participation in Physical Activity References Contents 3 Slide 4 Periodisation is the division of the year into smaller, easier to manage blocks of time. Instead of looking at the year as a whole, it is broken down into phases, macrocycles, mesocycles and microcycles. Annual Training Plan Phase of Training Preparation PhaseCompetition PhaseEval Transition Phase Macro Cycles General PreparationSpecific Preparation Pre - Competition CompetitionEval Transition Phase Meso cycles Micro cycles 1. PERIODISATION OF MENTAL SKILLS TRAINING 4 Slide 5 Mesocycles are smaller blocks of time which together form a macrocycle. Each mesocycle has a specific goal or objective. Mesocycles are between 4 12 weeks long. A microcycle is a smaller unit of time normally between 3 10 days long Several microcycles form a mesocycle. The annual training programme can be broken down into 4 phases preparation, competition, evaluation and transition. These 4 phases are then broken down into macrocycles. Phase of Training Preparation Phase Macro Cycles General Preparation Specific Preparation Meso cycles Micro cycles The Preparation Phase broken down to show the relationship between macrocycles, mesocycles and microcycles 1. PERIODISATION OF MENTAL SKILLS TRAINING 5 Slide 6 3. PEAKING FOR OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE Peaking is the term used to describe a temporary training state which allows the athlete to perform at their optimal level. Peaking at key times is a result of a well thought out annual plan. Players who have peaked are said to be in the Ideal Performance State (IPS) or in The Zone which includes being at their optimal readiness to perform from a psychological, physiological, technical and tactical perspective. www.flickr.com/photos/91572794@N00/3059672858/ www.flickr.com/photos/bryangeek/2814817972/ 6 Slide 7 Performance Training Volume Under training player not achieving optimal performance Optimal training load peak performance Overtraining performance deteriorates EFFECTS OF TRAINING ON PERFORMANCE 7 Slide 8 Overtraining occurs when an athlete has been repeatedly stressed by training to the point where the rest periods between sessions are no longer adequate for recovery to occur. Overtraining frequently occurs in athletes who are training for competition or a specific event and train beyond the body's ability to recover in the time available. It is an imbalance between work and rest. Overtraining is also common in young sportsmen / sportswomen who are training with several teams at once eg school, club, district, state. Outstanding Geelong footballer, Nathan Ablett, (pictured left), was forced to walk away from AFL after he revealed he was suffering from burnout. He no longer enjoyed the game. www.flickr.com/photos/virginiam/1460502056/ 5. OVERTRAINING 8 Slide 9 www.flickr.com/photos/caveman_92223/3250116134 / www.flickr.com/photos/marcopako/2771657304 / Michael Phelps was a role model to millions of young swimmers until he got photographed using drugs. Discuss; 1.Phelps as a role model before drugs 2.Phelps as a role model after drugs 3.What negative re enforcements did he get about his behaviour? SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY 9 Slide 10 Role models can have a negative influence by; Demonstrating poor sportsmanship / cheating Being involved in unacceptable off field behaviour drugs, alcohol etc. Being aggressive beyond the scope of the rules of the game. Having no respect for teammates, officials and opponents Exhibit sexist, racist, or other offensive characteristics. www.flickr.com/photos/tfa/185470620/ Marion Jones, pictured right was stripped of her gold medals after testing positive to the use of performance enhancing drugs. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY 10 Slide 11 How the senior players / elite players behave can have a positive influence if they; Demonstrate high standards of fair play and sportsmanship Maintain a clean image on and off the field Respect the game officials, teammates and opponents. Accept individual differences within the team Have a high work ethic An observer / junior player who witnesses these behaviours being positively reinforced is likely to copy them and demonstrate them in the future. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY www.flickr.com/photos/24410924@N08/2307436155/ 11 Slide 12 Stage 1 Precontemplation Stage 2 Contemplation Stage 3 Preparation Stage 4 Action Stage 5 Maintenance The Transtheoretical Model of Change is a 5 step cyclical process that an individual goes through as part of changing their behaviour. The Transtheoretical Model of Change TRANSTHEORETICAL MODEL OF CHANGE 12 Slide 13 Stage 5 Maintenance The stage where the new behavior pattern is sustained for an extended period of time (more than 6 months) and is now consolidated into the lifestyle of the individual. This maintenance period lasts up to 5 years at which point the individual is regarded as having made a lifetime commitment to regular exercise. TRANSTHEORETICAL MODEL OF CHANGE www.flickr.com/photos/bootbearwdc/2976121229/www.flickr.com/photos/michalo/283653390/ 13 Slide 14 2 main measures used to gauge when, and the degree to which, behaviour has changed; 1. Decisional balance Initially, the cons (reasons not to change eg too hard, not enough time, cannot be bothered) are more significant / important than the pros (benefits of change eg fitness). As you move through the stages, this imbalance reverses as change occurs. Determining When Change Occurs Cons outweigh pros no real change occurs. Pros / Cons about equal some change occurs. Pros outweigh cons significant change occurs. P P P C C C TRANSTHEORETICAL MODELOF CHANGE 14 Slide 15 TRANSITION FROM ELITE SPORT TO RETIREMENT Many of the skills learnt during the course of their careers are transferable and can assist in getting them involved in a new career which utilises these skills eg commentators, umpires, coaching. www.flickr.com/photos/28990363@N05/3248680662/ Tony Roche won 16 grand slam titles as a player. After retiring from the game, he remained in the sport as a coach of; Lleyton Hewitt Roger Federer Pat Rafter Roche has also captained the Australian Davis Cup team. Tony Roche won 16 grand slam titles as a player. After retiring from the game, he remained in the sport as a coach of; Lleyton Hewitt Roger Federer Pat Rafter Roche has also captained the Australian Davis Cup team. www.flickr.com/photos/foraggio/120235728/ Norma Plummer represented Australia as a player between 1972 1981 as a player. In 1996, she coached the Melbourne Phoenix and subsequent to that, the AIS in 1999 before taking over the National team in 2003, 15 Slide 16 VALUES AND PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Courage Sportsmanship Work Ethic Respect for team mates, opponents and officials Team work Honesty Integrity Putting team before self Loyalty Positive Values Learned From Participation in Sport www.flickr.com/photos/wwworks/2873707251/ www.flickr.com/photos/wjarrettc/105759 427/ www.flickr.com/photos/28990363@N05/2935994114/in/set-72157607420048113/ 16


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