# 300 1st day (1)

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PSY/POS/SOC 300

Statistics for BSSTierra M. Freeman, Ph.D.Division of Behavioral & Social SciencesKentucky State UniversityOffice: 229 Hathaway HallOffice Hours: TWR 10-2Phone: 502-597-5932

Email: tierra.freeman@kysu.edu

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My Expectations:Read assignmentsbefore attemptinghomework/quizzes.

Check your emailoftenPractice, practice,practice

Be RESPONSIBLEfor your learning!Be RESPECTFUL to

ALL!!!

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An approach to studying Preview the chapter outline.Develop questions from the outline.

Read chapter summary.Read the chapter (in 20-30 minutesegments).Reflect on how the section will help youunderstand your field.Review the questions from your outline.Re-read the chapter summary.

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What is Statistics? A way of organizing information. A way of communicating information.

A way to examine results of a study.

Why study statistics?

In order to evaluate claims made byresearchers regarding the results of theirstudy findings.To be an informed consumer.

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Terminology for research A Variable is anything that varies towhich you can assign a numerical value(characteristics measured byresearchers)Variables must be OperationallyDefined (clearly, and measurable)Cases (subject of study whom variablesare being measured)

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Branches of Stats.Descriptive Statistics organize,summarize, and communicates a groupof numerical observations from asampleInferential Statistics used to makegeneral estimates about a population

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Types of ResearchCorrelation examines the relationshipsbetween variables that areobserved/measured as they naturallyoccur

DOES NOT provide causality (or cause andeffect)

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Types of ResearchExperiment one variable is manipulatedand one variable is measured (observed) implies causality (we can infer)

Independent Variable (IV) is the variable thatis manipulated and has levels.Dependent Variable (DV) is the variable that ismeasuredConfounding Variable any variable thatsystematically varies with the IV

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Experiments have control groups,treatment groups, and randomassignment

Random assignment is where cases have anequal chance of being put in each group

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Types of ResearchQuasi-experimental design cases areclassified as being in different groups onbasis of some pre-existing characteristic(naturally occurring groups)

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Levels of MeasurementNominal categorical variable that hasmore than one level, but no true zero anddoes not assume equal distances betweenlevels (or no numerical meaning).

Ordinal meaning to the order betweenranks, but no true zero & no equaldistances.

Interval meaning to the order and equaldistances between levels.Ratio equal distances and true zero

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PopulationsLarger group of cases a researcher isinterested in studying/making inferencesaboutData from populations are calledparameters (Greek letters)

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Samples A sub-group of a cases from apopulation

Data from a sample is a statistic (Latinsymbols)

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Math skills/knowledge needed Addition, subtraction, multiplication, anddivision.

When working with formulas Do inside the Parenthesis firstExponentials next (squares)Multiplication and Division next (makefractions into decimals aka. proportion)

Addition and Subtraction last.

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Importance in rounding

Do not round until you have reachedyour final answer.

Report 2 decimals places in finalanswer>.495 round up

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Homework Complete 1.29 1.50 and choose either1.68 or 1.70

Due next class meeting