2/18/20161 the united states the united states constitution constitution convention & ratification

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2/18/20163 Annapolis Convention (1786) 12 representatives from 5 states. [NY, NJ, PA, DE, VA] GOAL  address barriers that limited trade & commerce. Weak attendance = nothing substantial.

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2/18/20161 The United States The United States Constitution Constitution Convention & Ratification 2/18/20162 Shays Rebellion There could be no stronger evidence of the want of energy in our governments than these disorders. -George Washington 2/18/20163 Annapolis Convention (1786) 12 representatives from 5 states. [NY, NJ, PA, DE, VA] GOAL address barriers that limited trade & commerce. Weak attendance = nothing substantial. 2/18/20164 Constitutional Convention To decide forever the fate of republican government. James Madison 2/18/20165 Constitutional Convention ALL STATES EXCEPT RHODE ISLAND 55 Delegates, May 25, 1787 Philadelphia. Strong anti-nationalists do not attend: Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, Richard H. Lee Sessions Held in Complete Secrecy. George Washington serves as president. 2/18/2016 Major Issues Scrapping the Articles of Confederation? Scrapping the Articles of Confederation? Concerns over strong national government. Concerns over strong national government. Conflicts soon arose: Conflicts soon arose: Powers of the federal government Representation of the states in the legislature Status of slavery/slaves 2/18/2016 JAMES MADISON FATHER OF CONSTITUTION FATHER OF CONSTITUTION THREE MAJOR CONCEPTS: THREE MAJOR CONCEPTS: 1. National Principle: federal supremacy. 2. Separation/Sharing of Powers. 3. Benefits of Extended Republic. 2/18/2016 REPRESENTATION IN CONGRESS? 1. LARGE STATE PLAN: VIRGINIA PLAN BICAMERAL REPRESENTATION BASED ON POPULATION. 2. SMALL STATE PLAN: NEW JERSEY PLAN UNICAMERAL REPRESENTATION SHOULD BE EQUAL 2/18/2016 THE GREAT COMPROMISE (CONNECTICUTT PLAN) ROGER SHERMAN: ROGER SHERMAN: House of Reps. = population determines. Senate = 2 senators from EVERY state. All tax bills must originate in the House. 2/18/2016 EXECUTIVE BRANCH CREATED President: chief executive. President: chief executive. PRESIDENTIAL POWERS: PRESIDENTIAL POWERS: 1. COMMANDER IN CHIEF 2. APPOINT DOMESTIC OFFICES (Ex: Judges) 3. VETO LEGISLATION ELECTORAL COLLEGE: delegates to indirectly elect the president. ELECTORAL COLLEGE: delegates to indirectly elect the president. 2/18/2016 JUDICIAL BRANCH CREATED Supreme Court + courts created by Congress. Settle disputes between states & adjudicate federal issues. SCOTUS justices appointed for life by president (confirmed by Senate). 2/18/ THREE FIFTHS COMPROMISE Compromise Each slave counts as 3/5 of a person for representation & tax purposes. Compromise Each slave counts as 3/5 of a person for representation & tax purposes. Slave Trade would end Slave Trade would end 1808. 2/18/ The Three Branches Executive Branch Executive Branch The President and Vice President-4 yr. terms. Legislative Branch Legislative Branch 100 Senators (2 per state)-6 yr. terms; 435 Representatives (based on population)-2 yr. terms Judicial Branch Judicial Branch Appointed by the President, with approval of the Senate: U.S. Supreme Court, 12 appellate courts, and 90 district courts. 2/18/201614 15 Ratifying the Constitution 9/13 states needed. People in each state decide. Two competing camps: Federalists -- favored ratification Anti-Federalists -- opposed ratification Intense debate all over the country. 16 Federalists (For the Constitution) Strong Federal Government Washington, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton The Federalist Papers series of 85 essays published in support of ratification. Hamilton, Madison, Jay Feared People More Than Government Anti-Federalists (Against the Constitution) Led by Patrick Henry (VA) & George Clinton (NY). Condemned Constitution as betrayal of Revolution. Anti-Federalists Papers President = King Feared Government More Than People Feared Local/State Government would be crushed. Why the Federalists Won Articles of Confederation had to be reformed / discarded Well-organized national group (Fed. Papers). Anti-Federalists: negative group with no plan Bill of Rights to be added FEDERALISTS HAD GEORGE WASHINGTONand some of the greatest minds in America. 19 Ratification Order: Delaware, December 7, 1787 Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787 New Jersey, December 18, 1787 Georgia, January 2, 1788 Connecticut, January 9, 1788 Massachusetts, February 6, 1788 Maryland, April 28, 1788 South Carolina, May 23, 1788 New Hampshire, June 21, 1788 Ordered "in effect" March 4, 1789 Virginia, June 25, 1788 New York, July North Carolina, May 23, 1789 Rhode Island, May 29, 1790 For the Bill of Rights Against The Bill of Rights Govt. potentially tyrannical. Protect basic freedoms. Jefferson (and others) wanted more specifics. No need to protect basic freedoms: Govt. of-by-for the people. People were the government. Are the listed freedoms the ONLY ones protected? 21 The Bill of Rights Difficulty in ratifying: MA, NY, & VA. Federalist offer Bill of Rights to calm fears: Written by Madison (based on Mason) Proposed September 1789 Adopted December 1791 Protect individual rights 22 The following is a very limited list of some of those proposed amendments that never left the halls of Congress: 1876: an attempt to abolish the United States Senate 1876: the forbidding of religious leaders from occupying a governmental office or receiving federal funding 1878: an Executive Council of Three should replace the office of President 1893: renaming this nation the United States of the Earth 1893: abolishing the United States Army and Navy 1894: acknowledging that the Constitution recognizes God and Jesus Christ as the supreme authorities in human affairs. 1912: making marriage between races illegal 1914: finding divorce to be illegal 1916: all acts of war should be put to a national vote. Anyone voting yes had to register as a volunteer for service in the United States Army 1933: an attempt to limit the personal wealth to $1 million 1936: an attempt to allow the American people to vote on whether or not the United States should go to war 1938: the forbidding of drunkenness in the United States and all of its territories 1947: the income tax maximum for an individual should not exceed 25% 1948: the right of citizens to segregate themselves from others 1971: American citizens should have the alienable right to an environment free of pollution. 23 Constitutional Convention Review 1. What was the difference between the New Jersey plan and the Virginia plan? 2. How did the authors of the Constitution keep power out of the hands of the common people? 3. What advantages did the Constitution have over the Articles of Confederation?