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TWO MONTHS INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORTSubmitted for partial fulfillment of award of

BACHELOR OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Maharishi Markandeshwar Engineering College

Submitted by:

Sagar Kathuria Roll no-1106631 E.C.E,7th sem. M.M Engg College

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all I would like to thank almighty GOD who has given this wonderful gift of life to us. He is the one who is guiding us in right direction to follow noble path of humanity. In my six weeks industrial training it is a wonderful experience to be a part of NETMAX TECHNOLOGIES where I have opportunity to work under brilliant minds. I owe my deep regards for the supporting and kind staff authorities who are helping me in my lean patches during these six weeks. The knowledge I am gaining throughout my studies have the practical implementation during this period. I am grateful to all the staff of NETMAX and for their timely support and sharing of their experience with me. I would like to express my heartiest concern for Mr. ROHIT KHOSLA for his able guidance and for his inspiring attitude, praiseworthy attitude and honest support. Not to forget the pain staking efforts of our college training and placement cell and specially my training and placement officer Mr. Manjeet Singh Ladher. Last but not the least I would express my utmost regards for the electronics and communication department of our Institute.

CONTENTS

1) Company profile 2) Embedded Systems What is Embedded System

Applications Difference between microprocessor & micro controller Difference between CISC & RISC PIC 16F73 features Pin diagram of PIC16F73 Pin description of PIC16F73 Core Architecture Electrical Characterstics Compiler Used-mikroC Features Projects Functionality

Types of microcontroller Architectures 1)

PIC microcontrollers

1)

Programming of PIC

1)

Programming and Interfacing Advantages of C over Assembly language programming

Project no. 1- LED interfacing and its blinking(port programming)

Project no. 2- seven segment interfacing and display Project no. 3- Interfacing and control of stepper motor with PIC 16F73 Project no. 4-LCD interfacing and display with PIC 16F73 Project no. 5-Builtin ADC of PIC16F73(Temperature Monitoring) Project no. 6-To study switching action of PIC pins. Project no. 7-Interfacing of keyboard matrix Project no. 8-Serial communication [b/w PC & Microcontroller]

6)Power system design Unregulated power supplies Regulated power supplies Bench supply diagram

COMPANY PROFILE Netmax Technologies is an organization which is established in the field of Network Support, Network training and Embedded systems. It provides support and training in the field of networking solutions (CISCO, LINUX) and embedded systems (Micro controller based design, Electronics system design). In Education, it has strategic alliance with REDHAT Inc. It is also NOVELL EDUCATION PARTNER with which it provides NOVELL and SUSE LINUX courses. Netmax technologies also conduct courses in CADENCE based design tools. Netmax Technologies also provide Technical Research & Development support and consultancy to some Electronics companies. Their clients for R&D support in field of embedded systems are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Recorders and Medicare ltd Chandigarh. TELEBOX India ltd. Lotus Machines Pvt. Ltd. Chandigarh. Impearl Electronics Pvt. Ltd. Chandigarh. KANTA Electrical Ltd. Mohali.

The partial list of our clients for network field is as below: 1) CEDTI, Mohali

2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17)

Premier ISP, Chandigarh Innovative Solutions, Chandigarh Emmtel ISP, Chandigarh NIPER, Mohali Navik Technologies, Chandigarh Software Technology Parks India, Mohali Glide Internet Services Rana Group IDS HFCL Infotel Ltd. Targus technologies pvt ltd STPI, Mohali BBMB The Tribune Quark Ind Swift

Support Area (Networking Solutions) a) LINUX / UNIX networks b) SUN networks

c) CISCO devices (Routers, Switches, Firewalls, Cache Engine, RAS etc) d) Bandwidth Manager software and hardware e) Radio Links f) Security Solutions

Design Services (Embedded Systems) a) AVR family b) MCS 51 c) ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN

Network Training a) CISCO CCNA, CCNP b) RED HAT LINUX c) SUN SOLARIS d) WINDOWS 2000, 2003

Netmax Technologies is a leader in education services and developer of innovative embedded solutions. To meet the demands of Post PC era Netmax provides complete solutions as well as design-to-order services to satisfy its customers.

EMBEDDED SYSTEM

What is Embedded System? Embedded system employs a combination of software & hardware to perform a specific function. It is a part of a larger system which may not be a computerWorks in a reactive & time constrained environment. Any electronic system that uses a CPU chip, but that is not a general-purpose workstation, desktop or laptop computer is known as embedded system. Such systems generally use microprocessors; microcontroller or they may use custom-designed chips or both. They are used in automobiles, planes, trains, space vehicles, machine tools, cameras, consumer and office appliances, cell phones, PDAs and other handhelds as well as robots and toys. The uses are endless, and billions of microprocessors are shipper every year for a myriad of applications. In embedded systems, the software is permanently set into a read-only memory such as a ROM or flash memory chip, in contrast to a general-purpose computer that loads its programs into RAM each time. Sometimes, single board and rack mounted general-purpose computers are called "embedded computers" if used to cont

Embedded System Applications : Consumer electronics, e.g., cameras, cell phones etc. Consumer products, e.g. washers, microwave ovens etc. Automobiles (anti-lock braking, engine control etc.) Industrial process controller & defense applications. Computer/Communication products, e.g. printers, FAX machines etc. Medical Equipments.

ATMs Aircrafts DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MICROPROCESSORS AND MICROCONTROLLERS: A Microprocessor is a general purpose digital computer central processing unit(C.P.U) popularly known as CPU on the chip. The Microprocessors contain no RAM, no ROM, and no I/P O/P ports on the chip itself. On the other hand a Microcontroller has a C.P.U(microprocessor) in addition to a fixed amount of RAM, ROM, I/O ports and a timer all on a single chip.

In order to make a Microprocessor functional we must add RAM, ROM, I/O Ports and timers externally to them,i.e any amount of external memory can be added to it.

But in controllers there is a fixed amount of memory which makes them ideal for many applications. The Microprocessors have many operational codes(opcodes) for moving data from external memory to the C.P.U Whereas Microcontrollers may have one or two operational codes.

DISADVANTAGES OF MICROPROCESSORS OVER MICROCONTROLLERS

System designed using Microprocessors are bulky They are expensive than Microcontrollers We need to add some external devices such as PPI chip, Memory, Timer/counter chip, Interrupt controller chip,etc. to make it functional.

TYPES OF MICROCONTROLLER ARCHITECTURE:

There are two types of Microcontroller architecture designed for embedded system development. These are: 1)RISC- Reduced instruction set computer 2)CISC- Complex instruction set computer DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CISC AND RISC: CISC stands for Complex Instruction Set Computer. Most PC's use CPU based on this architecture. For instance Intel and AMD CPU's are based on CISC architectures. Typically CISC chips have a large amount of different and complex instructions. In common CISC chips are relatively slow (compared to RISC chips) per instruction, but use little (less than RISC) instructions. MCS-51 family microcontrollers based on CISC architecture. RICS stands for Reduced Instruction Set Computer. The philosophy behind it is that almost no one uses complex assembly language instructions as used by CISC, and people mostly use compilers which never use complex instructions. Therefore fewer, simpler and faster instructions would be better, than the large, complex and slower CISC instructions. However, more instructions are needed to accomplish a task. Atmells AVR microcontroller based on RISC architecture.

PIC MICROCONTROLLER

PIC 16 SERIES-PIC16F73

PIC is a family of Harvard architecture microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology, derived from the PIC1640 originally developed by General Instrument's Microelectronics Division. The name PIC initially referred to "Peripheral Interface Controller". It is available in different configurations viz 8bit,16 bit,32 bit with instructions set as given below :

Under 8 bit comes-PIC10 xxxx, PIC12 xxxx, PIC16 xxxx, PIC18 xxxx.(12 bit instruction set) Under 16 bit comes-PIC24H,DSPIC30,DSPIC33. (14 bit instruction set) Under 32 bit comes-PIC32xxxx. (16 bit instruction set) PICs are popular with developers and hobbyists alike due to their low cost, wide availability, large user base, extensive collection of application notes, availability of low cost or free development tools, and serial programming (and reprogramming with flash memory) capability. Special Microcontroller Features: High performance RISC CPU. Only 35 single word instructions to learn. All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two-cycle. Operating speed: DC - 20 MHz clock input DC - 200 ns instruction cycle. Up to 8K x 14 words of FLASH Program Memory, Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM). Interrupt capability (up to 12 sources). Eight level deep hardware stack. Direct, Indirect and Relative Addressing modes. Processor read access to program memory. Power-on Reset (POR). Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST). Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation.

Programmable code protection Power saving SLEEP mode Selectable oscillator options In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP) via two pins. Peripheral Features: Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler. Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler, can be incremented during SLEEP via external crystal/clock. Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period register, prescaler and postscaler. Two Capture, Compare, PWM modules - Capture is 16-bit, max. resolution is 12.5 ns - Compare is 16-bit, max. resolution is 200 ns - PWM max. resolution is 10-bit. 8-bit, up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital converter. Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (Master mode) and I2C(Slave). Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART/SCI). Parallel Slave Port (PSP), 8-bits wide with external RD, WR and CS controls (40/44-pin only). Brown-out detection circuitry for Brown-out Reset (BOR). CMOS Technology: Low power, high speed CMOS FLASH technology. Fully static design. Wide operating voltage range: 2.0V to 5.5V. High Sink/Source Current: 25 Ma.

Industrial temperature range. Low power consumption: - < 2 mA typical @ 5V, 4 MHz

PIN DIAGRAM

PIN DESCRIPTION

MCLR-(pin 1) PIC16F7X devices have a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path. The filter will detect and ignore small pulses. It should be noted that a WDT Reset does not drive MCLR pin low. The behavior of the ESD protection on the MCLR pin has been altered from previous devices of this family. Voltages applied to the pin that exceed its specification can result in both MCLR Resets and excessive current beyond the device specification during the ESD event. For this reason, Microchip recommends that the MCLR pin no longer be tied directly to VDD. RESET The PIC16F7X differentiates between various kinds of RESET: Power-on Reset (POR) MCLR Reset during normal operation MCLR Reset during SLEEP WDT Reset (during normal operation) WDT Wake-up (during SLEEP) Brown-out Reset (BOR) Some registers are not affected in any RESET condion. Their status is unknown on POR and unchanged n any other RESET. Most other registers are reset to a RESET state on Power-on Reset (POR), on the MCLR and WDT Reset, on MCLR Reset during LEEP, and Brown-out Reset (BOR). They are not affected by a WDT Wake-up, which is viewed as the resumption of normal operation. The TO and PD bits are set or cleared differently in different RESET situations, as indicated

PORTA (pin 2 to 7)and the TRISA Register-

PORTA is a 6-bit wide, bi-directional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISA. Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a Hi-Impedance mode). Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the pins, whereas writing to it will write to the port latch. All write operations are read-modify-write operations. Therefore, a write to a port implies that the port pins are read, the value is modified and then written to the port data latch.

GND (pin 8)

Provide Ground to it.

OSC1/CLKIN-(pin 9) Oscillator crystal input/external clock source input

OSC2/CLKOUT-(pin 10) Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal or resonator in Crystal Oscillator mode. In RC mode, the OSC2 pin outputs CLKOUT which has 1/4 the frequency of OSC1, and denotes the instruction cycle rate. Oscillator:- CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR/CERAMIC RESONATORS In XT, LP or HS modes, a crystal or ceramic resonator is connected to the OSC1/CLKIN and OSC2/CLKOUT pins to establish oscillation. The PIC16F7X oscillator design requires the use of a parallel cut crystal. Use of a series cut crystal may give a

frequency out of the crystal manufacturers specifications. When in HS mode, the device can accept an external clock source to drive the OSC1/CLKIN pin. OSCILLATOR TYPES The PIC16F7X can be operated in four different oscillator modes: LP Low Power Crystal XT Crystal/Resonator HS High Speed Crystal/Resonator RC Resistor/Capacitor

PORTC and the TRISC Register(pin 11 to 18) PORTC is an 8-bit wide, bi-directional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISC. Setting a TRISC bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a Hi-Impedance mode). Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. When enabling peripheral functions, care should be taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin.

Vss(pin 19) Ground reference for logic and I/O pins

Vdd(pin 20)

Positive supply for logic and I/O pins

PORTB and the TRISB Register(pin 21 to 28) PORTB is an 8-bit wide, bi-directional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISB. Setting a TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a Hi-Impedance mode). Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. A single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups. The weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is configured as an output. The pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset.

CORE ARCHITECTURE

Figure 2.1: Showing a typical microcontroller device and its different subunits

The PIC architecture is distinctively minimalist. It is characterized by the following features: Separate code and data spaces (Harvard architecture) A small number of fixed length instructions Most instructions are single cycle execution (4 clock cycles), with single delay cycles upon branches and skips

A single accumulator (W), the use of which (as source operand) is implied (i.e. is not encoded in the opcode)

All RAM locations function as registers as both source and/or destination of math and other functions. A hardware stack for storing return addresses A fairly small amount of addressable data space (typically 256 bytes), extended through banking Data space mapped CPU, port, and peripheral registers The program counter is also mapped into the data space and writable (this is used to implement indirect jumps). Unlike most other CPUs, there is no distinction between memory space and register space because the RAM serves the job of both memory and registers, and the RAM is usually just referred to as the register file or simply as the registers

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Absolute Maximum Ratings Ambient temperature under bias...................................... .-55 to +125C Storage temperature.................................................... -65C to +150C Voltage on any pin with respect to VSS (except VDD, MCLR. and RA4) ......................................... -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V) Voltage on VDD with respect to VSS............................. -0.3 to +6.5V Voltage on MCLR with respect to VSS (Note2)..........................0 to +13.5V Voltage on RA4 with respect to Vss ..................................0 to +12V Total power dissipation (Note 1)................................................1.0W Maximum current out of VSS pin................................................300 mA

Maximum current into VDD pin .....................................................250 mA Input clamp current, IIK (VI < 0 or VI > VDD)............................ 20 mA Output clamp current, IOK (VO < 0 or VO > VDD) ...................... 20 mA Maximum output current sunk by any I/O pin..................................25 mA Maximum output current sourced by any I/O pin ............................25 mA Maximum current sunk by PORTA, PORTB, and PORTE (combined) (Note 3).....................................200 mA Maximum current sourced by PORTA, PORTB, and PORTE (combined) (Note 3) ..............................................200 mA Maximum current sunk by PORTC and PORTD (combined) (Note 3) ..................................................................200 mA Maximum current sourced by PORTC and PORTD (combined) (Note 3).............................................................200 mA Note 1: Power dissipation is calculated as follows: Pdis = VDD x {IDD - IOH} + {(VDD - VOH) x IOH} + (VOl x IOL) 2: Voltage spikes below VSS at the MCLR pin, inducing currents greater than 80 mA, may cause latch-up. Thus, a series resistor of 50-100 should be used when applying a low level to the MCLR pin, rather than pulling this pin directly to VSS. 3: PORTD and PORTE are not implemented on the PIC16F73/76 devices.

PROGRAMMING OF PIC COMPILER USED-

mikroCIntroduction to mikroC mikroC is a powerful, feature rich development tool for PICmicros. It is designed to provide the programmer with the easiest possible solution for developing applications for embedded systems, without compromising performance or control.

mikroC IDE PIC and C fit together well: PIC is the most popular 8-bit chip in the world, used in a wide variety of applications, and C, prized for its efficiency, is the natural choice for developing embedded systems. mikroC provides a successful match featuring highly advanced IDE, ANSI compliant compiler, broad set of hardware libraries, comprehensive documentation, and plenty of ready-to-run examples. Features mikroC allows you to quickly develop and deploy complex applications:

Write your C source code using the built-in Code Editor (Code and Parameter Assistants, Syntax Highlighting, Auto Correct, Code Templates, and more) Use the included mikroC libraries to dramatically speed up the development: data acquisition, memory, displays, conversions, communications Practically all P12, P16, and P18 chips are supported. Monitor your program structure, variables, and functions in the Code Explorer. Generate commented, human-readable assembly, and standard HEX compatible with all programmers. Inspect program flow and debug executable logic with the integrated Debugger. Get detailed reports and graphs: RAM and ROM map, code statistics, assembly listing, calling tree, and more We have provided plenty of examples for you to expand, develop, and use as building bricks in your projects. Copy them entirely if you deem fit thats why we included them with the compiler.

Projects mikroC organizes applications into projects, consisting of a single project file (extension .ppc) and one or more source files (extension .c). You can compile source files only if they are part of a project. The project file carries the following information: project name and optional description, target device, device flags (config word), device clock,

New Project The easiest way to create project is by means of New Project Wizard, drop-down menu Project New Project. Just fill the dialog with desired values (project name and description, location, device, clock, config word) and mikroC will create the appropriate project file . Also, an empty source file named after the project will be created by default. mikroC does not require you to have source file named same as the project, its just a matter of convenience. Edit Project Later, you can change project settings from the drop-down menu Project Edit Project. You can rename the project, modify its description, change chip, clock, config word, etc.

To delete a project, simply delete the folder in which the project file (extension .ppc) is stored. Add/Remove Files from Project A project can contain any number of source files (extension .c). The list of relevant source files is stored in the project file (extension .ppc). To add source file to your project, select Project Add to Project from the dropdown menu, or click the Add to Project Icon . Each added source file must be self-contained, i.e. it must have all the necessary definitions after preprocessing. To remove file(s) from your project, select Project Remove from Project from the drop-down menu, or click the Remove from Project Icon . Note: For inclusion of the header files (extension .h), use the preprocessor directive #include. See File Inclusion for more information. Extended functionality of the Project Files tab By using the Project Files' new features, you can reach all the output files (.lst, .asm) by a single click. You can also include in project the library files (.mcl), for libraries, either your own or compiler default, that are project-specific.

Libraries (.mcl) now have different, more compact format, compared to mikroC version 2. This, however, means that library formats are now incompatible. The users that are making transition from version 2 to 5, must re- build all their previously written libraries in order to use them in the new version. All the source code written and tested in previous versions should compile correctly on version 5.0, except for the asm{} blocks, which are commented in the asm section of help. Project Level Defines: Project Level Defines(.pld) files can also be added to project. Project level define files enable you to have defines that are visible in all source files in the project. A file must contain one definition per line in the following form: [=[]]

[=[]] Define a macro named symbol. To specify a value, use =. If = is omitted, 1 is assumed. Do not enter white-space characters immediately before "=". If a white- space character is entered immediately after "=", the macro is defined as zero token. This option can be specified repeatedly. Each appearance of symbol will be replaced by the value before compilation. There are two predefined project level defines see predefined project level defines.. Also mikroC has some pre defined functions:

Commonly used is 1). Delay_ms(time)-it provides a delay of spcified time in ms. Its internal code is similar to code given below: Void delay_ms() {int I; While (i !=0) { i--; } Also PIC has a internal TRIS register which controls the flow of insructions from the corresponding port.

PROGRAMMING AND INTERFACINGAdvantages of C over Assembly language programming:

Knowledge of the processor instruction set is not required. Details like register allocation and addressing of memory and data is managed by the compiler. Programs get a formal structure and can be divided into separate functions. Programming and program test time is drastically reduced, this increases efficiency. Keywords and operational functions can be used that come closer to how humans think. The supplied and supported C libraries contain many standard routines such as numeric conversions.

Reusable code: Existing program parts can be more easily included into new programs, because of the comfortable modular program construction techniques.

The C language based on the ANSI standard is very portable. Existing programs can be quickly adapted to other processors as needed.

PROJECT NO-1 LED INTERFACING AND ITS BLINKING(PORT PROGRAMMING)

the interfacing of LED is shown in the figure above.it is given Vcc through resistors of 330E. also a darlington pair IC is also used i.e.ULN 2803 which shift the dc level of volage coming from port of pic microcontroller. Now to glow the desired LED ,proper hexadecimal code for its binary is programmed in pic.eg.to glow alternative LEDs the binary code will be10101010 and its corresponding hexadecimal code will be 0xAA.

So,0xAA is fed to controller with coding. Also PIC has a internal TRIS register which controls the flow of insructions from the corresponding port i.ee PORT will behave as input(if =1) and as output(if=0). CODING FOR BLINKING

void main() { PORTC = 0; TRISC = 0; // Initialize PORTC // Configure PORTC as output

while(1) { PORTC = OxAA; Delay_ms(1000); }} Thus LED Blinking practical is done sucessfully. // gives code 10101010 to PORTC // one second delay

PROJECT NO-2 SEVEN SEGMENT INTERFACING AND DISPLAY

A Seven segment display consists of seven LEDs arranged in pattern of digit like 8

We use a bcd to seven segment decoder which saves pin of microcontroller from seven(one for each Led) to four.So we have to give bcd code for desired digit to be displayed on it. Now also we can display more then one seven segment display simultaneously.but it will take a number of pins of controller.So we use two pins from controller to control the display of seven segment one by one from same port such that it appears to be displaying simultaneously. Tdis is done by providing a very small delay such that our eyes cant even detect the change over from one display to another. CODING FOR DISPLAY

void main() { TRISB=0xf0; TRISC=0xf0; PORTC=0x00;

while(1) {

PORTB=0x00 ; delay_ms(1000);

//code for 0

PORTB=0x08 ; delay_ms(1000);

//code for 1

PORTB=0x04 ; delay_ms(1000);

//code for 2

PORTB=0x0c ; delay_ms(1000);

//code for 3

PORTB=0x02 ; delay_ms(1000);

//code for 4

PORTB=0x09 ; delay_ms(1000);

//code for 5

PORTB=0x06 ; delay_ms(1000);

//code for 6

PORTB=0x0e ; delay_ms(1000);

//code for 7

PORTB=0x01 ; delay_ms(10000);

//code for 8

PORTB=0x09 ; delay_ms(10000); } }

//code for 9

the above program will display 0 to 9 on one seven segment display with a delay of one second between it.\ NOW TO DISPLAY ON FOUR DISPLAYS CONNECTED.. CODE IS

void main() { TRISB=0xf0; TRISC=0xf0; PORTC=0x00; while(1) { PORTB=0x00 ; PORTC=0xfe ; delay_ms(100); //code for 0 //DISPLAYS ON FIRST 11111110

PORTB=0x08 ; PORTC=0xfd ; delay_ms(100); PORTB=0x04 ; PORTC=0xfb ; delay_ms(100);

//code for 1 //DISPLAYS ON SECOND 11111101

//code for 2 //DISPLAYS ON THIRD 11111011

PORTB=0x0C ; PORTC=0xf7 ; delay_ms(100);

//code for 3 //DISPLAYS ON FIRST 11110111

} }

Thus program for both single seven segment and multiple seven segment displays has been studied.

PROJECT NO-3 INTERFACING AND CONTROL OF STEPPER MOTOR WITH PIC 16F73

Stepper motor are those which rotates in steps.like all motors it is also based on electromagnetic induction i.e. electric field produces a magnetic field whose variation causes a torque which rotates the motor. A stepper motor is a brushless, synchronous electric motor that can divide a full rotation into a large number of steps. The motor's position can be controlled precisely, without any feedback mechanism (see open loop control). Stepper motors are similar to switched reluctance motors, which are very large stepping motors with a reduced pole count, and generally are closed-loop commutated. Fundamentals of Operation Stepper motors operate much differently from normal DC motors, which rotate when voltage is applied to their terminals. Stepper motors, on the other hand, effectively have multiple "toothed" electromagnets (a.k.a. phases) arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of iron. The electromagnets are energized by an external control circuit, such as a microcontroller. To make the motor shaft turn, first one electromagnet is

given power, which makes the gear's teeth magnetically attracted to the electromagnet's teeth. When the gear's teeth are thus aligned to the first electromagnet, they are slightly offset from the next electromagnet. So when the next electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off, the gear rotates slightly to align with the next one, and from there the process is repeated. Each of those slight rotations is called a "step." In that way, the motor can be turned a precise angle. Now to run the motor we have to feed the binary code to turn on the current of that winding For pair 1st-00000011(binary)-0x03 For pair 2nd-00000110(binary)-0x06 For pair 3rd -000001100(binary)-0x0c For pair 4th -00011000(binary)-0x09 CODE IS void forward(); void reverse(); int i; void main() { TRISB=0xf0;

PORTB=0x00; while(1) { forward(); delay_ms(400); reverse(); delay_ms(400); } }

void forward() { for(i=0;i 0-5000mV // extract volts digit // write ASCII digit at 2nd row, 9th column

tlong = (long)adc_rd * 4610; tlong = tlong / 255; ch = tlong / 1000;

LCD_Chr(2,9,48+ch); LCD_Chr_CP('.');

ch

= (tlong / 100) % 10;

// extract 0.1 volts digit // write ASCII digit at cursor point

LCD_Chr_CP(48+ch);

ch

= (tlong / 10) % 10;

// extract 0.01 volts digit // write ASCII digit at cursor point

LCD_Chr_CP(48+ch);

ch

= tlong % 10;

// extract 0.001 volts digit // write ASCII digit at cursor point

LCD_Chr_CP(48+ch);

LCD_Chr_CP('V'); delay_ms(3000) ; delay_ms(1); } }

PROJECT NO-6 TO STUDY SWITCHING ACTION OF PIC PINS. As in AT89s51,the way of addressing pins is by p0.0,p0.1..so on. Similarly in PIC it is possible to address pins using Syntax: PORT( NAME).F(0 to 7) Now pin can be put ON or OFF according to via resistor. Internally,when pin is high its flip flop is sat.when external switch is closed ,it forces no current or voltage to enter to pin and also lowers the pin from 1 to 0.

Thus when switch is pressed ,the pin becomes zero.so ,implementing this in practical.

The swiches whose one end are connected to pins of nontroller are shown on next page

The coding will be as follos:

#define s0 PORTC.F0 #define s1 PORTC.F1 #define s2 PORTC.F2 #define s3 PORTC.F3 #define s4 PORTC.F4

void main() { TRISB=0x00; \\ PORT B AS OUTPUT TRISC=0xff; PORTC=0xff; do { if(s0==0) { PORTB=0x80; \\1st LED glows \\1st switch is pressed \\PORT C as input \\ ALL F/FS TO SET

delay_ms(600); } if(s1==0) { PORTB=0x40; delay_ms(600); } if(s2==0) \\3rd switch is pressed { PORTB=0x20; delay_ms(600); } if(s3==0) { PORTB=0x10; delay_ms(600); } \\4th LED glows \\4th switch is pressed \\3rd LED glows \\2nd LED glows \\2nd switch is pressed

else { PORTB=0xff; }} while(1); } Thus switching action is studied.

PROJECT NO-7 INTERFACING OF KEYBOARD MATRIX As in last practical,we use one switch per pinof controller.So,to use 8 pins for 8 switches. While if it is desired to have more options for a pin,a matrix is formed in which row and column are made such that each pin can contol more than one switch or vice versa. h/w connection are

The coding for keyboard (4*4) matrix is as follows: #define row0 PORTC.F0 #define row1 PORTC.F1 #define row2 PORTC.F2

#define row3 PORTC.F3 #define col0 PORTC.F4 #define col1 PORTC.F5 #define col2 PORTC.F6 #define col3 PORTC.F7

void main() { TRISB=0x00; TRISC=0xff; PORTC=0xff; LCD_INIT(&PORTB); LCD_OUT(1,1,"SWITCH="); do { LCD_OUT(1,8," "); if(row0==0 && col0==0)

{ lcd_out(1,8,"k0"); delay_ms(600); } if(row0==0 && col1==0) { lcd_out(1,8,"k1"); delay_ms(600); } if(row0==0 && col2==0) { lcd_out(1,8,"k2"); delay_ms(600); } if(row0==0 && col3==0) { lcd_out(1,8,"k3");

delay_ms(600); } if(row1==0 && col0==0) { lcd_out(1,8,"k4"); delay_ms(600); } if(row1==0 && col1==0) { lcd_out(1,8,"k5"); delay_ms(600); } if(row1==0 && col2==0) { lcd_out(1,8,"k6"); delay_ms(600); }

if(row1==0 && col3==0) { lcd_out(1,8,"k7"); delay_ms(600); } if(row2==0 && col0==0) { lcd_out(1,8,"k8"); delay_ms(600); }

if(row2==0 && col1==0) { lcd_out(1,8,"k9"); delay_ms(600); } if(row2==0 && col2==0)

{ lcd_out(1,8,"k10"); delay_ms(600); } if(row2==0 && col3==0) { lcd_out(1,8,"k11"); delay_ms(600); } else {Lcd_out(1,8," } while(1); } Tfus,the keyboard matrx practical is performed. ");}

PROJECT NO-8 SERIAL COMMUNICATION(B/W PC AND MICROCONTROLLER) To send data via single line through a bit stream is known as serial communication. Reception is of type SIPO-Serial Input Parallel Output. Transmission is of type PISO-Parallel Input Serial Output.

Clock used in serial communication is called BAUD RATE.

PIC has two buffers and it allows full duplex communication.to change settings we have to re configure TXSTA register The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI.) The USART can be configured as a full duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices, such as CRT terminals and personal computers, or it can be configured as a half duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices, such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits, serial EEPROMs, etc.

The USART can be configured in the following modes: Asynchronous (full duplex) Synchronous - Master (half duplex) Synchronous - Slave (half duplex) Bit SPEN (RCSTA) and bits TRISC have to be set in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter.TXSTA: TRANSMIT STATUS AND CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 98hR/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 R-1 R/W-0

CSRC bit 7

TX9

TXEN

SYNC

BRGH

TRMT

TX9D

CSRC: Clock Source Select bit Asynchronous mode: Dont care Synchronous mode: 1 = Master mode (Clock generated internally from BRG) 0 = Slave mode (Clock from external source)

bit 6

TX9: 9-bit Transmit Enable bit 1 = Selects 9-bit transmission 0 = Selects 8-bit transmission bit 5 TXEN: Transmit Enable bit 1 = Transmit enabled 0 = Transmit disabled Note: SREN/CREN overrides TXEN in SYNC mode. bit 4 SYNC: USART Mode Select bit 1 = Synchronous mode 0 = Asynchronous mode Unimplemented: Read as '0' BRGH: High Baud Rate Select bit Asynchronous mode: 1 = High speed

bit 3 bit 2

0 = Low speed Synchronous mode: Unused in this mode bit 1 TRMT: Transmit Shift Register Status bit 1 = TSR empty 0 = TSR full TX9D: 9th bit of transmit data. Can be parity bit

bit 0

now in mikroC UART terminal also work as shown as

Now coding 1).to transmit data.. void main() { usart_init(2400); while(1)

{ usart_write('s'); usart_write('a'); usart_write('g'); usart_write('a'); usart_write('r'); delay_ms(600); } } 2).to transmit as well as read unsigned int i; void main() { usart_init(2400); while(1) { if(usart_data_ready() )

{ i= usart_read(); usart_write('i'); } usart_write('s'); usart_write('a'); usart_write('g'); usart_write('a'); usart_write('r'); delay_ms(600); } 3). To send an array unsigned char arr[] =("sagar$"); void display(unsigned char*s);

void main() {

Usart_Init(2400); while(1) { display(arr); delay_ms(600); } } void display(unsigned char*s) { while(*s!='$') { usart_Write(*s); delay_ms(10); s++; } }

Thus serial communication has been studied successfully.

POWER SYSTEM DESIGN First part of electronics ckts. is power. The main power supply is in AC but mostly electronic ckts. work with DC. So a system is required to convert ac to dc and these sources should able to produce stable supplies. Power supplies may be used in. may be of different types such as regulated, unregulated, smps etc. Unregulated power supplies These are the power supplies in which the out put is not constant. That it is varies with input voltage, load, and also effected by the environment conditions such as temperature, etc. so these are the variable supplies. Commonly these supplies are not employed as there efficiency is very less. The unregulated power can be obtained using rectifying circuit after AC supply. Regulated power supplies These are the power supplies in which the output voltage is constant, i.e. the out put voltage is independent of the input voltage, load and other external

conditions. So to obtain the regulated voltage using different regulators. The regulator voltage is mainly the DC voltage, it may AC to or DC to DC voltage. A better approach to power supply design is to use enough capacitance to reduce ripple to low level, then use an active feedback circuit to eliminate the remaining ripple and dependence of output voltage on input, load and environment conditions. These active devices are known as Regulators. These regulators can be used to produce negative and positive voltage of required value. The voltage regulators are of three types:1) Constant positive voltage regulators 2) Constant negative voltage regulators 3) Variable voltage regulators

Constant positive voltage regulators:- These are the regulators which are able to produce positive and constant voltage. Some of them are given below:S. no. 1 2 3 4 Name of regulator LM 7805 LM 7810 LM 7812 LM 7815 Output voltage 5v 10v 12v 15v

These regulators are used according to the required voltage need.

Constant negative voltage regulators:- These are also the constant output voltage regulator but there output is negative in polarity. These regulators are also employed according to voltage requirements. Some of them are given below with there outputs:S. no 1 2 3 4 Name of regulator LM7905 LM7910 LM7912 LM7915 Output voltage -5v -10v -12v -15v

Variable voltage regulators:- These are the regulator whose output voltage can be varied according to the desired need. These regulators again of two types i.e.: Positive Negative

The output of these regulators can be varied by varying the resistance of the variable resistance which is connected to the adjustable pin the regulators. So these are the most commonly used regulators in the electronic industry as wide range of stable voltage can be obtained from single chip by varying the resistance connected to the adjustable pin of the regulators. The most commonly variable regulators are:-

LM317 (it is positive regulator) LM 337(it is negative regulator)

There description is given below:LM317 3-Terminal Adjustable Regulator:-

General Description: The LM317 series of adjustable 3-terminal positive voltage regulators is capable of supplying in excess of 1.5A over a 1.2V to 37V output range. They are exceptionally easy to use and require only two external resistors to set the output voltage. Further, both line and load regulation is better than standard fixed regulators. Also, the LM117 is packaged in standard transistor packages which are easily mounted and handled. In addition to higher performance than fixed regulators, theLM317 series offers full overload protection available only in ICs. Included on the chip are current limit, thermal overload protection and safe area protection. All overload protection circuitry remains fully functional even if the adjustment terminal is disconnected. Normally, no capacitors are needed unless the device is situated more than 6 inches from the input filter capacitors in which case an input bypass is needed. An optional output capacitor can be added to improve transient response.

The adjustment terminal can be bypassed to achieve very high ripple rejection ratios which are difficult to achieve with standard voltage, supplies of several hundred volts can be regulated as long as the maximum input to output differential is not exceeded, i.e., avoid short-circuiting the output. Also, it makes an especially simple adjustable switching regulator, a programmable output regulator, or by connecting a fixed resistor between the adjustment pin and output, theLM317 can be used as a precision current regulator. Supplies with electronic shutdown can be achieved by clamping the adjustment terminal to ground which programs the output to 1.2V where most loads draw little current.

Typical application:

U 3 V I N V

L M 1 I N V ADJ

3

1 2 U

7

/ C

Y

L

O

T V O U T R 1 2 2 0

1

E

C 2 . 1 u

F

C 1 . 1 u

F R 2 5 k

Features 1. Guaranteed 1% output voltage tolerance (LM317A) 2. Guaranteed max. 0.01%/V line regulation (LM317A) 3. Guaranteed max. 0.3% load regulation (LM317) 4. Guaranteed 1.5A output current 5. Adjustable output down to 1.2V

6. Current limit constant with temperature 7. P+ Product Enhancement tested 8. 80 dB ripple rejection 9. Output is short-circuit protected Packages of LM317

Application Hints:

In

operation,

the

LM317 VREF,

develops a nominal 1.25V reference voltage,

between the output and adjustment terminal. The reference voltage is impressed across program resistor R1 and, since the voltage is constant, constant current I1 then flows through the output set resistor R2, giving an output voltage of

Since the 100A current from the adjustment terminal represents an error term, the LM317 was designed to minimize IADJ and make it very constant with line and load changes. To do this, all quiescent operating current is returned to the output establishing a minimum load current requirement. If there is insufficient load on the output, the output will rise.

PROTECTION DIODES:When external capacitors are used with any IC regulator it is sometimes necessary to add protection diodes to prevent the capacitors from discharging through low current points into the regulator. Most 10F capacitors have low enough internal series resistance to deliver 20A spikes when shorted. Although the surge is short, there is enough energy to damage parts of the IC. When an output capacitor is connected to a regulator and the input is shorted, the output capacitor will discharge into the output of the regulator. The discharge current depends on the value of the capacitor, the output voltage of the regulator, and the rate of decrease

of VIN. In the LM317, this discharge path is through a large junction that is able to sustain 15A surge with no problem. This is not true of other types of

The bypass capacitor on the adjustment terminal can discharge through a low current junction. Discharge occurs when either the input or output is shorted. Internal to the LM317 is a 50resistor which limits the peak discharge current. No protection is needed for output voltages of 25V or less and 10F capacitance. Figure 3 shows an LM317 with protection diodes included for use with outputs greater than 25V and high values of output capacitance.

Bench supply diagram

D 1 2 U L 3 2 C 2 0 8 C B B J 1 2 3 C O N 3 8 3 R R 1 I D 2 G + 1 E 1 1 0 1 4 R 0 u F 5 0 V 5

2 N 1 L 1 D 4 5 6 - V C 9 C 1K 1W C R 12 1 A 0 P U C T V O S R J 1 2 S 3 C 7 A U D I O _ I N 3 2 1 2 D 3 4 0 0 7

M

3 2

1

7

/ T

O

2

2

0

V

VI N O AD J

U

T

R 1 R R R 9P 1 O 0 TR

8

O

N

3

1 1N 4007 1 1

10uF 25V T AN T C 12

R

R

R 1 1P 3 O

4

TR

1

5

4

470uF 50V C 1 5 C C

C 13

R

R R 16

10uF 25V T AN T

2

2

0

0

U 1 2

6 R V ADJ I N 3 V O U T R

2

1 1

7 6 5 74

1K 1W

470uF 50V

C C 1 14 7 u F 1 05 40 V

1 A

6 P

L

2 1 2 3

- V

S

1 L M 3 3 1 D 1 N 5 7 / T 2 4 0 0 O 2

D

N 2

4 0

4

0

0

I N 7

D

U

C

T

O

R

A

U

D

I O

_

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Wikipedia MicroC Manuals www.talkingelectronics.com www.howstuffworks.com The Art of Electronics (Book)