21-1 preview of chapter 21 financial and managerial accounting weygandt kimmel kieso
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- 21-1 Preview of Chapter 21 Financial and Managerial Accounting Weygandt Kimmel Kieso
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- 21-2 Making decisions is an important management function. Does not always follow a set pattern. Decisions vary in scope, urgency, and importance. Steps usually involved in process include: Illustration 21-1 Managements Decision-Making Process
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- 21-3 Managements Decision-Making Process
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- 21-4 Types of Decision Making Programmed Decisions: routine, almost automatic process. Managers have made decision many times before. There are rules or guidelines to follow. Example: Deciding to reorder office supplies. Non-programmed Decisions: unusual situations that have not been often addressed. No rules to follow since the decision is new. These decisions are made based on information, and a mangers intuition, and judgment. Example: Should the firm invest in a new technology?
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- 21-5 Decisions are broadly taken at three levels: Strategic decisions big choices of identity and direction. Who are we? Where are we heading? These decisions are often complex and multi-dimensional. May involve large dollars and have a long-term impact usually made by senior management. Tactical decisions how to manage performance to achieve the strategy (from senior management). What resources are needed? What is the timescale? These decisions are distinctive but within clearer boundaries. They may involve significant resources, have medium-term implications and may be taken by senior or middle managers. Operational decisions routine and follow known rules. How many? To what specification? These decisions involve more limited resources, have a shorter-term application and can be taken by middle or first line managers.
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- 21-6 Managements Decision- Making Process
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- 21-7 Managements Decision-Making Process
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- 21-8 The steps are: a. Identify the problem and assign responsibility. b. Determine / evaluate possible courses of action. c. Make a decision. d. Review the results of the decision. Accountings contribution to this process primarily occurs in steps (b) and (d) evaluating possible courses of action, and reviewing results. Managements Decision-Making Process
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- 21-9 In making business decisions, Considers both financial and non-financial information. Financial information Revenues and costs, and Effect on overall profitability. Non-financial information Effect on employee turnover The environment Overall company image. Managements Decision-Making Process
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- 21-11 Decisions involve a choice among alternative actions. Process used to identify the financial data that change under alternative courses of action. Both costs and revenues may vary or Only revenues may vary or Only costs may vary Incremental Analysis Approach Managements Decision-Making Process
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- 21-12 Important concepts in incremental analysis: Relevant cost. Revenues or Costs that DIFFER between options Option 1: Buy a Honda Civic with a GPS $20,500 Option 2: Buy Honda Civic without GPS $ 21,000 Managements Decision-Making Process
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- 21-13 Important concepts in incremental analysis: Opportunity cost. - - Potential benefit lost when you choose one thing over another the next best choice. Opportunity costs of going away to college full-time include: * wages that could have been earned, * the value of any activities missed to study, * value of items that you could have bought with tuition money. Managements Decision-Making Process
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- 21-14 Important concepts in incremental analysis: Sunk Costs. Cost that cannot be changed or avoided by any present or future choice. Money spent on a non-refundable deposit. Concert tickets already bought for this weekend. Managements Decision-Making Process
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- 21-15 Sometimes involves changes that seem contrary to intuition. Variable costs sometimes do not change under alternatives. Fixed costs sometimes change between alternatives. Incremental analysis not the same as CVP analysis. Managements Decision-Making Process How Incremental Analysis Works
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- 21-16 1. 1.Accept an order at a special price. 2. 2.Make or buy component parts or finished products. 3. 3.Sell or process further them further 4. 4.Repair, retain, or replace equipment. 5. 5.Eliminate an unprofitable business segment or product. Types of Incremental Analysis
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- 21-17 Obtain additional business by making a major price concession to a specific customer. Assumes that sales of products in other markets are not affected by special order. Assumes that company is not operating at full capacity. Accept an Order at a Special Price
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- 21-18 Illustration: Sunbelt Company produces 100,000 Smoothie blenders per month, which is 80% of plant capacity. Variable manufacturing costs are $8 per unit. Fixed manufacturing costs are $400,000, or $4 per unit. The blenders are normally sold directly to retailers at $20 each. Sunbelt has an offer to purchase an additional 2,000 blenders at $11 per unit. Acceptance of the offer would not affect normal sales of the product. The units can be manufactured without increasing plant capacity. What should management do? Accept an Order at a Special Price
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- 21-19 Fixed costs do not change since within existing capacity thus fixed costs are not relevant. Variable manufacturing costs and expected revenues change thus both are relevant to the decision. Accept an Order at a Special Price
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- 21-20 Accept or Reject? Cobb Company incurs costs of $28 per unit ($18 variable and $10 fixed) to make a product that normally sells for $42. A foreign wholesaler offers to buy 5,000 units at $25 each. Cobb will incur additional shipping costs of $1 per unit. Compute the increase or decrease in net income Cobb will realize by accepting the special order, assuming Cobb has excess operating capacity. Should Cobb Company accept the special order? Accept or Reject?
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- 21-21 Illustration: Baron Company incurs the following annual costs in producing 25,000 ignition switches for motor scooters. Make or Buy Instead of making its own switches company can purchase the switches at a price of $8 each. What should management do?
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- 21-22 Total manufacturing cost is $1 higher per unit than purchase price. Must absorb at least $50,000 of fixed costs under either option. Make or Buy
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- 21-23 Make or Buy Opportunity Cost Illustration: Assume that through buying the switches, Baron Company can use the released productive capacity to generate additional income of $38,000 from producing a different product. This lost income is an additional cost of continuing to make the switches in the make-or-buy decision.
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- 21-24 In a make-or-buy decision, relevant costs are: a.Manufacturing costs that will be saved. b. The purchase price of the units. c. Opportunity costs. d. All of the above. Review Question
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- 21-25 J Company must decide whether to make or buy some of its components for appliances it makes. Costs of making 166,000 electrical cords for its appliances are as follows. Direct materials $90,000 Variable overhead $32,000 Direct labor 20,000 Fixed overhead .24,000 Instead of making the electrical cords at an average cost per unit of $1.00 ($166,000 166,000), company has an opportunity to buy the cords at $0.90 each. If company purchases the cords, all variable costs and 1/4 of the fixed costs will be eliminated. (a)Prepare an analysis of whether company should make or buy the cords. (b)What if the released productive (manufacturing) capacity will generate additional income of $5,000?
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- 21-26 (a) Prepare an incremental analysis showing whether the company should make or buy the electrical cords. Juanita Company will incur $1,400 of additional costs if it buys the electrical cords rather than making them.
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- 21-27 (b) Will your answer be different if the released productive capacity will generate additional income of $5,000? Yes, net income will be increased by $3,600 if Juanita Company purchases the electrical cords rather than making them.
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- 21-28 May have option to sell product at a given point in production or to process further and sell at a higher price. Decision Rule: Process further as long as the incremental revenue from processing exceeds the incremental processing costs. Sell or Process Further
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- 21-29 Sell or Process Further - Single-Product Case Illustration: W makes tables. Cost to make an unfinished table is $35. The selling price per unfinished unit is $50. W has unused capacity that can be used to finish the tables and sell them at $60 per unit. Direct materials will increase $2 Direct labor costs will increase $4. Variable overhead costs will increase by $2.40 (60% of direct labor). No increase is anticipated in fixed overhead.
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- 21-30 Should Woodmasters sell or process further.Should Woodmasters sell or process fu
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