2011 united states constitution
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- 1. THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION
2. * CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION : A Distinguished Gathering -Delegates met inPhiladelphia .(Independence Hall) -Began on May 25, 1787.- George Washingtonchosen to be leader of convention.-Most delegates had taken part in the Revolution in some way.- James Madison : Delegate from Virginia.Became known as the Father of the Constitution.-Alexander Hamilton: Delegate from New York 3. * Proposals for a New Government : -Delegates agreed to get rid of the Articlesand create a whole new govt.-2 plans presented by delegates A.The Virginia Plan: -Presented byJames Madisonand delegates from Virginia.-Proposed a federal system of govt.-3 Branches:1. Legislative: ( Congress )Make the laws . 2. Executive: ( President )Enforce laws . 3. Judicial: ( Courts )Interpret the laws . -Bicameral Legislature:1. Lower House: Rep. elected by people.2. Upper House: Selected by lower house.-# of reps. would be based on state population.-Favored larger states.FEDERAL : A form of govt in which states keep certain powers but give final authority to a central govt. James Madison : Father of the Constitution 4.
- B.The New Jersey Plan :
- -Presented by William Paterson of New Jersey.
- -3 Branches: Legislative would only have one house and every state would have same # of reps.
- -Favored by the smaller states.
- C.The Great Compromise : Roger Sherman of Connecticut proposed a plan that merged the Virginia and New Jersey plans.
- -3 Branches:
- 1. Legislative: Congress was to be bicameral.
- A.House of Representatives : # of reps. Based on states population.Elected by the people.
- B.Senate : 2 reps. per state.
- 2. Executive: President chosen by the Electoral College
- 3. Judicial
- D.Three-Fifths Compromise :
- -Southern states wantedslavesto count towards state pop., northern states did not.
- -Under this comp., a slave would count as 3/5s of a person towards pop.5slaves =3people towards population.
5. 6. 7. * Ratifying the Constitution : -The work of the convention was done by September, 1787. -The Constitution was sent to every state government to be discussed and voted on.- 9states out of the 13 had to ratify it in order for it to become effective.-A conflict emerges over the Constitution.Federalistvs. Anti-Federalist.1.Federalists : Led by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay.They wanted the Constitution. 2.Anti-Federalists : Led by Thomas Jefferson.They did not want the Constitution.FEDERALIST : Favored the new plan of government. ANTI-FEDERALIST : Opposed the new plan of government.Alexander Hamilton 8.
- FEDERALISTS :
- Strong national government.
- Govt controlled by wealthy, educated citizens.
- Policies favorable to trade, business, and finance.
- A national bank.
- Protective tariffs.
- Strong ties with Great Britain, but not with France.
- ANTI-FEDERALISTS :
- Limited national government.
- Govt controlled by ordinary citizens.
- Policies favorable to farmers, artisans, and skilled workers.
- State banks.
- Free Trade.
- Strong ties with France, but not with Great Britain.
Thomas Jefferson James Madison 9. - Anti-Federalists : Believed the central government would be to powerful and would take away the rights of the people.- Federalists : Responded by saying that the govt could not take away rights of citizens because states had constitutions that contained bills of rights that protected citizens rights, said new govt could handle problems in nations such as taxes, money, foreign affairs.-Federalists wrote series of essays to promote the new Constitution.Essays called theFederalist Papers .- Federalist Papers:Essays written to explain the Constitution and promote its ratification.*1788: 9th state ratifies the Constitution and it goes into effect.* Americans Prepare for the New Government :-Under the Constitution, the new govt would be based inNew York City .-Elections were planned for states to select their senators, representatives, and members of the Electoral College. 10. 11. Supreme Court 12. 13. 14. 15. By June,1788 , 9 states had ratified the Constitution and it went into effect.-September, 1788: Congress under the Articles of Confederation approvedNYCas the capital and set a date for January for states to select presidential electors.-February, 1789: Electors voted for President and Vice President.-President:George Washington ; Took oath of office in April, 1789 -Vice President:John Adams -By 1790, all 13 states had ratified it.-1789: 12 amendments proposed; 10 approved in 1791 and became known as theBill of Rights . 16. PRINCIPLES OF THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION: -When the Constitution was written, the Founding Fathers included certain principles of government that reflect some of the fundamental values of our democratic system.5 PRINCIPLES OF THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION:1.POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY:Based on the preamble to the Constitution, it is clear that the power and authority of the govt comes from theAmericanpeople. 17.
- LIMITING THE POWER OF GOVERNMENT:The Founding Fathers did not want the national government to have to much power.The Constitution included the concept ofLimited Government . Under this idea, the national government:
- a. does not have absoluteauthority . (The people do.)
- b. may only do those things that the people have given it the power to do.
- c. must obey its ownlaws . (No one is above the law.)
- d. must follow theConstitution .
- SHARING OF POWER:Under the Constitution, states had to give up some of their power to the new national govt.This division of power is known asFEDERALISM .
- FEDERALISM :A system of govt in which power is divided between the national and
- state governments.
18. NATIONAL GOVT ONLY :STATE GOVT ONLY :BOTH GOVERNMENTS : 19.
- SEPARATION OF POWERS:The Founding Fathers further limited the power of govt by dividing it into3branches:legislative ,executive , and judicial .This is known as aSEPARATION OF POWERS .
- SEPARATION OF POWERS :The duties and responsibilities of govt are divided into 3 separate but co-equal branches.
- LEGISLATIVE :EXECUTIVE : JUDICIAL :
- Makes the laws Enforces the laws Interprets the laws
- (CONGRESS) (PRESIDENT) (COURTS)
20. Supreme Court: 3 BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT 21.
- 5.PROTECTING AGAINST TYRANNY:The Founding Fathers created a govt in which each branch has some way to check or control the other two branches.This limits the power of govt and prevents the abuse of power.This is known asCHECKS AND BALANCES .
- CHECKS AND BALANCES :The ability of each branch of government to check, control, or limit the power of the other branches.
- The accumulation of all powers, legislative, executive,
- and judiciary, in the same hands,whether one, a few,
- or many is the very definition of tyranny.
- -James Madison
- Judicial Branch: The US Supreme Court has the power of judicial review.They can declare a law or action of govt unconstitutional.
- JUDICIAL REVIEW :Power of the courts to determine whether legislative and executive actions are in agreement with the Constitution.
- UNCONSTITUTIONAL :In violation of the US Constitution.
22. 23. 24. THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION :**ORGANIZATION OF THE CONSTITUTION** The United States Constitution is organized into 3 sections. 1.Preamble : Introduction to the Constitution.-States the goals of the national government.2.Articles : Organizes the national government. -7 articles which organize and guide the national government.3.Amendments : Changes to the US Constitution.-Changes that either add to or take away from the original wording of the articles in the Constitution.-Currently, 27 amendments have been made. 25. PREAMBLE :Introduction to the Constitution that establishes the major goals of the Constitution.1.In order to form a more perfect union.(Promote unity among states) 2.Establish justice.(Court system to administer justice) 3.Insure domestic tranquility.(Create peace in the states) 4.Provide for the common defense.(Military to protect nation) 5.Promote the general welfare.(Do things to help/protect people) 6.Secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity.(Ensure that we have freedom for ourselves and future Americans)____________________ _______________________________________ ________________________________ _______________ _______________ ______________ ____________ _________________________ ______________________ ____ 26. ARTICLES :7 articles that established and organized the national government.They provide a framework and guidelines for the govt to operate under. ARTICLE 1: LEGISLATIVE BRANCH (Makes the laws) ARTICLE 2: EXECUTIVE BRANCH (Enforces the laws) ARTICLE 3: JUDICIAL BRANCH (Interprets the laws) ARTICLE 4: THE STATES AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT ARTICLE 5: AMENDING THE CONSTITUTION ARTICLE 6: SUPREMACY OF FEDERAL LAWS ARTICLE 7:RATIFICATION OF THE CONSTITUTION 27. ARTICLE 1 : LEGISLATIVE BRANCH -Establishes Congress as a bicameral legislature and sets its powers, duties, responsibilities, and limi