20 th century latin america. latin america quick review- let’s talk it out!
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20 th Century Latin America Latin America Quick Review- Lets Talk It Out! MEXICO Mexican Revolution, 1910 Porfirio Daz = dictator from Liberty, Order, Progress Foreign investors and a small group of wealthy, well connected business men flourished. Peasants repressed by military Revolution broke out in Pancho Villa & Emiliano Zapata = peasant leaders. Worked to redistribute land. This group became too radical for the middle class and lost the support of wealthier Mexicans in the cities. Zapata Pancho Villa Pancho Villa & Emiliano Zapata worked to redistribute land (countryside) was too radical for the middle class and wealthier Mexicans (cities). Middle class supported the Constitutionalists Constitutionalists worked to suppress the peasant revolt Constitution of 1917 = agrarian reforms, universal suffrage, labor protections, & public schools (to take power from the Catholic Church) Constitutionalists After the Revolution Lzaro Crdenas elected president One party rule- Mexican Revolutionary Party Redistributed land to peasants Nationalized industries Took over foreign-owned oil companies Actually obeys the constitution! ARGENTINA & BRAZIL Argentina & Brazil Rule by large land owners. Both focused on farm products for export Industry owned by outsiders (especially British) In the 1910s & 1920s Britain had to sell these industries to the representative home govts. Why? Rising middle class. Argentina & Brazil - Dictators Great Depression caused dictatorships to develop. Getulio Vargas in Brazil ( ) Wrote a constitution Fascist leader (but Allies with US during WWII) Import Substitution Industrialization Becomes Supreme Leader Juan Pern in Argentina ( ) Inspired by Nazis- conquest of South America! Militaristic At close of WWII this plan was not working! Wife, Eva (Evita) helped to heal husbands image Focus on social issues and industry Evita died in husband would be overthrown Juscelino Kubitschek Brazils president following Vargas. Known for political and economic achievements Guarantor of democracy Built Brasilia New Capital One of the most respected leaders of Brazil My brothers girlfriend, Jusceleia, is named after him! CUBA Cuba: Communism US-backed dictator in power: Batista. Economy run by the USA. Overthrown by Communist Revolutionary Fidel Castro. Ernesto Che Guevara- Castros chief lieutenant and main communist theorist in Latin America! Redistributed wealth. Kicked out US business. Sought $ & support from USSR. Cuban Missile Crisis. For developing nations Cuba = a successful challenge to the USA up until recently Normalization of relations MODERN DAY Today No more dictatorships, except in Cuba Fidel Castro still alive Brother Ral in power since February 2008 A developing country Mexico President Enrique Pena Nieto One of the largest economies in the world Considered an emerging power Mexican Drug War (2006- present) -ongoing armed conflict among rival drug cartels fighting one another for regional control and against the Mexican government forces and civilian vigilante groups. CCOT: Mexico Analyze the changes and continuities within the political and economic systems of Mexico from the period 1820-present. Conservative Reaction: Chile The powerful in Latin Am. feared Cubas example. Brazil clamped down on dissidents. Chiles elected leader in 1970 = Allende. Big social reformer. Ousted by conservative Pinochet dictator, helped by USA & CIA. Violent repression of dissent. HARSH dictatorship, no personal rights. Conservative Reaction: Argentina Dictatorship took over in Argentina to repress social reformers. Dirty Wars 1970s. Thousands died in repression when the military seized power. Nicaragua Dictator Samoza ruled in 1970s. Overthrown by Sandinistas (with Communist leanings & support) Iran-Contra Affair. The USA sold weapons to Iran & funneled profits to Contras who fought against Sandinistas. HUGE amount of violence & weapons influx into Central America.