2 - 1 CH 104 Chapter 3: Nuclear Chemistry Radioactivity Nuclear Equations Radiation Detection Half-Life Medical Applications Fission & Fusion.

Download 2 - 1 CH 104 Chapter 3: Nuclear Chemistry Radioactivity Nuclear Equations Radiation Detection Half-Life Medical Applications Fission & Fusion.

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  • Slide 1
  • 2 - 1 CH 104 Chapter 3: Nuclear Chemistry Radioactivity Nuclear Equations Radiation Detection Half-Life Medical Applications Fission & Fusion
  • Slide 2
  • 2 - 2 CH 104 Isotopes of Hydrogen Isotopes = Isotopes = Atoms of the same element but having different masses. 1111 2121 3131 H H H +- +-+- Protium99.99% Deuterium0.01% Tritium Trace % Average Atomic weight Average Atomic weight of Hydrogen 1.00794 amu = 1.00794 amu
  • Slide 3
  • 2 - 3 CH 104 Isotopes of Carbon Average Atomic weight12.011 amu Average Atomic weight of C= 12.011 amu 98.89% C 612C 613 C 6141.11% Trace % + + + + ++ - --- - - - + + + + ++-- - - - + + + + ++---- - -
  • Slide 4
  • 2 - 4 CH 104 Radioactive Isotopes C 614 + + + + ++---- - - + 3131 H - Nucleus is unstable So falls apart (decays) Giving radioactive particles Hydrogen-3 Carbon-14
  • Slide 5
  • 2 - 5 CH 104 Radioactive Isotopes in Medicine Tc 4399m 123 53 53 I 131 I 6027 Co Diagnose thyroid function Treat hyperthyroid (destroys cells) Destroy tumors ( radiation) Diagnose bone, tissue (most common)
  • Slide 6
  • 2 - 6 CH 104 Alpha Decay Pb 82 206 +++ + ++ 21084 Po 42 He ++ Particle 21084 Po Pb 82 206 + 42 He
  • Slide 7
  • 2 - 7 CH 104 Beta Decay N 7 14 146 C 0 e - Particle +++ + ++ +++ + ++ + + -+ -+ -+ - 10 n 11 H + 0 e neutronprotonelectron
  • Slide 8
  • 2 - 8 CH 104 Beta Decay N 7 14 146 C 0 e - Particle +++ + ++ +++ + ++ + + -+ -+ -+ - + 0 e 146 C N 7 14
  • Slide 9
  • 2 - 9 CH 104 Gamma Decay 99m43 Tc decay +++ + ++ +++ + ++ 9943 Tc + 99m43 Tc Tc 43 99
  • Slide 10
  • 2 - 10 CH 104 Radiation: Penetration through Air ++ - 2 - 4 cm 200 - 300 cm 500 m
  • Slide 11
  • 2 - 11 CH 104 Radiation: Shielding ++ - Paper Cloth Heavy Cloth Pb, thick concrete
  • Slide 12
  • 2 - 12 CH 104 ++ - Tissue Penetration Depth 0.05 mm 4-5 mm 4-5 mm >50 cm
  • Slide 13
  • 2 - 13 CH 104 Nuclear Equations 22688 Ra Rn 86 222 + 42 He Radon gas in Buildings Po 84 218 + 42 He
  • Slide 14
  • 2 - 14 CH 104 13153 I Xe 54 131 + 0 e Thyroid check & treatment Cancer Treatment Nuclear Equations 6027 Co Ni 28 60 + 0 e
  • Slide 15
  • 2 - 15 CH 104 Radiation Detection 1 Ci = 3.7 x 10 10 disintegrations sec 1 Bq = 1 disintegration sec # of disintegrations by of 1g Ra ActivityActivity Becquerel (Bq) Curie (Ci) Curie (Ci):
  • Slide 16
  • 2 - 16 CH 104 Radiation Detection Absorbed Dose
  • Slide 17
  • 2 - 17 CH 104 Radiation Detection ++- 0.05 mm 4-5 mm 4-5 mm >50 cm Tissue Penetration Depth Absorbed Dose
  • Slide 18
  • 2 - 18 CH 104 ++ - 0.05 mm 4-5 mm 4-5 mm >50 cm Radiation Absorbed Dose (Rad) (D) Radiation Absorbed Dose (Rad) (D): 1 rad = 1 x 10 -2 J 1 kg tissue 1 kg tissue 1 rad = 1 x 10 -2 J 1 kg tissue 1 kg tissue 1 rad = 2.4 x 10 -3 cal 1 kg tissue 1 kg tissue 100 rad = 1 Gray (Gy)
  • Slide 19
  • 2 - 19 CH 104 Radiation Detection Biological Damage
  • Slide 20
  • 2 - 20 CH 104 Radiation Equivalent for Man (rem) 1 remRBE 1 rem = 1 rad x RBE RBE2011RBE2011 Damage (rem) = absorbed dose (rad) X factor (relative biological effectiveness) 100 rem 100 rem = 1 sievert (Sv)
  • Slide 21
  • 2 - 21 CH 104 Annual Radiation Exposure in USA Ground = 15 mrem Air, H 2 O, Food = 30 mrem Cosmic = 40 mrem Wood,concrete,bricks = 50 mrem X-rays: Chest = 50 mrem Dental = 20 Smoking = 35 mrem TV = 2 mrem Radon = 200 mrem
  • Slide 22
  • 2 - 22 CH 104 Biological Effects of Radiation Dose in rem 0-25genetic damage possible but usually undetected 25-100 decrease # of white blood cells (temporary) 100-200 mild radiation sickness (vomit, diarrhea, strong decrease # white blood cells) >300 (diarrhea, hair loss, infection) 500LD 50 for humans Dose in rem 0-25genetic damage possible but usually undetected 25-100 decrease # of white blood cells (temporary) 100-200 mild radiation sickness (vomit, diarrhea, strong decrease # white blood cells) >300 (diarrhea, hair loss, infection) 500LD 50 for humans
  • Slide 23
  • 2 - 23 CH 104 300 LD 50 for dogs 500LD 50 for humans 800 LD 50 for rats 50,000 LD 50 for Bacterium 100,000 LD 50 for Insects Biological Effects of Radiation Dose in rem
  • Slide 24
  • 2 - 24 CH 104 Half-Life t 1/2 = Time for 1/2 sample to decay m = g(0.5) t 13153 I 20 g t 1/2 = 8 days 10 g 8 days 5 g Mass remaining Beginning mass # of half lifes
  • Slide 25
  • 2 - 25 CH 104
  • Slide 26
  • 2 - 26 CH 104 t m = g(0.5) t 13153 I 20. g t 1/2 = 8 days 10. g 8 days 5.0 g How much I-131 will be left after 72 days? Half-Life = 20. g(0.5) 9 72 days 1 1 half-life = 8 days 9 9 half-lifes =.039 g
  • Slide 27
  • 2 - 27 CH 104 Positron Emission Tomography PET
  • Slide 28
  • 2 - 28 CH 104 Fission 235 92 U 1010 n 236 92 U + 91 36 Kr 142 56 Ba unstable Splitting atoms for Energy
  • Slide 29
  • 2 - 29 CH 104 Fission Need critical mass of U-235
  • Slide 30
  • 2 - 30 CH 104 4242 He Fusion 2121 H 3131 H + + Deuterium Tritium ++ ++ 1010 n Combining atoms for Energy
  • Slide 31
  • 2 - 31 CH 104 Fusion
  • Slide 32
  • 2 - 32 CH 104
  • Slide 33
  • 2 - 33 CH 104

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