1Chapter 22, 23, 24 Biodiversity. Key Concepts Ch. 22  Human effects on biodiversity  Importance of biodiversity  How human activities affect wildlife

Download 1Chapter 22, 23, 24 Biodiversity. Key Concepts Ch. 22  Human effects on biodiversity  Importance of biodiversity  How human activities affect wildlife

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> 1Chapter 22, 23, 24 Biodiversity </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Key Concepts Ch. 22 Human effects on biodiversity Importance of biodiversity How human activities affect wildlife Management of wildlife </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Human Impacts on Biodiversity Fig. 22-2 p. 561 </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Increasing Biodiversity Physically diverse habitat Moderate environmental disturbance Small variations in conditions Middle stages of ecological succession </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Decreasing Biodiversity Environmental stress Large environmental disturbance Extreme environmental conditions Severe limiting factors Introduction of alien species Geographic isolation </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> US Diversity Fig. 22-3 p. 562 </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Strategies for Protecting Biodiversity Species approach Ecosystem approach Fig. 22-5 p. 563 </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Species Extinction Local extinction Ecological extinction Biological extinction </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Endangered and Threatened Species Endangered species Threatened (vulnerable) species Rare species Fig. 22-7 p. 564 Florida manatee Northern spotted owl (threatened) Gray wolfFlorida panther Bannerman's turaco (Africa) 2004 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Extinction Risks Factors: population size, habitat, and genetics Population viability analysis Minimum viable population Minimum dynamic area Characteristics of extinction-prone species (refer to Fig. 22-8 p. 566) </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Extinction Rates Background (natural) rate of extinction Mass extinction Adaptive radiations </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Why Should We Care About Biodiversity? Instrumental value Intrinsic value See Spotlight p. 571 Fig. 22-10p. 569 </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Causes of Depletion of Wild Species Human population growth Failure to value the environment or ecological services Increasing per capita resource use Increasing use of Earths primary productivity Poverty </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Causes of Premature Extinction of Wild Species Habitat degradation Introduction of non-native species Fig. 22-12 p. 572 </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Threats from Nonnative Species Arrival Roles of non- native species Examples (p. 576) See Connections p. 577 and Case Study p. 579 Fig. 22-19 p. 579 </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Other Extinction Threats Hunting and Poaching Predators and Pest Control Exotic Pets and Decorative Plants Climate Change and Pollution </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Protecting Wild Species: The Research and Legal Approaches Bioinformatics International Treaties: CITES National Laws:Lacey Act Endangered Species Act Habitat conservation plans </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Protecting Wild Species: The Sanctuary Approach Wildlife refuges and protected areas Zoos and Aquariums Gene banks, botanical gardens, and farms </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Wildlife Management Laws regulating hunting and fishing Harvest quotas Population management plants Improving habitat Treaties and laws for migrating species </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Key Concepts Ch. 23 Human land use Types and uses of US public lands Forests and forest management Implications of deforestation Management of parks Establishment and management of nature preserves Importance of ecological restoration </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Land Use in the World Fig. 23-2 p. 595 </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Land Use in the United States Fig. 23-3 p. 595 Rangeland and pasture 29% </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Types of US Public Lands Multiple-use lands: National Forests; National Resource Lands Moderately-restricted use lands: National Wildlife Refuges Restricted-use lands: National Park System; National Wilderness Preservation System </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> US Public Lands Fig. 23-4 p. 596 </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Managing US Public Land Biodiversity and ecological function No subsidies or tax breaks for use Public should get fair compensation Users held responsible for actions Takings and property rights </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Managing and Sustaining Forests Ecological Importance of Forests Food webs and energy flow Water regulation Local and regional climate Numerous habitats and niches Air purification </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Managing and Sustaining Forests Economic Importance of Forests Fuelwood (50% of global forest use) Industrial timber and lumber Pulp and paper Medicines Mineral extraction and recreation </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Forest Structure Fig. 23-9 p. 601 </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Types of Forests Old-growth (frontier) forests Second-growth forests Tree farms/plantation Fig. 23-18 p. 609 </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Forest Management Even-aged management Industrial forestry Uneven-aged management Improved diversity Sustainable production Multiple-use Rotation cycle </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Management Strategies Fig. 23-11 p. 601 Fig. 23-12 p. 602 </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Logging Roads Increased erosion and runoff Habitat fragmentation Pathways for exotic species Accessibility to humans Fig. 23-13 p. 602 </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Harvesting Trees Selective cutting High-grading Shelterwood cutting Seed-tree cutting Clearcutting Strip cutting Fig. 23-14 p. 603 </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Sustainable Forestry Longer rotations Selective or strip cutting Minimize fragmentation Improved road building techniques Certified sustainable grown (See Solutions p. 598) </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Pathogens Fungal Diseases Insect Pests Bark beetles Gypsy moth Chestnut blight Dutch elm disease </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Fire Surface fires Crown fires Fig. 23-17 p. 607 </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Forest Resources and Management in the United States Habitat for threatened and endangered species Water purification services Recreation 3% of timber harvest Sustainable yield and multiple use Substitutes for tree products </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Tropical Deforestation Rapid and increasing Loss of biodiversity Cultural extinction Unsustainable agriculture and ranching Clearing for cash crop plantations Commercial logging Fuelwood </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Degradation of Tropical Forests Fig. 23-22 p. 615 </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Reducing Tropical Deforestation Identification of critical ecosystems Reducing poverty and population growth Sustainable tropical agriculture Encourage protection of large tracts Debt-for-nature swaps Less destructive harvesting methods </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> The Fuelwood Crisis Planting fast-growing fuelwood plants Burning wood more efficiently Switching to other fuels Fig. 23-25 p. 618 </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Managing and Sustaining National Parks Most parks are too small to maintain biodiversity Invasion by exotic species Popularity a major problem Traffic jams and air pollution Visitor impact (noise) Natural regulation Better pay for park staff </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Establishing, Designing, and Managing Nature Reserves Include some moderate disturbance Sustain natural ecological processes Protect most important areas Buffer zones Gap analysis Wilderness areas See Solutions p. 625 </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Ecological Restoration Ecological restoration Restoration ecology Rehabilitation Replacement Creating artificial ecosystems Natural restoration See Individuals Matter p. 630 </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Key Concepts Ch. 24 Economic and ecological importance Effects of human activities Protecting and sustaining aquatic diversity Protecting and sustaining fisheries Protecting and restoring wetlands </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> The Importance of Aquatic Biodiversity Coral reefs Estuaries Deep ocean floor Food items Many chemicals Medicines and drugs Fig. 24-2 p. 636 </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Human Impacts on Aquatic Biodiversity Species loss and endangerment Marine habitat loss and degradation Freshwater habitat loss and degradation Overfishing Nonnative species Pollution and global warming </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Protecting and Sustaining Marine Biodiversity Protect endangered and threatened species Establish protected areas Integrated coastal management Regulating and preventing ocean pollution Sustainable management of marine fisheries </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Managing and Sustaining the Worlds Marine Fisheries Fishery regulations Economic approaches Bycatch reduction Protected areas Nonnative species Consumer information Aquaculture See Spotlight p. 650 </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Protecting, Sustaining, and Restoring Wetlands Regulations Mitigation banking Land use planning Wetlands restoration Control of invasive species See Individuals Matter p. 652 Fig. 24-12 p. 653 </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Protecting, Sustaining, and Restoring Lakes Pollution Invasive species Water levels Cultural eutrophication Fig. 24-13 p. 655 </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Protecting, Sustaining, and Restoring Rivers Pollution Disruption of water flow Loss of biodiversity Fig. 24-14 p. 656 Invasive species </li> </ul>


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