1912 – 1937

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- 33 - ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻋﺸﺭ- ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ ﺍﻷﻭل- ﻓﺒﺭﺍﻴﺭ- 2014 1912 1937 . ﻓﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﻌﺎﻨﻲ ﻗﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ- ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻵﺩﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺴﻠﻭﻕ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺒﻨﻐﺎﺯﻱ ﻤﻘﺩﻤ ـــ: ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ ﻋﺸﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺫﺍﺕ، ﻀﺎﻗﺕ ﺃﻏﻠﺏ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﺴـﻜﺎﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺒﻔـﺎﺌﺽ ﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺘﻬﺎ، ﻤﺎ ﺘﻭﻟﺩﺕ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﺎﺝ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺴﻊ ﺍﻻ ﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺠـﺭﺓ ﺨـﺎﺭﺝ ﻫـﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺓ. ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﻭﺍﺯﻱ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ ﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ، ﺘﻤﺜل ﻓﻲ ﺜﻼﺜـﺔ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻤﺘﺘﺎﺒﻌـﺔ: ﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ، ﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ، ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻜﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﻤـﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﻘـﺭﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ. ﹰ ﻋﻥ ﺃﺴـﻭﺍﻕ ﺠﺩﻴـﺩﺓ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻕ ﻭﻤﺎ ﻴﻬﻤﻨﺎ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﺘﻭﺴﻊ ﺒﺤﺜﺎ ﻏﺎﻴﺘﻴﻥ: ﺃﻭﻻﻫﻤﺎ ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ، ﻟﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ ﻤﺒﻴﻌﺎﺕ ﺘﻔﻭﻕ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴـﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺘـﺎﺝ، ﻭﺜﺎﻨﻴﺘﻬﻤـﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻟﺘﺯﻭﻴﺩ ﻤﺼﺎﻨﻌﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ، ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭﻩ. ﻭﻗﺩ ﻨﺸﺄ

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  • 2014 - - - - 33 -

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  • 1937-1912

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