1849730202 Photovoltaic

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FundamentalsofPhotovoltaicModulesandTheirApplicationsRSCEnergySeriesSeriesEditor:JulianHuntFRS,UniversityCollegeLondon,London,UKTitlesintheSeries:1:HydrogenEnergy:ChallengesandProspects2:FundamentalsofPhotovoltaicModulesandTheirApplicationsHowtoobtainfuturetitlesonpublication:Astandingorderplanisavailableforthisseries. Astandingorderwill bringdeliveryofeachnewvolumeimmediatelyonpublication.Forfurtherinformationpleasecontact:Book Sales Department, Royal Society of Chemistry, Thomas Graham House,SciencePark,MiltonRoad,Cambridge,CB40WF,UKTelephone:+44(0)1223420066,Fax:+44(0)1223420247,Email:books@rsc.orgVisitourwebsiteathttp://www.rsc.org/Shop/Books/FundamentalsofPhotovoltaicModulesandTheirApplicationsG.N.TiwariandSwapnilDubeyCentreforEnergyStudies,IndianInstituteofTechnology(IIT)Delhi,NewDelhi,IndiaRSCEnergySeriesNo.2ISBN: 9781849730204ISSN:17576741AcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryr G.N.TiwariandSwapnilDubey2010AllrightsreservedApartfromfairdealingforthepurposesofresearchfornoncommercialpurposesorforprivatestudy,criticismorreview,aspermittedundertheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct1988andtheCopyrightandRelatedRightsRegulations2003,thispublicationmaynotbereproduced,storedortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,withoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofTheRoyalSocietyofChemistryorthecopyrightownerorinthecaseofreproductioninaccordancewiththetermsoflicencesissuedbytheCopyrightLicensingAgencyintheUKorinaccordancewiththetermsof the licences issued by the appropriate Reproduction Rights Organization outside the UK.EnquiriesconcerningreproductionoutsidethetermsstatedhereshouldbesenttoTheRoyalSocietyofChemistryattheaddressprintedonthispage.TheRSCisnotresponsibleforindividualopinionsexpressedinthiswork.PublishedbyTheRoyalSocietyofChemistry,ThomasGrahamHouse,SciencePark,MiltonRoad,CambridgeCB40WF,UKRegisteredCharityNumber207890Forfurtherinformationseeourwebsiteatwww.rsc.orgDedicationOurrespectedteacherandgurujiPadmashriProfessorM.S.SodhaF.N.A.onhis78thbirthday(8February,2010)PrefaceThewordenergy hasbeencontinuouslyinthenewssince1973duetotheshortagesofoil inmanypartsoftheworldandthepriceofthiscommodityhasincreasedsteeply.Itisnowclearthatthefossil-fueleraofnon-renewableresources is graduallycomingtoanend. The renewable sources of energyderivedfromtheSunareoneofthepromisingoptions. Solarenergycanbeusedbothdirectlyandindirectly. Itcanbeuseddirectlyinavarietyofther-malapplicationslikeheatingairorwater,drying,distillationandspaceheat-ingetc. Asecondwayinwhichsolarenergycanbeuseddirectlyisthroughthe photovoltaic eect, inwhichit is convertedtoelectrical energy. Indir-ectly,theSuncauseswindstoblow,plantstogrow,raintofallandtempera-ture dierences to occur fromthe surface to the bottomof the oceans.Useful energycanbeobtainedforcommercial andnon-commercial purposesthroughalltheserenewablesources.Inthisbook,weareprimarilyconcernedwiththecollectionandstorageofsolar energy for thermal and electrical applications. The purpose of writing thisbookistoprovideasuitabletextforteachingthesubjecttoengineeringandsciencestudents, aswell asareferencebookforscientistsandprofessionals.The material is based on the authors research experience and his experience ofteaching the subject for a number of years to postgraduate and undergraduateengineering students. We assume that the reader of this bookhas a basicbackground in physics, mathematics, thermodynamics, heat transfer, electricalandelectronics. Thisbookisquantitativeandapplications-oriented, withanemphasisonresourceestimation,systemsizingandeconomicevaluation.The objective of the book is to provide a platformto disseminate theknowledgeregardingfundamentalsofphotovoltaicthermalsystems,namely: fundamentalsofsolarenergyandbasicheattransfer; characteristicsofsolarcellsandtheirmaterials; useofphotovoltaicmodulesandarraysinsolarsystems;RSCEnergySeriesNo.2FundamentalsofPhotovoltaicModulesandTheirApplicationsByG.N.TiwariandSwapnilDubeyrG.N.TiwariandSwapnilDubey2010PublishedbytheRoyalSocietyofChemistry,www.rsc.orgvii importanceofbatteries; thermalmodellingofsolarsystems; energyandexergyanalysis; CO2mitigationandcarboncredit; economicanalysisofPV/Tsystems,etc.toundergraduate andpost-graduate students, learners, scientists, profes-sionals, practitioners and designers. To understand the above objectives a largenumber ofgures,solvedexamples and tables havebeen provided.Atthe endofeachchapter,problems/exerciseshavealsobeengiven, alongwithhintstosolvethem.Wehavedrawnthematerial forinclusioninthebookfromanumberofreferences, whichare citedat the appropriate places. These include: SolarEnergy, Fundamentals, Design, ModellingandApplications byG. N. Tiwari;Fundamentalsof SolarDryersbyG. N. Tiwari andP. Barnwal; SolarEngi-neeringof Thermal ProcessesbyJ. A. DueandW. A. Beckman; researchpapers by Prof. H. A. Zondag, Prof. S. D. Hendrie, Prof. P. Raghuraman, Prof.T.T.Chow,Prof.J.Prakash,Prof.Y.Tripanagnostopoulos,Prof.D.Ineld,Prof. K. Nagano, Prof. L. W. Florschuetz, Prof. E. C. Kern Jr. and Prof. M. C.Russell, Prof. D. L. Evans, Prof. S. A. Kalogirou, Prof. B. J. Huang, Prof. J. Ji,Prof.H.P.Garg,Prof.A.D.JonesandProf.C.P.Underwood,Prof.A.A.Hegazy, Prof. K. Sopian, Prof. J. K. Tonui, Prof. J. Mumba, Prof. B. K. Bala,Prof. I. Dincer, etc. We are highly appreciative of the courtesy of authors Prof.T. T. Chow, China; Prof. Ivan Katic, Denmark; Prof. Niccolo` Aste, Italy; Prof.Gilles Notton, France; Prof. G. Fraisse, France; Prof. Abraham Kribus, Israel;Prof.Y.B.Assoa,France;Prof.B.Robles-Ocampo,Mexico;Prof.H.Yang,Hong Kong; Prof. Emmanuel Kymakis, Greece, for providing the photographsofdierentPV/Tsystems.Thislistisincompleteandweapologizetoanyonewehaveomitted.The present bookhas beendividedinto10 chapters tostudy the basicknowledge of photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) systems from thermal and electricalpoints of view. Chapter 1 deals with availability of solar radiation emitted fromtheSunanditspropagationthroughtheatmosphere, aswell asconceptsofgreenhouse gases. It also includes importance and basics of solar radiation suchas atmosphere and SunEarth angles, cloudiness/haziness factor and total solarradiationetc. Chapter2dealswiththehistory/reviewofworkdoneonpho-tovoltaic(PV) integratedsystemsbyvariousresearchers. It includesairandwatersystems,buildingintegratedphotovoltaicsystems(BIPV)systems,tem-perature-dependent electrical performance and market potential etc. The basicsof semiconductors and their characteristics, characteristics of solar cells in darkanddaylight situations andfundamentals of characteristic curves of semi-conductorshavebeengiveninChapter3. ThefundamentalsofPVmodules,variouscombinationsofsolarcellsandPVmodulesandarrayanalyseshavebeendiscussedinChapter 4. The various types andworking principles ofbatteries with life and economics of batteries have been highlighted in Chapter5. Chapter 6provides thevarious casestudies onBIPVandPV/Tsystemsviii Prefacerelatedwitheldexposures. The thermal modelling andresults of variouscongurations of PV/Tsystems, includingair collectors, water heaters, dis-tillation systems and dryers, have been discussed in Chapter 7. The energy andexergyanalysisonthebasisof embodiedenergyof materialsusedforfabri-cation of dierent components of PV/Tsystems has been highlighted inChapter 8. Chapter 9deals withthenet CO2mitigation, carboncredit andclimatechange. The techno-economics of thesolarsystemshas been discussedinChapter10.SIunitshavebeenusedthroughout.Appendiceshavebeengivenatendofthebook.Thisbookaimstoprovideagreat insightintothesubject, particularlytolearningstudents/professionals doingself-study. Inspiteof our best eorts,someerrorsmight havecrept intothetext. Wefullywelcomevaluablesug-gestions and comments from all readers for further improvement of the book inthenextedition.It is our immense pleasure to express our heartfelt gratitude to Director (IITDelhi), Head(CES, IITDelhi) andProf. S. K. Dube, former director, IITKharagpur,fortheirkindencouragement.We acknowledge with thanks the nancial support by the CurriculumDevelopmentCell,IITDelhi,forpreparationofthebook.We are alsothankful toDr P. C. Pant, Scientist, Solar Energy Center,MNRE, NewDelhi, forprovidingthematerial onbatteriesandtoDrV. K.Kaul, Central ElectronicsLimited, Sahibabad(UP), forprovidingthedetailson SPV water pumping systems. We owe a special note of thanks to Dr ArvindTiwari, Dr P. Barnwal, Dr Shiv Kumar, Dr V. K. Dwivedi, Mrs Sujata Nayak,Mr S. C. Solanki, Mr M. K. Gaur, Mr Basant Agarwal, Mr Jamil Ahmad, MrRajeevMishra,MrGauravSingh,Mr.AbhishekRanjan,Sh.LakhmiChandand all the members of our group for their valuable support during preparationofthemanuscript.Full creditisduetoourpublishers, RSCPublishing, Cambridge, UK, forproducinganiceprintofthebook.Last,butnotleast,weexpressoutdeepgratitudetoourrespectedparents,LateSmt.BhagirathiTiwari,LateSh.BashishtTiwari,Smt.VandanaDubeyand Sh. Shailendra Kumar Dubey for their blessings, which helped us to reachourtarget.G.N.TiwariSwapnilDubeyix PrefaceContentsChapter1 SolarRadiation 11.1 Introduction 11.1.1 TheSun 11.1.2 TheEarth 21.1.3 EarthsAtmosphere 21.2 MeasurementofSolarRadiationonEarthsSurface 51.2.1 Pyrheliometer 51.2.2 Pyranometer 61.2.3 SunshineRecorder 71.3 SunEarthAngles 81.3.1 ZenithAngle(yz) 81.3.2 SolarAltitude(a) 91.3.3 SolarAzimuthAngle(gSun) 91.3.4 WallAzimuthAngle(gwall) 91.3.5 SolarDeclination(d) 101.3.6 Latitude(f)andLongitude(Lt) 111.3.7 HourAngle(o) 141.3.8 SolarTime 151.3.9 AngleofIncidence 171.4 SolarRadiationonaHorizontalSurface 191.5 SolarRadiationonanInclinedSurface 23Problems 28References 28Chapter2 HistoryofPV-integratedSystems 292.1 Introduction 292.2 HistoryofPV/TAirHeating 30RSCEnergySeriesNo.2FundamentalsofPhotovoltaicModulesandTheirApplicationsByG.N.TiwariandSwapnilDubeyr G.N.TiwariandSwapnilDubey2010PublishedbytheRoyalSocietyofChemistry,www.rsc.orgxi2.2.1 PVIntegratedwithAirCollector 302.2.2 VentilatedBIPVSystem 332.3 HistoryofPV/TWaterHeating 422.4 Temperature-dependent Electrical Performance of PVModule 592.4.1 PVModuleEciencya