1600214819photoionization of polyvalent ions

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Photoionization of Polyvalent Ions





Nova Science Publishers, Inc.New York

Copyright 2007 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, electrostatic, magnetic, tape, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise without the written permission of the Publisher. For permission to use material from this book please contact us: Telephone 631-231-7269; Fax 631-231-8175 Web Site: http://www.novapublishers.com NOTICE TO THE READER The Publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this book, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained in this book. The Publisher shall not be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting, in whole or in part, from the readers use of, or reliance upon, this material. Independent verification should be sought for any data, advice or recommendations contained in this book. In addition, no responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from any methods, products, instructions, ideas or otherwise contained in this publication. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regard to the subject matter covered herein. It is sold with the clear understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering legal or any other professional services. If legal or any other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent person should be sought. FROM A DECLARATION OF PARTICIPANTS JOINTLY ADOPTED BY A COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION AND A COMMITTEE OF PUBLISHERS. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Materials science research horizons / Hans P. Glick (editor). p. cm. Includes index. ISBN-13: 978-1-60692-751-9 1. Materials science. I. Glick, Hans P. TA403.M347155 2006 620.1'1--dc22 2006032477

Published by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

New York

CONTENTSPreface Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Photoionization of Polyvalent Ions Doris Mncke and Doris Ehrt Growth and Characterization of -Bi2O3 Thin Films by Chemical Vapour Deposition under Atmospheric Pressure T. Takeyama, N. Takahashi, T. Nakamura and S. Itoh Porous Materials: The Mathematical-Physical Expressions for Some Properties of Three-Dimensional Reticulated Porous Metallic Materials in the Same Analytical Model System P.S. Liu Influences of Process Parameters, Inclusion and Void in Copper Wire Drawing Somchai Norasethasopon Development of Hardfacing for Fast Breeder Reactors A. K. Bhaduri and S. K. Albert Tissue Engineering of Cartilage in Bioreactors Nastaran Mahmoudifar and Pauline M. Doran Heterogeneous Combustion Synthesis Hung-Pin Li Recycling of Ecocompatible Treated Red Mud and Compost from SS-MSW: Examples of Use on Sediment and Mine Soil Samples P. Massanisso, E. Nardi, R. Pacifico, L. DAnnibale, C. Cremisini and C. Alisi Formation and Adjustment of Bubbles in a Polyurethane Shape Memory Polymer W.M. Huang, B. Yang, L.H. Wooi, S. Mukherjee, J. Su and Z.M. Tai vii 1


Chapter 3


Chapter 4

109 149 171 193

Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8


Chapter 9

235 251


PREFACEMaterials science includes those parts of chemistry and physics that deal with the properties of materials. It encompasses four classes of materials, the study of each of which may be considered a separate field: metals; ceramics; polymers and composites. Materials science is often referred to as materials science and engineering because it has many applications. Industrial applications of materials science include processing techniques (casting, rolling, welding, ion implantation, crystal growth, thin-film deposition, sintering, glassblowing, etc.), analytical techniques (electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, calorimetry, nuclear microscopy (HEFIB) etc.), materials design, and cost/benefit tradeoffs in industrial production of materials. This book presents new research directions in this rapid-growing field. Chapter 1 - The effect of polyvalent dopants on photoinduced defect formation was studied in different glasses. Ionization of the glass matrix results in intrinsic defects, positively charged hole and negatively charged electron centers. Polyvalent dopants can be photooxidized or photoreduced. These extrinsic defects might replace selectively one or several intrinsic defects and / or cause an increase in the number of opposite charged defects. Photoionization can also result in unusual dopant valences otherwise not observed in glasses. The systematic comparison of different dopants and glass systems irradiated by excimer lasers helps to understand defect generation processes and might eventually help in the design of UV-resistant or UV-sensitive glasses. Defect formation occurs in the ppm range and was analyzed by optical and EPR spectroscopy. A series of polyvalent dopants such as typical trace impurities, glass or melt additives and typical dopants used for optical components like filter glasses, optical sensors, fluorophores or photochromes, were studied. Distinct melting conditions give rise to different valences of various dopants and as a consequence different photoinduced redox-reactions might be observed after irradiation. Qualitative and quantitative changes in the defect formation rates depend on the: kind and concentration of the dopant, c was varied from 50 to 5000 cation ppm. radiation parameters such as wavelength, or power density of the excimer lasers used. glass matrix; (fluoride-)phosphate and borosilicate glasses give rise to different intrinsic defects of varying stability. The matrix determines also the initial incorporation like valence or coordination of the dopants and stabilizes or destabilizes photoionized dopant species.


Hans P. Glick

initial transmission of the glass sample, which also depends on the dopant (kind, valence, coordination), its concentration, and the thickness of the sample plate, d was varied from 0.5 to 2mm. Some dopants are photooxidized while others are photoreduced Some defects recombine easily or transform into more stable defects while others are stable for months or years. Chapter 2 - Bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) thin films are interesting materials within the class of oxide semiconductors, owing to a variety of physical properties determined by its many polymorphs. This semiconductor is characterized by significant values of band gap, dielectric permittivity and refractive index as well as marked photosensitivity and photoluminescence. These properties make Bi2O3 films well suited for many applications in various domains such as microelectronics, sensor technology and optical coatings. However, the characteristics of this film strongly depend on its crystal phases: its electrical conductivity may vary by over 5 orders of magnitude, while its energy gap may change from around 2 to 3.96 eV. Therefore, it is required to manufacture high-quality Bi2O3 films with a single phase. Thin films of -Bi2O3 were prepared on the sapphire (0001) and the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) (111) substrate by means of chemical vapour deposition under atmospheric pressure. X-ray diffraction measurement revealed the deposited -Bi2O3 films on the YSZ (111) substrates have good crystal quality and a flat surface. The full width at half maximum value of out-of-plane rocking curve is 0.0260 (93.6 arcsec.). An optical band gap of 3.28 eV was estimated by the optical transmittance measurement. Spectroscopic ellipsometry shows that the refractive index n of the single crystalline -Bi2O3 film at 800 C is 2.4940 with 632.80nm. We believe this is the first time to investigate the optical properties of -Bi2O3 thin film. Chapter 3 - New developments are ceaselessly gained for the preparation, the application and the property study of porous materials. As to the theories about the structure and properties of porous materials, the famous classical model - Gibson-Ashby model has been being commonly endorsed in the field of porous materials all over the world, and is the theoretical foundation widespreadly applied by numerous investigators to their relative researches up to now. But there are some shortcomings in this classical model in fact, e.g., the impossible close-packed of pore units and the unequivalent struts. In this chapter, another model for porous materials are introduced which is put forward by the present author, and this new model can make up those shortcomings existed in Gibson-Ashby model. More importantly, the mathematical-physical expressions, which are well in agreement with the relevant experimental results, can be smoothly acquired for some properties of threedimensional reticulated foamed materials using this new model. These expressions include the relationship between electrical resistivity and porosity, the relationship between tensile strength and porosity, the relationship between relative elongation and porosity, and the relationship between biaxial loading strength and porosity. The experimental results showed that, the obtained mathematical-physical relations from this new model are obviously more excellent than that from Gibson-Ashby model when applying into the porous materials. Chapter 4 - In the copper fine wire drawing, the breakage and defect of the wire were fatal to the success of quantitative drawing operations. The first part of this paper shows how three of the main process parameters, the die half-angle, reduction of cross-sectional area and numbers of the drawing pass influenced drawing stress and inter