14 learner centered principles
Post on 07-Jul-2015
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DESCRIPTION14 Learner-Centered Principles
- 1. 14 Learner- CenteredPrinciplesPrepared By: CyllAnnVer8n
2. In this lesson, challenge yourself to:explain the 14 principles.advocate for the use of the 14principles in the teaching-learningprocess.identify ways on how you can applythe 14 principles in instruction as afuture teacher. 3. IntroductionYou, the learner, are the center ofinstruction. The world of instructionrevolves around you. This lesson isfocused on the fourteen (14)principles that are learner-centered. 4. 14 Learner-CenteredPrinciplesCognitive andMetacognitiveFactors(6 Principles)Motivationaland AffectiveFactors(3 Principles)Developmentaland SocialFactors(2 Principles)IndividualDifferenceFactors(3 Principles) 5. Examine the title, Learner-CenteredPrinciples. Quickly, jot down at least 10 wordsthat comes to your mind.Go back to each word and write phrases aboutwhy you think the words can be associatedwith LCP.Form groups of three (3) members each.Share your responses and summarizeafterwards on a one-half sheet of paper.We think that LCP focus on 6. (American Psychological Association)Focus on psychological factors that areprimarily internal to and under the control ofthe learner rather than conditioned habits ofphysiological factors.The principles are intended to deal holisticallywith learners in the context of real-worldlearning situations. Thus, they are bestunderstood as an organized set of principles;no principle should be viewed in isolation. 7. The 14 principles are divided into thosereferring to (1) cognitive and metacognitive,(2) motivational and affective, (3)developmental and social, and (4) individualdifference factors influencing learners andlearning.Finally, the principles are intended to apply toall learnersfrom children, to teachers, toadministrators, to parents, and to communitymembers involved in our educational system. 8. The learning of complex subject matter is mosteffective when it is an intentional process ofconstructing meaning from information andexperience.There are different types of learning processes,for example, habit formation and motorlearning, and learning that involves thegeneration of knowledge, or cognitive skills andlearning strategies.Learning in schools emphasizes the use ofintentional processes that students use toconstruct meaning from information,experiences, and their own thoughts andbeliefs. 9. Successful learners are active, goal-directed,self-regulating, and assume responsibility forcontributing to their own learning . 10. The successful learner, over time and withsupport and instructional guidance, can createmeaningful, coherent representations ofknowledge.The strategic nature of learning requiresstudents to be goal-directed.To construct useful representations ofknowledge and to acquire the thinking andlearning strategies necessary for continuedlearning success across the life span, studentsmust generate and pursue personally relevantgoals. Initially, students short-term goals andlearning may be sketchy in an area, but overtime their understanding can be refined by 11. filling gaps, resolving inconsistencies, anddeepening their understanding of the subjectmatter so that they can reach longer-termgoals.Educators can assist learners in creatingmeaningful learning goals that are consistentwith both personal and educational aspirationsand interests. 12. The successful learner can link new informationwith existing knowledge in meaningful ways.Knowledge widens and deepens as studentscontinue to build links between new informationand experiences and their existing knowledgebase. The nature of these links can take avariety of forms, such as adding to, modifying,or reorganizing existing knowledge or skills.How these links may are made or developedmay vary in different subject areas, and amongstudents with varying talents, interests andabilities. 13. However, unless new knowledge becomesintegrated with the learners prior knowledgeand understanding, this new knowledgeremains isolated, cannot be used mosteffectively in new tasks, and does not readilytransfer to new situations.Educators can assist learners in acquiring andintegrating knowledge by a number ofstrategies that have been shown to be effectivewith learners of varying abilities, such asconcept mapping and thematic organization orcategorizing. 14. The successful learner can create and use arepertoire of thinking and reasoning strategiesto achieve complex learning goals.Successful learners use strategic thinking intheir approach to learning, reasoning, problemsolving and concept learning.They understand and can use a variety ofstrategies to help them reach learning andperformance goals, and to apply theirknowledge in novel situations. 15. They also continue to expand their repertoire ofstrategies by reflecting on the methods theyuse to see which work well for them, byreceiving guided instruction and feedback, andby observing or interacting with appropriatemodels.Learning outcomes can be enhanced ifeducators assist learners in developing,applying, and assessing their strategic learningskills. 16. Higher order strategies for selecting andmonitoring mental operations facilitate creativeand critical thinking.Successful learners can reflect on how theythink and learn, set reasonable learning orperformance goals, select potentiallyappropriate learning strategies or methods, andmonitor their progress toward these goals.In addition, successful learners know what todo if a problem occurs or if they are not makingsufficient or timely progress toward a goal.They can generate alternative methods toreach their goal (or reassess theappropriateness and utility of the goal). 17. Instructional methods that focus on helpinglearners develop these higher order(metacognitive) strategies can enhance studentlearning and personal responsibility forlearning. 18. Learning is influenced by environmental factors,including culture, technology, and instructionalpractices. Learning does not occur in a vacuum.Teachers play a major interactive role with boththe learner and the learning environment. Cultural or group influences on students canimpact many educationally relevant variables,such as motivation, orientation toward learning,and ways of thinking. 19. Technologies and instructional practices mustbe appropriate for learners level of priorknowledge, cognitive abilities, and theirlearning and thinking strategies. The classroom environment, particularly thedegree to which it is nurturing or not, can alsohave significant impacts on student learning. 20. What and how much is learned is influenced bythe learners motivation. Motivation to learn, inturn, is influenced by the individuals emotionalstates, beliefs, interests and goals, and habitsof thinking.The rich internal world of thoughts, beliefs,goals, and expectations for success or failurecan enhance or interfere with the learnersquality of thinking and information processing.Students beliefs about themselves as learnersand the nature of learning have a markedinfluence on motivation. Motivational andemotional factors also influence both thequality of thinking and information processingas well as the individuals motivation to learn. 21. Positive emotions, such as curiosity, generallyenhance motivation and facilitate learning andperformance. Mild anxiety can also enhancelearning and performance by focusing thelearners attention on a particular task.However, intense negative emotions (e.g.anxiety, panic, rage, insecurity) and relatedthoughts (e.g. worrying about competence,ruminating about failure, fearing punishment,ridicule, or stigmatizing labels) generallydetract from motivation, interfere with learning,and contribute to low performance. 22. The learners creativity, higher order thinking, andnatural curiosity all contribute to motivation tolearn. Intrinsic motivation is stimulated bytasks of optimal novelty and difficulty, relevantto personal interests, and providing forpersonal choice and control.Curiosity, flexible and insightful thinking, andcreativity are major indicators of the learnersintrinsic motivation to learn, which is in largepart a function of meeting basic needs to becompetent and to exercise personal control. 23. Intrinsic motivation is facilitated on tasks thatlearners perceive as interesting and personallyrelevant and meaningful, appropriate incomplexity and difficulty to the learnersabilities, and on which they believe they cansucceed.Intrinsic motivation is also facilitated on tasksthat are comparable to real-world situationsand meet needs for choice and control. 24. Educators can encourage and support learnersnatural curiosity and motivation to learn byattending to individual differences in learnersperceptions of optimal novelty and difficulty,relevance, and personal choice and control. 25. Acquisition of complex knowledge and skillsrequire extended learner effort and guidedpractice. Without learners motivation to learn,the willingness to exert this effort is unlikelywithout coercion.Effort is another major indicator of motivation tolearn. The acquisition of complex knowledgeand skills demands the investment ofconsiderable learner energy and strategiceffort, along with persistence over time. 26. Educators need to be concerned withfacilitating motivation by strategies thatenhance learner effort and commitment tolearning and to achieving high standards ofcomprehension and understanding.Effective strategies include purposeful learningactivities that enhance positive emotions andintrinsic motivation to learn, and methods thatincrease learners perceptions that a task isinteresting and personally relevant. 27. As individuals develop, there are differentopportunities and constraints for learning.Learning is most effective when differentialdevelopment within and across physical,intellectual, emotional and social domains istaken into account.Individuals learn best when material isappropriate to their developmental level and ispresented in an enjoyable and interesting way.