1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry 1.1.

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1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 1 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry 1.1 The Scope of Chemistry 1.2 Chemistry and You 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist 1.4 Problem Solving in Chemistry Slide 2 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 2 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. In 1928, Alexander Fleming, a Scottish scientist, noticed that the bacteria he was studying did not grow in the presence of a yellow- green mold. CHEMISTRY & YOU How do you think Alexander Fleming tested his hypothesis? Slide 3 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 3 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. An Experimental Approach to Science How did Lavoisier help to transform chemistry? An Experimental Approach to Science Slide 4 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 4 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The word chemistry comes from the word alchemy. Alchemists were concerned with searching for a way to change other metals, such as lead, into gold. Alchemists developed the tools and techniques for working with chemicals. They designed equipment that is still in use today, including beakers, flasks, tongs, funnels, and the mortar and pestle. An Experimental Approach to Science Slide 5 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 5 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. An Experimental Approach to Science In France, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier did work in the late 1700s that would revolutionize the science of chemistry. Slide 6 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 6 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. An Experimental Approach to Science Lavoisier helped to transform chemistry from a science of observation to the science of measurement that it is today. In France, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier did work in the late 1700s that would revolutionize the science of chemistry. Slide 7 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 7 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. An Experimental Approach to Science Lavoisier designed a balance that could measure mass to the nearest 0.0005 gram. He also settled a long-standing debate about how materials burn. He was able to show that oxygen is required for a material to burn. Slide 8 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 8 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Who is credited with transforming chemistry from a science of observation to a science of measurement? A.Fleming B.Lavoisier C.de Mestral D.Carothers Slide 9 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 9 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Who is credited with transforming chemistry from a science of observation to a science of measurement? A.Fleming B.Lavoisier C.de Mestral D.Carothers Slide 10 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 10 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The Scientific Method What are the steps in the scientific method? Slide 11 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 11 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The Scientific Method The scientific method is a logical, systematic approach to the solution of a scientific problem. Slide 12 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 12 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The Scientific Method Steps in the scientific method include making observations, proposing and testing hypotheses, and developing theories. Slide 13 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 13 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The Scientific Method Making Observations When you use your senses to obtain information, you make an observation. This scientist is making observations with a microscope. Observation is an essential step in the scientific method. Slide 14 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 14 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The Scientific Method Making Observations Suppose you try to turn on a flashlight and you notice that it does not light. Slide 15 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 15 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The Scientific Method Testing Hypotheses A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for an observation. If you guess that the batteries in a flashlight are dead, you are making a hypothesis. Slide 16 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 16 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The Scientific Method Replacing the batteries is an experiment, a procedure that is used to test a hypothesis. Testing Hypotheses Slide 17 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 17 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The Scientific Method Replacing the batteries is an experiment, a procedure that is used to test a hypothesis. The variable that you change during an experiment is the independent variable, also called the manipulated variable. The variable that is observed during the experiment is the dependent variable, also called the responding variable. Testing Hypotheses Slide 18 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 18 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The Scientific Method For the results of an experiment to be accepted, the experiment must produce the same result no matter how many times it is repeated, or by whom. This is why scientists are expected to publish a description of their procedures along with their results. Testing Hypotheses Slide 19 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 19 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The Scientific Method Sometimes the experiment a scientist must perform to test a hypothesis is difficult or impossible. For example, atoms and molecules, which are some of the smallest units of matter, cannot be easily seen. A model is a representation of an object or event. Chemists may use models to study chemical reactions and processes. Testing Hypotheses Slide 20 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 20 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The Scientific Method Developing Theories Once a hypothesis meets the test of repeated experimentation, it may be raised to a higher level of ideas. It may become a theory. A theory is a well-tested explanation for a broad set of observations. Slide 21 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 21 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The Scientific Method Developing Theories When scientists say that a theory can never be proved, they are not saying that a theory is unreliable. They are simply leaving open the possibility that a theory may need to be changed at some point in the future to explain new observations or experimental results. Slide 22 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 22 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The figure below shows how scientific experiments can lead to laws as well as theories. The Scientific Method Scientific Laws Experiments An experiment can lead to observations that support or disprove a hypothesis. Theory A theory is tested by more experiments and modified if necessary. Hypothesis A hypothesis may be revised based on experimental data. Observations Scientific Law A scientific law summarizes the results of many observations and experiments. Slide 23 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 23 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The Scientific Method A scientific law is a concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments. Scientific Laws Slide 24 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 24 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The Scientific Method A scientific law is a concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments. A law doesnt try to explain the relationship it describes. That explanation requires a theory. Scientific Laws Slide 25 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 25 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. CHEMISTRY & YOU What was Alexander Flemings hypothesis? How could he test his hypothesis? Slide 26 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 26 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Other scientists had made the same observation, but Fleming was the first to recognize its importance. He assumed that the mold had released a chemical that prevented the growth of the bacteria. CHEMISTRY & YOU What was Alexander Flemings hypothesis? How could he test his hypothesis? Slide 27 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 27 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. What is a hypothesis? A.information obtained from an experiment B.a proposed explanation for observations C.a concise statement that summarizes the results of many experiments D.a thoroughly tested model Slide 28 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 28 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. What is a hypothesis? A.information obtained from an experiment B.a proposed explanation for observations C.a concise statement that summarizes the results of many experiments D.a thoroughly tested model Slide 29 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 29 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Collaboration and Communication What role do collaboration and communication play in science? Collaboration and Communication Slide 30 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 30 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. No matter how talented the players on a team may be, one player cannot ensure victory for the team. Individuals must collaborate, or work together, for the good of the team. Collaboration and Communication Slide 31 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 31 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. When scientists collaborate and communicate with one another, they increase the likelihood of a successful outcome. Collaboration and Communication Slide 32 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 32 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Collaboration Scientists choose to collaborate for different reasons. Some research problems are so complex that no one person could have all the knowledge, skills, and resources to solve the problem. Collaboration and Communication Slide 33 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 33 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Collaboration isnt always a smooth process. Working in pairs or in a group can be challenging, but it can also be rewarding. Collaboration and Communication Collaboration Slide 34 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 34 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Communication The way scientists communicate with each other and with the public has changed over the centuries. Scientists working as a team can communicate face to face. They also can exchange ideas by e-mail, by phone, and at local and international conferences. They publish their results in scientific journals. Collaboration and Communication Slide 35 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 35 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Scientific journals are the most reliable source of information about new discoveries. Articles are published only after being reviewed by experts in the authors field. Reviewers may find errors in experimental design or challenge the authors conclusions. This review process is good for science because work that is not well founded is usually not published. Communication Collaboration and Communication Slide 36 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 36 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Why are articles in scientific journals the most reliable source of information about new scientific discoveries? A.The articles are reviewed by experts in the authors field. B.Any article that is submitted is published. C.Everyone has access to the information. D.The articles are short and easy to read. Slide 37 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 37 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Why are articles in scientific journals the most reliable source of information about new scientific discoveries? A.The articles are reviewed by experts in the authors field. B.Any article that is submitted is published. C.Everyone has access to the information. D.The articles are short and easy to read. Slide 38 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 38 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Key Concepts Lavoisier helped to transform chemistry from a science of observation to the science of measurement that it is today. Steps in the scientific method include making observations, testing hypotheses, and developing theories. When scientists collaborate and communicate with one another, they increase the likelihood of a successful outcome. Slide 39 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 39 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Glossary Terms scientific method: a logical, systematic approach to the solution of a scientific problem; steps in the scientific method include making observations, testing hypotheses, and developing theories observation: information obtained through the senses; observation in science often involves a measurement hypothesis: a proposed explanation for an observation experiment: a repeatable procedure that is used to test a hypothesis Slide 40 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 40 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Glossary Terms independent variable: the variable that is changed during an experiment; also called manipulated variable dependent variable: the variable that is observed during an experiment; also called responding variable model: a representation of an event or object theory: a well-tested explanation for a broad set of observations scientific law: a concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments Slide 41 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 41 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Chemists use the scientific method to solve problems and develop theories about the natural world. BIG IDEA Slide 42 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist > 42 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. END OF 1.3

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