13 substitutions and turnarounds

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  • SubstitutionsandTurnarounds

    FromFundamentalsofJazzImprovisation:WhatEverybodyThinksYouAlreadyKnow

    Dr.MarkWatkins

    DirectorofJazzStudiesBrighamYoungUniversityIdaho

    2010byMarkWatkinsMaterialshereinareprovidedforpersonaluse.Nopartmaybereproduced

    withoutwrittenpermissionfromtheauthor.

  • Substitutions

    TheTritoneSubstitutionAtritoneisanintervalofthreetonesorwholesteps.Atoneistwosemitones,twoadjacentkeysonthepianoupformthestartingpitch.Awholestepistwohalfsteps.Threewholestepsequalssixhalfsteps.(Seethesectiononintervalsabove.)FromFuptoBisatritone;fromBuptoFisatritone.Atritoneisexactlyhalfanoctave.Itisasharp4oraflat5.

    TritoneWheelThecrossshowsnotesa

    tritoneaway.

    CompassTurntheouterwheellikethe

    degreesonacompass.

    ClockTurnthecrosslikethearmsof

    aclock.

    Wheneveradominantchordisusedinaprogressionasanactivechordleadingsomewhere,achordatritoneawayfromthatdominantchordcanbesubstituted.Forexample,aiiV7IinBflatisCminor,F7,Bflatmajor.AtritoneawayfromFisB.TheprogressionbecomesCminor,B7,Bflat.Thisworkswellbecausetheprimaryfunctionalnotesofthedominantchordarestillpresent:major3rdofthedominantchord(leadingtonetoI),andminor7(whichcanbeconsideredasecondarydownwardleadingtoneduetoitsstrongtendencytoresolvetothe3rdofI).

  • Perhapsaneasierwaytoincorporatetritonesubstitutionsistothinkofthemasastepabovethechordofresolution.InaV7IsequencesuchasFtoBflat,insteadofthinkingthetritoneawayfromFtofindB,thinkstepaboveBflattofindB.SeetheTritoneConceptsheadingintheChordProgressionssectionforexamples.

    CotraneChangesJohnColtranedevelopedthisprogressionasanadaptationtotheMilesDavistuneTuneUp.ColtraneexploredtheformulaincompositionssuchasGiantStepsandCountdown.TheycanbeappliedinmostcircumstanceswheretherearefourbarsofamajorchordoronafourbariiV7I,especiallyduringimprovisedsolos.Theprogressionalsoworkswellasaturnaround.Simplecomplexityisagooddescriptor.Startingontonic,oneproceedsupaminor3rdthendownaperfect5th,upam3,downP5untilreturningtoI.Onecanstartonthesupertonicinsteadoftonic,asinaiiV7I,firstmovingupaminorsecond(forexample,DminortoEflat7).Thechordsgenerallychangeonbeatsoneandthreewiththreebeingdominantinqualityandonebeingmajor.

    Intheaboveexample,noticethatthepairsofV7Imovebymajor3rds,therootsformingandaugmentedtriad.InCmajorthefirstchordisCfollowedbythepairEflat7toAflat,aV7IinAflat.ThenextpairisB7toEmajor,V7IinE.ThelastpairbringsthesequencebacktoIwithG7toCmajor,V7IinC.ThepairsequenceisCAflatEC,anaugmentedtriad.

  • BluesFundamentalHarmonicStructure

    QuickChange:Measure2ofthebluesoftenincludesthesubdominant.

    Subdominant,mm.56:ivVII7IleadingbacktoI.

  • Subdominant,mm.56:Bassupstepchangingharmonytodiminished.

    Dominant,mm.910:Fouroptionsincludedincomposition(notsubstitutions).Option1:Dominantfortwobars.

    Option2:iiV7(perhapsmostcommon)

    Option3:Takeitfromthefive.VdowntoIVtoI

    Option4:V/VtoV(iimadedominant)

  • Otherpossibilitiesforlastfourbars:IVflatVII7I(ivflatVII7I)

    II7(orV/V)|TritoneSubstitution|I(I7orminor)

    Minorbluesmayhaveminorchordsinthedominantmeasures.

    LeadinConceptInmanysituationsaniiV7canbeinsertedtoleadintoastructuralpointofatune.Itmaybean

    importantchord,delineatingasectionofmelody,definingfouroreightmeasuregroup,orfulfillotherharmonicneeds.

    Intheblues,aiiV7canbeplacedinm.4leadingtothesubdominant.

  • AiiV7inm.8ofthebluescanleadtothedominant(orotherchordinm.9).

    ExtendedLeadinWhereharmonicspaceallows,theLeadincanbeextendedbymeansofacycleofV7s,acycleofiiV7s,descendingorascendingiiV7s,tritonesubstitutions,orotherprogressions.Blues,mm.15:cycleleadintoIV.ThissequenceisdemonstratedinbluesforAlice(CharlieParker).Thetonicchordhasamajor7thinsteadofthetraditionalminor5thfoundinabluestonic.This,plusthehalfdiminishedqualityofthefirstchordinm.2helptostartthecyclemoresmoothly.Themajor7thofIisthesameastherootofthefirstchordinm.2.Thehalfdiminishedchordsflat5isinthekeysignatureandisrootofthequickchangechordoftenplayedinm.2.

    iiiforIThemediantisasubstitutefortonic.InCthechordtonesareCEGB.ThemediantinthekeyofCisE.UsingtheCmajorkeysignaturethechordtonesforEareEGBD.Pitchesarethesimilarandcanbemademoresodependingontheextensionsused.

  • InRhythmChangesIviiiV7canbecomeiiiviiiV7.ThisisoftenconvertedtoacycleofiiV7sbychangingthequalityofvitoVI7.

    IntheBluesiiiissometimessubstitutedforIinmm.78.ThiscanleadtoacycleofiiV7s.ThecyclecanbeextendedwhenivflatVII7issubstitutedinmeasure6andthetritonesubstitutionisusedfortheleadintothedominantinm.9.Blues,mm.58:iiisubstitutedforIinm.7

    Blues,mm.59:TritoneSubstitutioninm.8forLeadintom.9

    Blues,mm.58:ivflatVII7I,mm.67

    Blues,mm.59:CombinedelementstocreateDescendingChromaticiiV7Progression

  • ThemediantisoftensubstitutedforIinmeasure11whenaiiiviiiV7oriiiVI7iiV7turnaroundininserted.Amajormediantisusedwhentheturnaroundisacycleofdominants:III7VI7II7v7.

    iiV7forV7andV7foriiV7Inmostsituations,whenthereisadominantchordaiiV7canbesubstituted.Likewise,whenaiiV7ispresentaV7canbeused.iiV7forV7

    V7foriiV7

  • TheTurnaround

    TurnaroundtoTopofFormTheprimarydefinitionofaturnaroundisachordsequencethatfacilitatestherepetitionoftheform.Ithelpstobringthemusicfromtheendofachorus(onetimethroughthechordprogressionofthetune)backtothebeginningofthenextchorus.Aturnaroundtakesonefromthebottomtothetopofthetune.Example:Turnaroundappliedtoblueschanges.

    SectionDelineationTurnaroundprogressionscandelineateasectionoftheformofatuneasintheleadinconceptabove(Bluessection).ThisisfrequentattheendofthefirstAturningaroundtothesecondAsection.Itisfrequentasameanstobringthelistenerintothebridge(contrastingsection)ofthetune.

  • VampsandCircularProgressionsAnotherdefinitionanduseofaturnaroundisanyprogressionthatcirclesbackuponitsstartingpoint;aprogressionthatturnsuponitself.Thiscanhappenatthebeginning,middle,orendofaphrase.Turnaroundprogressionscanvamp(toplaythesamematerialrepeatedly).IviiiV7oriiiviiiV7vamp

    ColtraneChanges

    ivbVII7I

  • CatalogofTurnaroundsBasedonCircleof5thsCycle:

  • BasedonTritoneSubstitutions:

  • BasedonivbVII7I

  • ColtraneChanges

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