13. review anatomi fisiologi otak sistem saraf

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  • 7/25/2019 13. Review Anatomi Fisiologi Otak Sistem Saraf

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    Ns. ENI NURAINI AGUSTINI, S.Kep, M.Sc

    REVIEW ANATOMI FISIOLOGIOTAK & SISTEM SARAF

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    Sistem Saraf

    Sistem Saraf !sat

    Sistem Saraf erifer

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    Sistem Saraf !sat "SS#

    SS

    OTAK

    $ARINGAN SARAF

    S.S.

    Spi%ais

    S.S.

    Spi%ais

    OTAK 'EAN

    OTAKTENGA(

    OTAK)ELAKANG

    *ERE)RUM

    'IEN*E(ALON

    MIEN*E(ALON

    ONS

    ME'ULA

    O)LONGATA

    *ERE)RUM

    NEURON

    S

    SINAS

    NEUROTRANSMITTER

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    A%at+mi Ota

    OTAK

    'EAN

    OTAKTENGA(

    OTAKBELAKAG

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    *ere-r!m

    . (emisfer iri /

    0i1!-!%2a% +e1 +rp!sa+s!m 32 -erisi 455 6t

    %e!r+%s

    4. (emisfer a%a% /

    7. K+rtes Sere-ri

    8. Ga%2ia )asais

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    (emisfer

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    (emisfer(emisfer Kiri/ cara -er9ir i%ier,

    se!e%sia, me%2at!r 1a:1a 3a%2 -ersifatrasi+%a, -er!r!sa% 0e%2a% ata:ata &matematia

    (emisfer a%a% / -er1!-!%2a% 0e%2a%reati;itas, se%i, m!si, 2am-ar,

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    (EMISFER

    Ter-a2i atas 8 +-!s & masi%2:masi%2 +-!s 0ipisa1a% +e19s!ra

    . L+-!s fr+%tais dipisahkan oleh sulkus lateralis

    4. L+-!s temp+rais

    0ipisa1a% +e1 s!!sse%trais

    7. L+-!s parietais

    8. L+-!s +sipita

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    L+-!s:+-!s. L+-!s fr+%ta "0a1i#/ !%t! e2iata% -er9ir,

    pere%ca%aa%, pe%3!s!%a% +%sep, & peria!s+sia.

    4. L+-!s parieta "p!%ca epaa#/ -erta%22!%2

    6a

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    L+-!s:L+-!s

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    K+rtes Sere-ri

    erm!aa% cere-r!m/ korteks serebriberisi substansi kelabu

    : pai%2 -erta%22!%2 6a

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    M+t+ri area K+rtes Sere-ri Utama

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    K+rtes Sere-ri

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    K+rtes Sere-ri

    Ter-a2i a2i me%6a0i/

    . K+rtes m+t+ri/ 6a!r m+t+ri,0aera1 -r+c1a= p!sat

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    *ere-r!m

    8. Ga%2ia )asais /Ter0iri 0ari -a0a% se, tereta 0i-a2ia%

    0aam masi%2:masi%2 -ea1a% +ta

    )a2ia% pai%2 pe%ti%2 / %!e!sca!0at!s, p!tame%, 2+-!s pai0!s

    F!%2si/ me%2+%tr+ ati;itas +t+t,memper!at ati;itas m+t+ri mea!i

    sir!it > sir!it 3a%2 mem-eri !mpa%-ai pa0a +rtes m+t+ri

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    Ga%2ia )asais

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    'ie%cep1a+%

    *+%%ects cere-r!m

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    Sistem Lim-i

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    OTAK TENGA(Mese%cep1a+% /

    Resp+%si-e f+r ;is!a, a!0it+r3, a%0-aa%ce "@ri21ti%2# reBeCes

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    OTAK )ELAKANG

    . +%sRe2!ati+% +f respirati+% a%0 seetam!sce t+%e= asce%0i%2 a%00esce%0i%2 tracts c+%%ect -rai%

    stem

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    Ota )eaa%2

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    SEL SARAF

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    Se Saraf

    Sel sarafata! neuron ter0iri 0ari sat! -a0a%se

    'ari -a0a% se e!ar 0!a macam sera-!tsaraf, 3ait! /

    'e%0rit / -erf!%2si me%2irima% imp!s e-a0a% se saraf

    As+% / me%2irima% imp!s 0ari -a0a% se ese saraf 3a%2 ai% ata! e 6ari%2a% ai%.

    !6!%2 a1ir 0ari as+% ter0apat si%apsis 3a%2mer!paa% cea1 a%tara !6!%2 saraf 0ima%a%e!r+tra%smitter 0iepasa% !%t! me%21a%tarimp!s e saraf sea%6!t%3a ata! +r2a% 3a%20it!6!.

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    As+%-a2ia% !ar as+% ter0apat apisa% ema

    0ise-!t miei% 3a%2 0i-e%t! +e1 seSc1

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    Ne!r+%

    se saraf 0apat 0i-a2i me%6a0i 7 e+mp+, 3ait!

    . se saraf se%s+ris /

    me%21a%tar imp!s 0ari resept+r e sistem sarafp!sat, 3ait! +ta "e%sefa+%# 0a% s!ms!m

    -eaa%2 "me0!a spi%ais#

    4. se saraf m+t+ri,

    me%2irim imp!s 0ari sistem saraf p!sat e +t+tata! ee%6ar 3a%2 1asi%3a -er!pa ta%22apa%

    t!-!1 ter1a0ap ra%2sa%2a%7. se saraf i%terme0iet

    me%21!-!%2a% se saraf m+t+r 0e%2a% se sarafse%s+ri ata! -er1!-!%2a% 0e%2a% se saraf

    ai%%3a 3a%2 a0a 0i 0aam sistem saraf p!sat

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    Ne!r+tra%smitter

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    Skema Perjalanan Neurotransmitterstim!!s

    Resept+r perifer %e!r+%

    Ne!r+tra%smiiter -er6aa% 0i as+%

    Ne!r+tra%smiiter ti-a 0i presi%ap

    Mas! cea1 si%ap

    Ter6a0i p+te%sia asi

    Ne!r+tra%smitter 0i terima respt+r 0e%0rit %e!r+%

    sea%6!t%3a

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    Ne!r+tra%smitter

    Ne!r+tra%smitter mer!paa% Dat 3a%2-era0a 0aam !6!%2 as+% 3a%2 -erf!%2si!%t! +m!%iasi si%aps, e-a%3aa%mer!paa% ami%, ami%+, 0a% %e!r+pepti0a

    Ne!r+tra%smitter mer!paa% s!at! Datimia 3a%2 0apat me%3e-era%2a% imp!s0ari prasi%apsis e p+st si%apsis ata!pascasi%apsis

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    $e%is %e!r+tra%smitter

    Macam:macam. )ersifat esitasi "emamp!a% mem-eria%

    resp+% -ia ter0apat ra%2sa%2a%#/

    aseti+i% , -era0a 0i se!r!1 t!-!1,c1+i%er2ics

    N+repi%ep1ri%e, -era0a 0aam s3stemsaraf

    '+pami%e, -era0a 0aam +taG!tamate, saa1 sat! asam ami%+ ese%sia

    (istami%e, saa1 sat! asam ami%+ ese%sia

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    a%6!ta%

    4. )ersifat i%1i-isi "me%21am-at resp+%#/2amma ami%+-!t3ric aci0 "GA)A#, -era0a

    pa0a 6ari%2a% +ta

    Gisi%, -era0a pa0a me0!a spi%ais

    Ser+t+%i%, me%21am-at 0a% me%2+%tr+ei%2i%a% ti0!r, apar, 0a% mempe%2ar!1iesa0ara%

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    N+r epi%efri%

    N+repi%ep1ri%e pat1

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    acet3c1+i%e

    L+cati+% ,ANS/ S3mpat1etic a%0paras3mpat1etic pres3%aptic %er;etermi%as= paras3mpat1etic p+sts3%aptic%er;e termi%as

    *NS/ *ere-ra c+rteC, 1ipp+camp!s, im-icstr!ct!res, a%0 -asa 2a%2ia

    F!%cti+%s +f acet3c1+i%e are ma%if+0 a%0i%c!0e seep, ar+!sa, pai% percepti+%, t1e

    m+0!ati+% a%0 c++r0i%ati+% +f m+;eme%t,a%0 mem+r3 ac!isiti+% a%0 rete%ti+%

    Me%i%2ata% 0era6at 0epresi

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    '+pami%e

    pat1

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    Serotonin

    Ser+t+%i% pat1

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    GA)A

    2amma ami%+-!t3ric aci0 "GA)A#, -era0apa0a 6ari%2a% +ta

    F!%2si em!%0!ra% ati;itas t!-!1

    e%!r!%a% a0ar GA)A/ ma%ia

    e%i%2ata% a0ar GA)A / 0epresi

    I i i t 1 0 G

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    Impiasi ter1a0ap Ga%22!a%$i

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    (3p1+taamic:it!itar3:A0re%a"(A# ACis

    Vasopresin

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    (A ACisStress memic! 1ip+taam!s !%t! me%sresi

    c+rti+tr+pi:reaesi%2 1+rm+%e "*R( # 0a%;as+presi%

    Seresi e 4 1+rm+% me%stim!asi ee%6ar 1ip+9sis!%t! me%seresi A0e%+c+rtictr+pi% 1+rm+%e "A*T(#

    Seresi A*T( aa% me%stim!asi seresi ee%6ara0re%a !%t! me%seresi +rtis+ 0a% epi%efri%

    Ka0ar +rtis+ 3a%2 ti%22i aa% 0i0etesi +e1 resept+r*R( 0ia0e%+1ip+9sis 1ip+taam!s, 3a%2 aa%

    me%ea% seresi *R( & sea%6!t%3a me%ea% seresiA*T( ":# fee0 -ac mec1a%ism

    Ne!r+tra%smitter GA)A i!t -erpera% 0aam ":# fee0-ac mec1a%ism

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    er!-a1a% Ne!r+e%0+ri%2a%22!a% 6i