12th grade music literature
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DESCRIPTIONOrchestral Instruments. 12th Grade Music Literature. Mr. Welker. Orchestra Seating Chart. The String Family. Violin. The violin is the smallest of the string family. The violin was created around 1500 in Italy. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
12th Grade Music Literature
Orchestra Seating Chart
The String Family
ViolinThe violin is the smallest of the string family.The violin was created around 1500 in Italy.The instrument is played with a bow across the strings but also can be plucked when indicated.Range: From G below middle C to G four octaves above middle C THE VIOLIN!
ViolaThe viola was created around 1530 to support the violins higher range.It is slightly larger than the violin and somewhat harder to play.There are very few viola players in the music businessRange: Begins at 1 octave below middle, and goes up three octaves and a third to E. THE VIOLA!
CelloThe cello was created originally only having 3 strings.This string instrument is supported by a peg that rests on the floor.The cello is approximately 4ft. tall and weighs about 22 lbs.Range: From C two octaves below middle C to E an octave above middle C. THE CELLO!
Double-BassThis instrument is the biggest and lowest sounding of the string family.It stands around 6 ft. tall and usually is played when standing or sitting on a stoolRange: Begins at the E just below 2 octaves below middle C, and goes up two octaves and a third to the G just below middle C. THE DOUBLE-BASS!
The Woodwind Family
Flute/PiccoloThe flute was originally made from bones.It now is made from metal, even though it is part of the woodwind family.This instrument is held parallel to the ground and you blow across a hole in the of it much like a coke bottle.The piccolo is a smaller version of the flute and can extend past the range of a flute.Range: From middle C up three octaves. The piccolo is pitched an octave higher. THE FLUTE AND PICCOLO!
ClarinetThe clarinet is the most important of the woodwinds in the orchestra.It has 18 holes that help make the pitch on this instrument.This instrument is played with a single wooden reed on the mouthpiece.Range: The clarinet range is from E below middle C to A three and one-half octaves above middle C. THE CLARINET!
OboeThe oboe began as a instrument used by hunters in the mid 1600s.Over the past 300 years it has become more modern and suitable for todays ensembles.The oboe is a double-reed instrument and is played by forcing air through the reeds creating vibrations.Range: The oboes range goes from just below middle C, going up two octaves. THE OBOE!
BassoonThe bassoon is the lowest and largest of the woodwind family.It, like the oboe, is played with a double-reed but produces a much lower and different sound.When the bassoon first became known in 1650 it only had 4-8 keys. The bassoon also has other members of its family such as the contrabassoon and double bassoon which extend the lower register of the horn.Range: The range for the bassoon is from B-flat two octaves below middle C to C an octave above middle C. THE BASSOON!
The Brass Family
TrumpetTrumpets originally were used during battles. Soldiers would use trumpet calls to know what to do in the field of battle.In 1820 valves were added to the trumpet to allow the instrument to play more notes.There are many different types of trumpet but the most popular are the ones pitched in C and Bb.Range: From F sharp one octave below middle C to C two octaves above middle C. THE TRUMPET!
French HornThe French horn is often considered the leader of the brass section in orchestras.When it was first created it was never played indoors because it was considered to have to harsh of a sound quality.The French horn unlike the trumpet has rotary valves. Range: From G two octaves below middle C to F one octave above middle C. THE FRENCH HORN!
TromboneThe trombone started in medieval times as a sackbut (smaller than modern trombone).It unlike all other instruments is played with a slide rather than keys or valves.The trombone is a very versatile instrument. It can be found in jazz ensembles, concert bands, and orchestras.There are 3 main types of trombones. They are the alto trombone, tenor trombone, and bass trombone.Range: From E two octave below middle C to B flat above middle C. THE TROMBONE!
TubaThe tuba was created in Germany by famous composer Richard Wagner.The creation of the tuba helped to expand the lower range of the orchestra and made it much easier for composition.The tuba is known as the big boomer due to this lower register of range.The tuba comes in many different keys and sizes unlike most other instruments.Usually in an orchestra there is only one tuba to help out with the double-bassists.Range: From F two octaves below middle C to F above middle C. THE TUBA!
The Percussion Family
Snare DrumThere are two heads on a snare drum. The bottom head has strips of metal under it that can be turned off and on for different qualities.The snare drum is a very important part of a marching band, drum set, or concert band.THE SNARE DRUM!
Bass DrumThe bass drum is the lowest drum in the percussion family.This drum is played with a large lamb skin mallet.It is known for being the heart beat and pulse of the orchestra.Its main purpose is to rhythms and keep the time with the conductor.
Timpani The timpani is also known as the kettle drum and the king of the percussion section.They are shaped like a big pot and were first made for the Hungarian Calvary.Originally they were worn on men riding horses and were made out of copper soup kettles.The timpani unlike most drums can be tuned to multiple pitches by a pedal.THE TIMPANI!
CymbalsCymbals add a different color to the percussion sound.They are made of copper and are either struck together or rolled on by mallets.The cymbal is most known for its crash sound or its shimmering rollMany people consider the cymbals and their family to be part of a kitchen sink.There are many different types of cymbals such as the ride cymbal, crash cymbal, and suspended cymbal.THE CYMBAL!
XylophoneThe xylophone, like the timpani, is a tuned percussion instrument.They hold the best pitch out of all the percussion instruments.The xylophone is not a drum and does not have heads but does have wood slabs across the top that make the pitch.The xylophone also has another member of its family known as the marimba which has a more mellow and darker sound.THE XYLOPHONE!
PianoThe piano is the most complete instrument in the orchestra.It is considered percussion because there is a hammer that strikes a string to make all the pitches.The piano unlike most other instruments is able to play chords and multiple notes at a time.The piano has three pedals on the bottom that have different actions to make the piano have many different effects.Range: EVERYTHING!THE PIANO!
ReferenceEnergy In The Air: Sounds From The Orchestra. Feb. 1999. .