12 chord progresion - brigham young university– chord  · chord progression from ... (tt ii v7...

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  • ChordProgression

    FromFundamentalsofJazzImprovisation:WhatEverybodyThinksYouAlreadyKnow

    Dr.MarkWatkins

    DirectorofJazzStudiesBrighamYoungUniversityIdaho

    2010byMarkWatkinsMaterialshereinareprovidedforpersonaluse.Nopartmaybereproduced

    withoutwrittenpermissionfromtheauthor.

  • FundamentalChordProgressions

    Learningtunesisgreatlyfacilitatedbyrecognizingcommonlyusedchordprogressions.BluesandRhythmChangesarechordprogressionscoveringtheentirebodyofthetune.Proficiencycangreatlyenhanceonesrepertoiresincetheformandprogressionareknownandoneonlyneedlearnmelodies.Otherprogressionsarentnearlyaslengthy,norallinclusive,coveringonlyaportionofthecompositionbutstillmaketunelearningeasier.Themoretunesonelearns,themoreonerecognizessimilaritiescausingtherateoflearningtobeexponential.

    CyclesProgressionswhoserootsmovearoundthecircleof5ths

    1. TheiiV7I(oriiV7)progressionisthemostcommoninjazz.SatinDoll,mm.14(DukeEllington)

    2. TheminoriiV7altiisalsoverycommon.Alteredsupertonic(ii)andaltereddominantsare

    fromtheminormodebutareoftenusedwithamajortonic(modalborrowing).BlueBossa,mm.58(KennyDorham)

    WhatisThisThingCalledLove?,mm.18(ColePorter)

  • 3. IviiiV7,iiiviiiV7,andiiiVI,iiV7:Themediant(iii)isacommonsubstitutefortonic(I)and

    thesubmediant(vi)canbeeitherminor/minor7ormajor/minor7dependinguponthemelodyorotherfactors;essentially,theyarequitesimilarandofteninterchangeable.WheniiiVIiiV7isused,itislikeachainorcycleofiiV7sexceptthatitislockedtotheiiiVIiiV7relationshiptotonicwhereasacycleofiiV7smaystartand/orendindifferentkeyareas.

    BlueMoon,mm.18(LorenzHartandRichardRodgers)

    LetsFallinLove,mm.18(TedKoehlerandHaroldArlen)

    Otherexamplesinclude:RhythmChanges,AintMisbehavin,Georgia,AutumnLeaves,CheektoCheek,DontBeThatWay,HaveYouMetMissJones,IsntItRomantic,andMeantoMe.4. CycleofiiV7s:ThisissimilartoiiiVI7iiV7butwithtwodistinctions:1)thesequencecan

    continuebeyondtworepetitions,and2)thecycleisnotrelatedtotonicinthesameway.Theprogressionmayleadtoasecondarykeyareaorstartfartherbackaroundthecyclethanmediant(iii)thenleadtotonic.(BluesforAlice,Confirmation,TheMasqueradeisOver,StellabyStarlight)

  • BluesforAlice,mm.15(CharlieParker)

    StellabyStarlight,mm.2532(VictorYoungandNedWashington)

    5. CycleofV7s:dominantchordswitharootprogressionascendingbyfourths,descendingby

    fifths(circleoffifthsprogression).Twochordsperbar:Jordu,mm.1724[bridge](DukeJordan)

  • Onechordperbar:Yesterdays,mm.116(JeromeKernandOttoHarbach)

    Onechordeverytwobars:Perdido,mm.1724[bridge](JuanTizol)

    Onechordeveryfourbars:SweetGeorgiaBrown,mm.116(BenBernie,MaceoPinkardand

    KennethCasey)

    Twochordsperbar:NiceWorkifYouCanGetItOnechordperbar:BasinStreetBlues,BillBailey,ComeRainorComeShine,JaDa,SisterSadieOnechordeverytwobars:ScrapplefromtheApple,RhythmChangesOnechordeveryfourbars:Caravan6. iiV7IIV:cyclerootmovementiiV7IextendedtoIV.ItisoftenfollowedbyaTritone

    ResolutiontoV7AlltheThingsYouAre,mm.56,DflattoG)ortoiiV7(AutumnLeaves,mm.46,EflattoA);thesamesequenceoccursinImagination,mm.24.

  • AlltheThingsYouAre,mm18(JeromeKernandOscarHammersteinII)

    AutumnLeaves,mm.18(JosephKosmaandJohnnyMercer)

    Otherexamplesinclude:Imagination(see#15.DiminishedPassingChordbelow)

    iiV7andiiV7ISequences7. ChromaticiiV7:TheChromaticiiV7sequencecanascendordescend.ThelastiiV7can

    resolveinacycleiiV7I(Laura,Stablemates)orasatritonesubstitution(BluesforAlice).MomentsNotice,mm.58(JohnColtrane):ChromaticiiV7(ascending)

    Laura,mm.2930(JohnnyMercerandDavidRaksin):ChromaticiiV7(descending)withiiV7I

    resolution

  • Tritonesubstitutionderivative:

    Stablemates,mm.13,2325(BennyGolson):ChromaticiiV7withiiV7Iresolution

    BluesforAlice,mm.510(CharlieParker):ChromaticiiV7withTritonesubstitution/resolution

    Otherexamplesinclude:LoverManm.7,YouSteppedOutofaDreammm.15168. V7descendingbysteps(chromatic):(twoperbar:ICantGetStarted,PreludetoaKiss,

    Sophisticatedlady,WellYouNeednt,oneperbar:Nutville,OnGreenDolphinStreet[major],Stablemates)

  • EternalTriangle,mm.1724(SonnyStitt):V7=iiV7

    Nutville,mm1720(HoraceSilver)

    9. CycleofiiV7Idescendingbywholestep:G|C7|F|F|F|Bflat7|Eflat|Eflat|etc.;

    majorconvertstominorbecomingiiofiiV7I;newmajorconvertstominorbecomingiiofiiV7I,etc.Insometunes,thepatternbeginswithtwobarsofmajorasinHowHightheMoon.

    Thepatternwithmajorofthekeyfirstfollowedbythewholestepdescendingsequence,asinHowHightheMoon,canbefoundinothertunes>

    HowHightheMoon,mm.19(MorganLewis)

  • Cherokee,mm.3348[bridge](RayNoble)

    AlmostLikeBeinginLove,mm.1724(AlanJayLernerandFrederickLowe):iiV7Idescending

    bywholesteps;majorshiftingtominorfromm.19tom.21

    TuneUp,mm.111(MilesDavis)

  • Otherexamplesinclude:Bebop,ICantGetStarted,JoySpring,LoverMan,Milestones[bridge],OneNoteSamba[bridge],Ornithology,SecretLove,Solar,ThingstoCome,TuneUp,Wave,WhatisThisThingCalledLove,10.Ascendingminor3rdiiV7Iprogression:C|F7|Bb|Bb|Eb|Ab7|Db|etc.;commonon

    bridge.Confirmation,mm.1724(CharlieParker):ascendingminor3rd(BflattoDflat)iiV7I

    progression;BflattoEflatcyclerootmovementfromm.20tom.21

    OnGreenDolphinStreet,mm.1724(NedWashingtonandBronislauKaper)

    11.Descendingminor3rdiiV7Iprogression:C|F7|Bb|Bb|A|D7|G|G|F#|B7|E|E|

    Eb|Ab7|Dbetc.;commononbridge.

  • IllRememberApril,mm.2532(DonRaye,GeneDePaulandPatJohnston):descendingminor3rd(GtoE)iiV7Iprogression;descendingchromaticrootmovement(GtoFsharp),mm.2729

    AlltheThingsYouAre,mm.1724(JeromeKernandOscarHammersteinII)

    12.Ascendingbywholestep:oftenasabridge.

  • OntheSunnySideoftheStreet,mm.1724(DorothyFieldsandJimmyMcHugh)

    HoneysuckleRose,mm.1724(AndyRazafandThomasWaller)

    Otherexamplesinclude:SatinDoll,ItDontMeanaThing,PenniesfromHeaven(mm.916),The

    SurreywiththeFringeonTop.

    TritoneConcepts13.TirtoneSubstitutioninaiiV7IProgressionOneNoteSamba,mm.18(AntonioCarlosJobim)

  • 14.ChromaticallyDescendingV7s:Oftencreatedbyatritonesubstitutiononeveryotherchord

    ofadominantcycle,theycanbeplacedstartingoneitherthefirstorsecondchordofthecycle.

    RhythmChangesSubstitution,mm.1724[bridge]:Theuseoftritonesubstitutionsonmm.34

    and78ofthebridgecreatesachromaticallydescendingsequence.

    Locomotion,mm.1320[bridge](JohnColtrane):Cotranestunedemonstrateshowtritone

    substitutionscanbeplacedonmm.12and56.

  • 15.ChromaticallyDescendingiiV7Sequence(tritonesubtodominants,i.e.E,Eflat,D,Dflat,C,B,resolvetoBflat)

    ThirdRail,mm.1724[bridge](MichaelBrecker)

    Otherexamplesinclude:TheEternalTriangle,mm.1724[bridge](SonnyStitt),BluesforAlice,710(CharlieParker),SatinDoll,mm.58(DukeEllington)

    16.TritoneResolutions:Chordmovementwhoserootsareatritoneapart,thisprogressionis

    oftenfoundwithinaphraseorasthecadencetoaphrase(TTCadence).Mostoftenthefirstchordisdominantbutmovementtoandfromotherqualitiesarenotuncommon,includingtritoneiiV7sequences(TTiiV7Progression).

    MomentsNotice,mm.118[after22barintro](JohnColtrane)

  • 17.#ivVII7I:Sharp4isatritoneabovetonic,VII7isdominantinqualityratherthanfullyor

    halfdiminished.GroovinHigh,mm.14(DizzyGillespie)

    AlmostLikeBeinginLove,mm2125(AlanJayLernerandFrederickLowe)

    Otherexamplesinclude;AnEveiningThought,ImGettingSentimentalOverYou,NightandDay,Whispering

  • MediantRelationshipsMediants:Intonalharmonymediantishalfwaybetweentonicanddominant.Submediantishalfwaybetweentonicandsubdominantdescending.TheexamplebelowisintrebleclefwithCbeingtonic.

    Amediantrelationshipinachordprogressionisanychordthatisa3rdawayfromthepresentchordineitherdirection.Therearetwotypesofmediants:1)diatonicmediant,and2)chromaticmediant.Adiatonicmediantstayswithinthekeysignatureofthepresentchord.Achromaticmedianthasatleastonenoteinthenewchordthatisoutsidethekeysignatureofthepresentchord.Chromaticmediantprogressionsusuallyhaveatleastonecommontonebetweenthetwochordsbutinjazztheydontalways.

    MediantWheelLinesindicatepossibilities

    frompoint(C).

    CompassTurnoutsidewheellikea

    compass.

    ClockTurninsidearmslikeaclock.

    DiatonicMediants:CmajortoAminor,orCmajortoEminor(extensionsmayvary).

    ChromaticMediants(withcommontones):CmajortoEmajor,E7,Eflatmajor,Eflat7,Amajor,A7,Aflatmajor,Aflat7,orAflatminor.

  • ChromaticMediants(withnocommontones):CmajortoEflatminor,Amajor7sharp5,oranyotheralteredchordthatcontainsnocommontones.

    18.Chromaticmediantscanmovefromanychordqualitytoanyotherchordqualityaslongas

    theirrootsareamajororminor3rdapart,upordownfromthefirstchordtothesecond.BerniesTune,mm.14(BernieMiller)

  • AllofMe,mm.1726(SeymourSimonsandGeraldMarks)

    19.ColtraneChanges:ThisprogressionisfoundintunessuchasGiantStepsandisoftenusedas

    turnaroundsubstitutions.Thepatternis:upaminor3rd,downaperfect5th,upaminor3rd,downaperfect5th,upaminor3rd,downaperfect5th.

    GiantSteps,mm.15(JohnColtrane)

    Countdown,mm.14(JohnColtrane):mm.58sameprogressioninC,mm.912same

    progressioninBflat.

  • AdditionalPossibilities20.I|I|II7|II7|ii|V7|ITaketheATrain,mm.18(DukeEllington)

    TheGirlfromIpanema,mm.18(AntonioCarlosJobim)

    Otherexamplesinclude:Desafinado,IGotIBad,JerseyBounce,Solitude21.

    Intheminormodethesubdominantisminor(iv).Thechordbuiltonthe7thscaledegreeissubtonic(VII7)withnoneedtoplaceaflatsignbeforetheRomannumeral;itsqualityismajor/minor7(dominant).OftenwheninamajorkeyaflatisplacedbeforetheVIItoindicatethatitisnotthechordbuiltontheleadingtone.Iessence,thisprogressionisborrowedfromtheminormode.

    JustFriends,mm.15(JohnKlennerandSamM.Lewis)

  • ThereWillNeverBeAnotherYou,mm.912(HarryWarrenandMackGordon)

    IGotRhythm,mm.58(GeorgeGershwin)

    Otherexamplesinclude:BlueDaniel,GroovinHigh,StellabyStarlight(,Misty,andmanyothers

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