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THE COLD WAR 1961 TO 1975. 1. Presidents John F. KennedyLyndon Johnson Richard Nixon Kennedy Administration: 1961 to 1963 Kennedy barely defeated Richard Nixon Kennedy was a popular figure and set up U.S. involvement in Vietnam New Frontier Put a man on the moon - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • 1. PresidentsJohn F. KennedyLyndon Johnson Richard NixonKennedy Administration: 1961 to 1963Kennedy barely defeated Richard Nixon Kennedy was a popular figure and set up U.S. involvement in Vietnam New FrontierPut a man on the moonCold War struggles:failed Bay of Pigs Invasion--April 1961overthrow dictator Fidel CastroCuban Missile Crisis--Oct. 1962Build up to Vietnam--domino theoryKennedy is Assassinated: Nov. 23, 1963Lee Harvey Oswald

  • LBJs Presidency: 1963 to 1969 US in Vietnam WarAmerica wanted to maintain its influence in Asia. stop the spread of Communism---containment Domino theoryeconomics: maintain trade markets in Asiasecurity: keep the balance of power in Asiapolitical: the political party in power could not "allow Vietnam to 'fall' to the Communists. Gulf of Tonkin Incident, Aug. 1964 Gulf Tonkin Resolution: Aug. 1964, Congress gives President Johnson a blank checkU.S. troops 50,000 in 1965 to 500,000 in 1968.VC used guerilla warfare---U.S. usedSearch and destroy missionsbombing Tet Offensive---Feb. 1968--NVN invades SVNAmerican people want out of Vietnamincreased anti-war protestscounter culture

  • 1968 Presidential election: Major issuesVietnam and anti-war movementPresident Johnson withdraws because of war. Nixon won with only 43.4% of the popular vote.Nixons Presidency: 1969 to 1974Nixon reduces U.S. involvement in VietnamVietnamization policyreturn the war to the South Vietnameseanti-war protests----Kent State Massacre1972 election Nixon wins easily.Paris Peace Accords signed 27 Jan 1973 by NV and US US troops withdraw by Mar 731975, Saigon falls to NVN and SVN becomes Communistic--------U.S. loses Vietnam War

  • ThemesCOLD WARA CONFIDENT NATION (1961 to 1963)A SHOCKED NATION (1963 to 1964)CIVIL RIGHTSA DIVIDED NATION (1965 to 1970)Was the US a country near collapse?

    THE STORMY 60S

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  • 35th President of the U.S., 1961-63Served in WWIISenator from MassachusettsPopular presidentACHIEVEMENTS / EVENTSNew FrontierSpace race---put a man on the moonBerlin Wall builtAlliance for Progress and Peace CorpCuban Missile CrisisU.S. involvement in VietnamNegotiates first nuclear test ban treaty with SovietsAssassinated, Nov. 1963 by Lee Harvey Oswald?

  • 50% of the nation is under 25 in the census of 1960.Many believed that the US was losing the Cold War to the Russians.Kennedys election marks a change in power from the older generation to the WWII generation.The youth of the nation is full of idealism.

  • The De-Colonization of European Empires

  • The first televised presidential debates in US History took place between John Kennedy and Richard NixonThese debates impacted how the presidency would be perceived by Americans.

  • John KennedyWon a close and disputed election.Youngest president to be elected.43 years of age.

  • Text of Inaugural AddressThe world is very different now. For man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life. And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state, but from the hand of God

  • Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this Nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world. Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty. This much we pledge and more.

  • Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate.Let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which divide us.Let both sides, for the first time, formulate serious and precise proposals for the inspection and control of arms and bring the absolute power to destroy other nations under the absolute control of all nations. Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science instead of its terrors. Together let us explore the stars, conquer the deserts, eradicate disease, tap the ocean depths, and encourage the arts and commerce. All this will not be finished in the first 100 days. Nor will it be finished in the first 1,000 days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin.In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than in mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course

  • Text of Inaugural AddressIn the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility I welcome it. I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve I and the glow from that fire can truly light the world. And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you ask what you can do for your country. My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.

  • The Kennedy MystiqueKennedy wins presidency in close electionCritics argue his smooth style lacks substanceKennedy White House known as Camelot for its glamour, culture, witFirst Lady admired for her elegance; constant articles about familyThe Camelot YearsThe Best and the BrightestJFKs advisers called the best and the brightestBrother Robert Kennedy named attorney generalKENNEDY PRESIDENCY

  • John Fitzgerald KennedyFamily Man

  • Kennedy's New Frontier Domestic Program Federal funding for educationMedical care for the elderlyGovernment intervention to halt the recession with tax cuts. End to racial discrimination. EstablishedAlliance for Peace and Peace Corps to help Third World countriesPresident's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity to end racial discrimination in hiring of govt employees.New Frontier impossible to completeDue to conservative Congress. Disappointed many civil rights activists = feared splitting Democratic Party.New Frontier ideas led to President Johnson's "Great Society"

  • Kennedys Domestic ProgramsIn a speech early in his presidency, Kennedy said that the nation was poised at the edge of a New Frontier. This phrase came to refer to Kennedys proposals to improve the economy, assist the poor, and speed up the space program.ordering a federal investigation into steel price fixingproposed a large tax cut. (not approved)Many of Kennedys proposals aimed to combat poverty and inequality. Although some were rejected by Congress, others were passed. These included an increase in the minimum wage, funding for urban renewal, abolishment of poll taxes, and the Equal Pay Act, which required all employees doing the same work in the same workplace to receive equal wages.

  • Other Kennedy InitiativesAlthough Kennedy served a shortened presidency, he was able to initiate a variety of programs, including:Improved surplus food to unemployed AmericansLargest defense buildup in peacetime historyHelp to communities plagued by long-term unemploymentExtension of Social Security benefitsExpansion of National Park SystemDoubling of federal resources combating water pollutionConstruction of the worlds largest nuclear power plantTightening of food and drug lawsEncouragement of free tradeSigning of the Nuclear Test Ban TreatyChanges in the welfare systemCreation of first federal program to address juvenile delinquency

  • The Space ProgramThe Soviet Unions launch of the Sputnik satellite in 1957 inspired the United States to work toward placing a manned spacecraft in orbit.In April 1961, Soviet astronaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human to travel in space. Americans worried that their technology was falling behind that of the Soviet Union.Funding for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was increased. In 1961 and 1962, American astronauts made initial space flights.On July 20, 1969, American astronaut Neil Armstrong became the first person to walk on the moon. Wernher von Braun explains the Saturn system to President John F. Kennedy at Launch Complex 37.

  • The Space ProgramU.S. Astronaut John H. Glenn, Jr., standing in front of the spacecraft Friendship 7.First astronaut to orbit the earths surface 3 times.

  • Kennedys Charisma:Our faith in him and in what he was trying to do was absolute, and he could impart to our work together a sense of challenge and adventure-a feeling that he was moving, and the world with him, toward a better time. Pierre Salinger, Press Secretary

  • Kennedys CriticsCongress could follow their own interest:A good many [congressional representatives] were elected in 1960 in spite of his presence on the ticket rather than because his name was there. Congressional Democrat US News & World Report

  • Alliance for Peace statistics in Latin America.

  • A Marshall Plan for Latin America?Our continents arc bound together by a common history-the endless exploration of new frontiers. Our nations are the product of a common struggle -the revolt from colonial rule. And our people share a common heritage - the quest for the dignity and the freedom of man. . . .JFK March 1961Poverty and corruption in Latin America Kennedy wants to thwart communist expansion in Latin AmericaAllian