1 passport science space unit – part 1 of 3 powerpoints (textbook reference...

Download 1 Passport Science Space Unit – Part 1 of 3 PowerPoints (Textbook reference Chapters 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16)

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  • *Passport ScienceSpace Unit Part 1 of 3 PowerPoints(Textbook reference Chapters 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16)

  • What is astronomy?

  • Stars Nebula Planets The Sun The Great Andromeda Galaxy by George GreaneyStar clusters Galaxies Galaxy clusters Dark matter Black holes

  • What is astronomy?Galaxy M83 in Hydraby George Greaney

  • M33, The Pinwheel Galaxy in Triangulumby George GreaneyWhat is astronomy?M33, The Pinwheel Galaxy in Triangulumby George Greaney

  • Basically, if its off this planet its a study of some realm of astronomy.

    As one might imagine that covers an awful lot of subjects, even more than we know right now.NGC 253,galaxy in Sculptorby George Greaney

  • Key IdeasGalaxies: clusters of stars; different shapesStars: Sun; differ in size, temperature and color; source for all bright objectsGravity: planets, stars, solar systemKnow the appearance, composition, position and size, and motion of objects in our solar systemAstronomical units for measuring


  • ??????

  • Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)What is an astronomer?A night watchman with a college education?

  • Galileo Observatory in ItalyAn astronomer is a scientist, skilled in mathematics, physics, and astronomy.Most professional astronomers work for universities or government agencies.Source: The Berkeley Cosmology Group

  • Astronomer Serena Kim at work At Cerro Tololo in ChiliFew astronomers spend much time looking through a telescope. Most operate telescopes from a control room or even from their computer at home via theInternet.

    Typical astronomers only spend one or two weeks eachyear observing, and the rest of their research time analyzing their data.

    Source: Applied Theoretical and Computational Physics Division Los Alamos National Laboratory

  • Amateurs and their tools

  • What is an amateur astronomer?Although the term has different meanings for different people, a basic definition would include anyone who looks into the sky, and wants to see or learn more.

  • What is space like?No airNo gravity-when youre not very close to a planet, sun, or moonNo windNo frictionNo real up or downNo pressure

  • *The Expanding Universe 15-5The Big Bang Theory

  • What is a galaxy? (Textbook reference 15-4)A large group of stars outside of our own Milky WayMade of billions to trillions of starsAlso may have gas and dust Spiral, or elliptical, or irregular shapedThe Milky Way Galaxy is a spiral galaxy.Image at http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/galaxy/spiral/2007/41/results/50/

  • Spiral galaxy--AndromedaNOAO/AURA/NSF Images at http://www.noao.edu/image_gallery/html/im0606.html and http://www.noao.edu/image_gallery/html/im0685.html

  • Elliptical GalaxiesImages at http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/galaxy/elliptical/2007/08/image/a/format/large_web/results/50/ and http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/galaxy/elliptical/1995/07/results/50/

  • Irregular GalaxiesNASA and NOAO/AURA/NSF Images at http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/galaxy/irregular/2005/09/results/50/ , http://www.noao.edu/image_gallery/html/im0560.html , and http://www.noao.edu/image_gallery/html/im0993.html

  • Our Galaxy: the Milky Wayhas about 200 billion stars, and lots of gas and dustis a barred-spiral (we think)about 100,000 light-years wide (a measure of distance)our Sun is halfway to the edge, revolving at half a million miles per hour around the center of the Galaxytakes our Solar System about 200 million years to revolve once around our galaxy

  • The Milky WayImage at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/bigphotos/1945371.html

  • Mapping the Milky WayWe can seestarsstar clustersnebulaegalaxies

    How do we know what our galaxy looks like?

  • *Reviewing GalaxiesGroups of stars, planets, and space debrisIrregular, Elliptical, SpiralMilky Way is our galaxy

  • Image of the Sun from Goddard Space Flight Center

  • What is a Star?

    Our Sun is the closest star.

    At the simplest, a star is just a ball of gasthat has condensed out of interstellar material. The largest part of its lifetime is spent as a main sequence star during which hydrogen is being converted to helium balancing gravitational contraction so that the radius and energy output remain almost constant. Source: The British Astronomical Association

  • *Stars (Textbook reference 15-2 and 15-3)Bodies of gases that give off tremendous amounts of radiant and heat energyConstellations are patterns of stars used for navigation, storytelling, honoring heroesLife Cycle of a Star Video

  • Image courtesy of Dave Dockery Astronomical Society of Las Cruces Source: The British Astronomical Association Nearby Stars:

    Name Distance from Earth

    Sun 93 million miles (8 light minutes) Proxima Centauri 4.22 Light YearsAlpha Centuri A,B 4.39 Light YearsBarnards Star 5.94 Light YearsWolf 359 7.8 Light YearsLalande 21185 8.3 Light YearsSirius A,B 8.6 Light Years

  • *Evolution of Stars

  • *How do Black Holes form?

  • *Black HolesRemains of a neutron star that has collapsed due to intense gravity

  • *Hertzsprung-Russell DiagramThe Doppler Effect:

    Red Shift stars moving away from EarthBlue Shift stars moving toward EarthVideo on the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram Spectroscopy Video

  • Hertzsprung-Russell DiagramImages from http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/2007/spectrum_plants.html and http://sunearthday.gsfc.nasa.gov/2009/TTT/65_surfacetemp.php The coolest stars are blue-white in color.

  • Using a Stars SpectrumWe can use a stars spectrum to classify it.NOAO/AURA/NSF image at http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap010530.html

    Information at http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/galaxy/spiral/2007/41/results/50/ NOVEMBER 29, 2007: Resembling festive lights on a holiday wreath, this NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image of the nearby spiral galaxy M74 is an iconic reminder of the impending season. Bright knots of glowing gas light up the spiral arms, indicating a rich environment of star formation. M74 is located roughly 32 million light-years away in the direction of the constellation Pisces, the Fish. The image is a composite of Advanced Camera for Surveys data taken in 2003 and 2005.Located in the constellation of Andromeda, the Princess, the Andromeda Galaxy is a large spiral galaxy very similar to our own Galaxy, the Milky Way. It is over 65,000 light-years in diameter and approximately 2.2 million light-years in distance. The area shown in this image is quite large on the sky, covering about five times the area of the full Moon.Information on the galaxy on the left at http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/galaxy/elliptical/2007/08/image/a/results/50/

    This image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope shows the diverse collection of galaxies in the cluster Abell S0740 that is over 450 million light-years away in the direction of the constellation Centaurus.The giant elliptical ESO 325-G004 looms large at the cluster's center. The galaxy is as massive as 100 billion of our suns. Hubble resolves thousands of globular star clusters orbiting ESO 325-G004. Globular clusters are compact groups of hundreds of thousands of stars that are gravitationally bound together. At the galaxy's distance they appear as pinpoints of light contained within the diffuse halo.Other fuzzy elliptical galaxies dot the image. Some have evidence of a disk or ring structure that gives them a bow-tie shape. Several spiral galaxies are also present. The starlight in these galaxies is mainly contained in a disk and follows along spiral arms.This image was created by combining Hubble science observations taken in January 2005 with Hubble Heritage observations taken a year later to form a 3-color composite. The filters that isolate blue, red and infrared light were used with the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard Hubble.

    Information on the galaxy on the right at http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/galaxy/elliptical/1995/07/results/50/ JUNE 14, 1995: This Hubble telescope photo mosaic shows a field of distant galaxies. The brightest object in this picture is NGC 4881 [just above center], an elliptical galaxy in the outskirts of the Coma Cluster, a great cluster of galaxies more than five times farther away than the Virgo Cluster. The distance to the Coma Cluster is an important cosmic yardstick for scaling the overall size of the universe. About Image on Left:MARCH 3, 2005: What happens when a galaxy falls in with the wrong crowd? The irregular galaxy NGC 1427A is a spectacular example of the resulting stellar rumble. Under the gravitational grasp of a large gang of galaxies, called the Fornax cluster, the small bluish galaxy is plunging headlong into the group at 600 kilometers per second or nearly 400 miles per second.

    1. IS NGC 1427A ACTIVELY FORMING STARS? NGC 1427A shows numerous hot, blue stars that have been formed very recently, showing that star formation is occurring extensively throughout the galaxy. Within the Fornax cluster, there is a considerable amount of gas lying between the galaxies. When the gas within NGC 1427A collides with the Fornax gas, it is compressed to the point that it starts to collapse under its own gravity. This leads to formation of the myriad of new stars seen across NGC 1427A. The tidal forces of nearby galaxies in the cluster may also play a role in triggering star formation on such a massive scale.2. WHAT IS THE EVENTUAL FATE FOR NGC 1427A? NGC 1427A will not survive long as an identifiable galaxy passing through the cluster. Within the next billion years, it will be comp