1 Objective: You will learn the history of animated and non-animated films. Agenda: Notes, View Hugo. Daily Question: Why is Georges Melias so unhappy?

Download 1 Objective: You will learn the history of animated and non-animated films. Agenda: Notes, View Hugo. Daily Question: Why is Georges Melias so unhappy?

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  • Slide 1
  • 1 Objective: You will learn the history of animated and non-animated films. Agenda: Notes, View Hugo. Daily Question: Why is Georges Melias so unhappy? Notes:Animated film History Homework: None.
  • Slide 2
  • Animation Animation History: The Beginning 2 Image 01. Public Domain.
  • Slide 3
  • Thaumatrope This device was created in 1827 by English physician John Ayerton Paris which has two different drawings on opposite sides of a disk. When the disk is spun, the images merge into one. Paul Roget used the thaumatrope in 1828 to demonstrate his persistence of vision concept. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 3 Image 02. Used with permission.
  • Slide 4
  • Phenakistoscope In 1832, Belgian physicist Joseph Plateau and his sons introduced the phenakistoscope ("spindle viewer"). It was also invented independently in the same year by Simon von Stampfer of Vienna, Austria. The phenakistoscope used a spinning disc attached vertically to a handle. The user would spin the disc and look through the moving slits at the disc's reflection in a mirror. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 4 Image 03. Public Domain.
  • Slide 5
  • Zoetrope This device was invented in 1834 by William Horner, who originally called it a Daedalum ("wheel of the Devil"). Later, it was renamed the "zoetrope," or "wheel of life." It was more convenient since it did not require a mirror and allowed more than one person to use it at the same time. It consisted of a cylinder with slits cut vertically in the sides. As it would spin, the user looked through the slits at the pictures across. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 5 Image 04. Used with permission.
  • Slide 6
  • Praxinoscope The praxinoscope was invented in France in 1877 by Charles-mile Reynaud. This improved on the zoetrope by replacing its narrow viewing slits with an inner circle of mirrors, placed so that the reflections of the pictures appeared more or less stationary in position as the wheel turned. In 1889 Reynaud developed an improved version capable of projecting images on a screen from a longer roll of pictures. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 6 Image 05. Public Domain.
  • Slide 7
  • Birth of Photography Animation on film was only possible because of invention of photography in 1827 by Joseph Nipce. Louis Daguerre, an assistant to Nipce, developed a new process for developing images in 1837 called tin-type photos, also known as Daguerre-types. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 7 Image 06. Public Domain. Image 07. Public Domain.
  • Slide 8
  • Improvement of Photography The technology behind photography improved dramatically in the last half of the 19 th century. During the American Civil War (1860-1865), New York photographer Matthew Brady became well-known by taking photos of the war. In 1885, George Eastman introduced transparent, flexible film and in 1888 marketed his Kodak camera, bringing photography to the average American. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 8 Image 08. Public Domain.Image 09. Public Domain.
  • Slide 9
  • Eadweard J. Muybridge Well known as a photographer in California, Muybridge was hired by former governor Leland Stanford to photograph the governors race horse. Stanford had a wager that all four hooves of a horse leave the ground when running. Muybridges job was to prove the theory. Using twenty-four cameras, a system of trip shutters, and high speed film, Muybridges series of still photographs gave the impression of motion. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 9 Image 10. Public Domain.
  • Slide 10
  • Muybridge Horse in Motion Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 10 Image 11. Public Domain.
  • Slide 11
  • Motion Pictures in America America s premier inventor, Thomas Alva Edison, developed a motion picture camera ( the kinetograph ) and a projector ( the kinetoscope ) in 1891. Edison filmed random events including haircuts, boxing matches, Annie Oakley, and the new Brooklyn Bridge. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 11 Image 12. Public Domain.
  • Slide 12
  • Birth of Narrative Films By the turn of the century, the subject of motion pictures evolved towards narrative stories. The Edison 1902 film, Fun in a Bakery Shop was an early example of movie special effects. In 1903, the landmark silent movie The Great Train Robbery debuted. It was created by former Edison cameraman Edwin S. Porter, was a commercial success, and led to the birth of silent pictures. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 12 Image 13. Public Domain. Image 14. Public Domain.
  • Slide 13
  • Motion Pictures in France Auguste and Louis Lumiere were French inventors and pioneer manufacturers of photographic equipment who devised an early motion-picture camera and projector. In 1895, they created the film Workers Leaving the Factory which is considered the first motion picture. In 1903, they turned their attentions away from cinematography and patented a color photography process that launched in 1907. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 13 Image 15. Public Domain.
  • Slide 14
  • Georges Mlis After seeing the Lumieres new invention in 1895, Georges Mlis began making films. He had been a magician and expert in special effects for the theater. In 1902, Georges Mlis made his most famous film, A Trip to the Moon. The film included the celebrated scene in which a spaceship hits the man in the moon in the eye. It was loosely based on works by Jules Verne and H. G. Wells. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 14 Image 16. Public Domain. Image 17. Public Domain.
  • Slide 15
  • J. Stuart Blackton Blackton started as a vaudeville performer known as The Komikal Kartoonist who drew lightning-fast sketches. After meeting Edison, Blackton became interested in putting his drawings on film. The Enchanted Drawing was an early attempt at animation and special effects. In 1906 using a chalkboard, Blackton created Humorous Phases of Funny Faces which was known as the first animated film. The Haunted Hotel in 1907 expanded on the use of stop motion in films. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 15 Image 18. Public Domain. Image 19. Public Domain.
  • Slide 16
  • mile Cohl Eugne Jean Louis Courtet, who went by the pseudonym mile Cohl, was a French caricaturist, cartoonist, and animator. After seeing a screening of Stuart Blacktons The Haunted Hotel, Cohl began animating. In 1908, Cohl created Fantasmagorie. This animation was created using an illuminated glass plate for his table while drawing black lines on paper. The end result was printed in negative to intentionally give the feel of a chalkboard. The title referred to a fantasmograph, which was an early animation machine similar to a zeotrope. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 16 Image 20. Public Domain. Image 21. Public Domain.
  • Slide 17
  • Winsor McCay McCay worked as a cartoonist for several newspapers. In 1912, McCay animated How a Mosquito Operates. In 1914, McCay brought Gertie the Dinosaur to life on film. It was included in his vaudeville act along with camera tricks where McCay appeared on screen with Gertie. McCay used animation to illustrate the Sinking of the Lusitania in 1918. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 17 Image 22. Public Domain. Image 23. Public Domain.
  • Slide 18
  • Silent Movie Era of the 20s In the 1920s, movie theatres popped up around the country. Sound was not added until 1927; all of the movies were silent. Before each movie, theatres usually showed several cartoons as well as news reels. Because of the popularity of movies, there became a strong demand for animated cartoons. The first studios were based in New York. Most studios relocated to California to take advantage of the good weather. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 18 Image 24. Public Domain.
  • Slide 19
  • Celluloid From 1914 through 1920, several film and animation houses were started in New York. The John Bray Studio was one of the most influential studios with its cartoon series, Colonel Heeza Liar. In 1914, Bray employee Earl Hurd invented the process of inking the animator s drawings onto clear pieces of celluloid and then photographed them ov