# 1 Comparison of Machine Learning Algorithms [ aarti/Class/10701/MLAlgo_Comparisons.pdf · 1 Comparison…

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1 Comparison of Machine Learning Algorithms [Jayant, 20 points]

In this problem, you will review the important aspects of the algorithms we have learned about in class. Forevery algorithm listed in the two tables on the next pages, fill out the entries under each column according tothe following guidelines. Turn in your completed table with your problem set. [ 12 point per entry]

Guidelines:

1. Generative or Discriminative Choose either generative or discriminative; you may write Gand D respectively to save some writing.

2. Loss Function Write either the name or the form of the loss function optimized by the algorithm(e.g., exponential loss).

3. Decision Boundary / Regression Function Shape Describe the shape of the decision surfaceor regression function, e.g., linear. If necessary, enumerate conditions under which the decisionboundary has different forms.

4. Parameter Estimation Algorithm / Prediction Algorithm Name or concisely describe analgorithm for estimating the parameters or predicting the value of a new instance. Your answer shouldfit in the provided box.

5. Model Complexity Reduction Name a technique for limiting model complexity and preventingoverfitting.

Solution: Completed tables are on the following pages.

1

LearningMethod

Generative orDiscriminative?

Loss Func-tion

Decision Boundary Parameter Estimation Algorithm Model Complexity Re-duction

Gaussian NaveBayes

Generative logP (X,Y ) Equal variance: linearboundary. Unequal vari-ance: quadratic bound-ary

Estimate , 2, and P (Y ) usingmaximum likelihood

Place prior on parame-ters and use MAP esti-mator

Logistic Regres-sion

Discriminative logP (Y |X) Linear No closed form estimate. Opti-mize objective function using gra-dient descent.

L2 regularization

Decision Trees Discriminative Either logP (Y |X)or zero-oneloss

Axis-aligned partition offeature space

Many algorithms: ID3, CART,C4.5

Prune tree or limit treedepth

K-NearestNeighbors

Discriminative zero-one loss Arbitrarily complicated Must store all training data toclassify new points. ChooseK us-ing cross validation.

Increase K

Support VectorMachines (withslack variables,no kernel)

Discriminative hinge loss:|1y(wTx)|+

linear (depends on ker-nel)

Solve quadratic program to findboundary that maximizes margin

Reduce C

Boosting (withdecision stumps)

Discriminative exponentialloss:exp{yf(x)}

Axis-aligned partition offeature space

AdaBoost Reduce the number of it-erations

Table 1: Comparison of Classification Algorithms

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Learning Method Loss Function RegressionFunctionShape

Parameter Estimation Algorithm Prediction Algorithm

Linear Regression (assumingGaussian noise model)

square loss:(Y Y )2

Linear Solve = (XTX)1XTY Y = X

Nadaraya-Watson Kernel Regres-sion

square loss:(Y Y )2

Arbitrary Store all training data. Choosekernel bandwidth h using crossvalidation.

f(x) =

i yiK(xi,x)j K(xj ,x)

Regression Trees square loss:(Y Y )2

Axis-alignedpartition offeature space

Many: ID3, CART, C4.5 Move down tree based onx, predict value at theleaf.

Table 2: Comparison of Regression Algorithms

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2 Comparison of Machine Learning Algorithms [Jayant, 15 pts]

In this problem, you will review the important aspects of the algorithms we have learned about in class sincethe midterm. For every algorithm listed in the two tables on the next pages, fill out the entries under eachcolumn according to the following guidelines. Do not fill out the greyed-out cells. Turn in your completedtable with your problem set.

Guidelines:

1. Generative or Discriminative Choose either generative or discriminative; you may write Gand D respectively to save some writing.

2. Loss Function Write either the name or the form of the loss function optimized by the algorithm(e.g., exponential loss). For the clustering algorithms, you may alternatively write a short descriptionof the loss function.

3. Decision Boundary Describe the shape of the decision surface, e.g., linear. If necessary, enu-merate conditions under which the decision boundary has different forms.

4. Parameter Estimation Algorithm / Prediction Algorithm Name or concisely describe analgorithm for estimating the parameters or predicting the value of a new instance. Your answer shouldfit in the provided box.

5. Model Complexity Reduction Name a technique for limiting model complexity and preventingoverfitting.

6. Number of Clusters Choose either predetermined or data-dependent; you may write P andD to save time.

7. Cluster Shape Choose either isotropic (i.e., spherical) or anisotropic; you may write I andA to save time.

Solution: Completed tables are on the following pages.

1

LearningMethod

Generative orDiscriminative?

Loss Func-tion

ParameterEstimationAlgorithm

Prediction Algorithm Model Complexity Reduction

Bayes Nets Generative logP (X,Y ) MLE Variable Elimination MAP

Hidden MarkovModels

Generative logP (X,Y ) MLE Viterbi or Forward-Backward, depending onprediction task

MAP

Neural Networks Discriminative Sum-squarederror

Back-Propagation

Forward Propagation Reduce number of hidden lay-ers, regularization, early stop-ping

Table 1: Comparison of Classification Algorithms

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LearningMethod

Loss Function Number of clusters:Predetermined or Data-dependent

Cluster shape: isotropicor anisotropic?

Parameter Estimation Algorithm

K-means Within-classsquared distancefrom mean

Predetermined Isotropic K-means

Gaussian Mix-ture Models(identity covari-ance)

logP (X),(equivalent towithin-classsquared distancefrom mean)

Predetermined Isotropic Expectation Maximization (EM)

Single-Link Hi-erarchical Clus-tering

Maximum dis-tance betweena point and itsnearest neighborwithin a cluster

Data-dependent Anisotropic Greedy agglomerative clustering

Spectral Clus-tering

Balanced cut Predetermined Anisotropic Run Laplacian Eigenmaps fol-lowed by K-means or threshold-ing eigenvector signs

Table 2: Comparison of Clustering Algorithms

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