1 Chapter 9: Nuclear Chemistry Radioactivity Nuclear Equations Radiation Detection Half-Life Medical Applications Fission & Fusion.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> 1 Chapter 9: Nuclear Chemistry Radioactivity Nuclear Equations Radiation Detection Half-Life Medical Applications Fission &amp; Fusion </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> 2 Isotopes of Hydrogen Isotopes = Isotopes = Atoms of the same element but having different masses. 1111 2121 3131 H H H +- +-+- Protium99.99% Deuterium0.01% Tritium Trace % Average Atomic weight Average Atomic weight of Hydrogen 1.00794 amu = 1.00794 amu </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> 3 Isotopes of Carbon Average Atomic weight12.011 amu Average Atomic weight of C= 12.011 amu 98.89% C 612C 613 C 6141.11% Trace % + + + + ++ - --- - - - + + + + ++-- - - - + + + + ++---- - - </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> 4 Radioactive Isotopes C 614 + + + + ++---- - - + 3131 H - Nucleus is unstable So falls apart (decays) Giving radioactive particles Hydrogen-3 Carbon-14 </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> 5 Radioactive Isotopes in Medicine Tc 4399m 123 53 53 I 131 I 6027 Co Diagnose thyroid function Treat hyperthyroid (destroys cells) Destroy tumors ( radiation) Diagnose bone, tissue (most common) </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> 6 Alpha Decay Pb 82 206 +++ + ++ 21084 Po 42 He ++ Particle 21084 Po Pb 82 206 + 42 He </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> 7 Beta Decay N 7 14 146 C 0 e - Particle +++ + ++ +++ + ++ + + - 10 n 11 H + 0 e neutronprotonelectron </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> 8 Beta Decay N 7 14 146 C 0 e - Particle +++ + ++ +++ + ++ + + - + 0 e 146 C N 7 14 </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> 9 Gamma Decay 99m43 Tc decay +++ + ++ +++ + ++ 9943 Tc + 99m43 Tc Tc 43 99 </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> 10 </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> 11 Ionizing Radiation - Radiation knocks off an electron An ion A radical Ions &amp; radicals cause damaging chain reactions </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> 12 Geiger Counter - Radiation knocks off an electron An ion Ions detected by Counter Gas in instrument tube </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> 13 </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> 14 Radiation: Penetration through Air ++ - 4 cm 6-300 cm 400 m </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> 15 ++ - Tissue Penetration Depth 0.05 mm 0.06-5 mm &gt;50 cm </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> 16 Radiation: Shielding ++ - Paper Cloth Heavy Cloth Pb, thick concrete </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> 17 Nuclear Equations 22688 Ra Rn 86 222 + 42 He Radon gas in Buildings Po 84 218 + 42 He Gas </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> 18 13153 I Xe 54 131 + 0 e Thyroid check &amp; treatment Cancer Treatment Nuclear Equations 6027 Co Ni 28 60 + 0 e </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> 19 Radiation Detection 1 Ci = 3.7 x 10 10 disintegrations sec 1 Bq = 1 disintegration sec # of disintegrations by of 1g Ra ActivityActivity Becquerel (Bq) Curie (Ci) Curie (Ci): </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> 20 Radiation Detection Absorbed Dose </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> 21 ++ - Tissue Penetration Depth 0.05 mm 0.06-5 mm &gt;50 cm Radiation Absorbed Dose (Rad) (D) Radiation Absorbed Dose (Rad) (D): 1 rad = 1 x 10 -2 J kg tissue kg tissue 1 rad = 1 x 10 -2 J kg tissue kg tissue 1 rad = 2.4 x 10 -3 cal kg tissue kg tissue Radiation Detection: Biological Effect </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> 22 ++ - Tissue Penetration Depth 0.05 mm 0.06-5 mm &gt;50 cm Radiation Absorbed Dose (Rad) (D) Radiation Absorbed Dose (Rad) (D): 1 Gray = 1 J kg tissue kg tissue 1 Gray = 1 J kg tissue kg tissue 100 rad = 1 Gray </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> 23 Radiation Detection Biological Damage </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> 24 Radiation Equivalent for Man (rem) 1 RemRBE 1 Rem = 1 Rad x RBE relative biological effectiveness relative biological effectiveness 1 RemRBE 1 Rem = 1 Rad x RBE relative biological effectiveness relative biological effectiveness RBE2011RBE2011 </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> 25 Annual Radiation Exposure in USA Ground = 15 mrem Air, H 2 O, Food = 30 mrem Cosmic = 40 mrem Wood,concrete,bricks = 50 mrem X-rays: Chest = 50 mrem Dental = 20 Smoking Smoking = 35 mrem TV = 2 mrem Radon = 200 mrem Total = 170 mrem / yr </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> 26 Biological Effects of Radiation Dose in rem (at one time) 0-25genetic damage possible but usually undetected 25-100 decrease # of white blood cells (temporary) 100-200 mild radiation sickness (vomit, diarrhea, strong decrease # white blood cells) &gt;300 (diarrhea, hair loss, infection) 500LD 50 for humans Dose in rem (at one time) 0-25genetic damage possible but usually undetected 25-100 decrease # of white blood cells (temporary) 100-200 mild radiation sickness (vomit, diarrhea, strong decrease # white blood cells) &gt;300 (diarrhea, hair loss, infection) 500LD 50 for humans </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> 27 300 LD 50 for dogs 800 LD 50 for rats 50,000 LD 50 for Bacterium 100,000 LD 50 for Insects Biological Effects of Radiation Dose in rem 500LD 50 for humans </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> 28 4,500 Lymphoma 5,000 6,000 Skin cancer 6,000 Lung cancer 6,000 7000 Brain Tumor Therapeutic Doses of Radiation Dose in rem </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> 29 FDA approved killing of bacteria with: 0.3 1 kGy ionizing radiation from Co-60 or Cs-137 (gamma producers) Strawberries left on counter for 2 weeks. The irradiated berries on right show no spoilage. </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> 30 Half-Life t 1/2 = Time for 1/2 sample to decay 13153 I 20 g t 1/2 = 8 days 10 g 8 days 5 g </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> 31 rays image Shows blood flow rays image Shows blood flow B 5 11 116 C0+1e + Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Positron +++ ++ +0 +++ + + 0 115B 116 C + 0+1 e positron0e electron rays Detectable- </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> 32 PET Scans PET Scans NormalAlzheimer's </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> 33 </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> 34 Known in Britain by the trade name Pedoscope. The machine produced an X-ray of the customers foot inside a shoe to ensure shoes fitted accurately, which both increased the wear-time of the shoe and with that, the reputation of the shoe shop. The customer placed their foot over an X-ray tube contained within the wooden base of the Pedoscope. From this, a beam of X-rays passed through the foot and cast an image onto a fluorescent screen above. The screen could be observed via three viewing points one for the shoe-fitter, one for the customer, and one for a third party (usually the guardian of a child being fitted). The accommodation for three viewing points may seem a little extravagant, but it may be an indication of the popularity of the Pedoscope and the interest the public had in the machine. </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> 35 </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> 36 Shoe-Fitting Fluoroscope (ca. 1930-1940) Basic Description The shoe fitting fluoroscope was a common fixture in shoe stores during the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s. A typical unit, like the Adrian machine shown here, consisted of a vertical wooden cabinet with an opening near the bottom into which the feet were placed. When you looked through one of the three viewing ports on the top of the cabinet (e.g., one for the child being fitted, one for the child's parent, and the third for the shoe salesman or saleswoman), you would see a fluorescent image of the bones of the feet and the outline of the shoes. </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> 37 </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> 38 Fission 235 92 U 1010 n 236 92 U + 91 36 Kr 142 56 Ba unstable Splitting atoms for Energy Uses: Atomic BombAtomic Bomb Nuclear PowerNuclear PowerUses: Atomic BombAtomic Bomb Nuclear PowerNuclear Power </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> 39 Fission critical mass Need critical mass of U-235 to sustain chain reaction to produce enough Energy for an explosion </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> 40 U-235Fission Nuclear Power plants: Controlled fission avoids critical mass Nuclear Power plants: Controlled fission avoids critical mass </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> 41 Uranium is the fuel of the nuclear power plant in the US. However, we can not just dump uranium into the core like we shovel coal into a furnace. The uranium must be processed and formed into fuel pellets, which are about the size of a pencil eraser. The fuel pellets are then stacked inside hollow metal tubes to form fuel rods. Fuel rods are 11 to 25 feet in length. Each UO 2 pellet has the energy equivalent to burning 136 gal of oil, 2.5 tons of wood, or 1 ton of coal. Uranium oxide pellet used in nuclear fuel rods. </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> 42 </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> 43 </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> 44 Trojan Nuclear Power Plant Rainier, Oregon </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> 45 May 21, 2006 </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> 46 Trojan Nuclear Reactor Rainier, Oregon </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> 47 Uranium is the fuel of the nuclear power plant in the US. However, we can not just dump uranium into the core like we shovel coal into a furnace. The uranium must be processed and formed into fuel pellets, which are about the size of a pencil eraser. The fuel pellets are then stacked inside hollow metal tubes to form fuel rods. Fuel rods are 11 to 25 feet in length. Each UO 2 pellet has the energy equivalent to burning 136 gal of oil, 2.5 tons of wood, or 1 ton of coal. Uranium oxide pellet used in nuclear fuel rods. </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> 48 Yucca Mountain in Nevada site for nuclear depository? </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> 49 1.Canisters of waste, sealed in special casks, are shipped to the site by truck or train. 2.Shipping casks are removed, and the inner tube with the waste is placed in a steel, multilayered storage container. 3.An automated system sends storage containers underground to the tunnels. 4.Containers are stored along the tunnels, on their side. Conceptual Design of Yucca Mountain Disposal Plan </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> 50 </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> 51 Pros Department of Energy (DOE) In a desert location Isolated away from population centers (Las Vegas, the nearest metropolitan area, is 90 miles away) Secured 1,000 feet under the surface In a closed hydrologic basin Surrounded by federal land Protected by natural geologic barriers Protected by robust engineered barriers and a flexible design </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> 52 Cons: Nevada's Agency for Nuclear Projects Yucca's location in an active seismic (earthquake) region the presence of numerous earthquake faults (at least 33 in and around the site) and volcanic cinder cones near the site the presence of pathways (numerous interconnecting faults and fractures) that could move groundwater (and any escaping radioactive materials) rapidly through the site to the aquifer beneath and from there to the accessible environment. evidence of hydrothermal activity within the proposed repository block </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> 53 Putting end to Yucca Mountain project within reach, state commission says Jan. 21, 2013 http://www.lasvegassun.com/news/2013/jan/21/putting-end-yucca-mountain-project-within-reach-st/ </li> </ul>

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