08 mughals

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<ul><li> 1. THE MUGHAL EMPIRE (1526-1707)THE MUGHAL EMPIRE (1526-1707) The Mughal emperors (first six rulers).The Mughal emperors (first six rulers). BABUR (1526-30)BABUR (1526-30) HUMAYUN (1530-56)HUMAYUN (1530-56) AKBAR (1556-1605)AKBAR (1556-1605) JAHANGIR (1605-28)JAHANGIR (1605-28) SHAHJAHAN (1628-58)SHAHJAHAN (1628-58) AURANGZEB (1658-1707AURANGZEB (1658-1707)) </li></ul><p> 2. PRIMARY SOURCESPRIMARY SOURCES MAJOR HISTORIANSMAJOR HISTORIANS:: ABUL FAZLABUL FAZL ABDUL QADIR BADAONIABDUL QADIR BADAONI GULBADAN BEGUMGULBADAN BEGUM ABDUL HAMID LAHORIABDUL HAMID LAHORI SAQI MUSTAID KHANSAQI MUSTAID KHAN BHIMSENBHIMSEN 3. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION What were the factors behind the success ofWhat were the factors behind the success of the Mughals?the Mughals? How they were able to establish andHow they were able to establish and maintained their sovereignty over the Indianmaintained their sovereignty over the Indian sub-continent and legitimize their rule?sub-continent and legitimize their rule? Was it because they had better militaryWas it because they had better military technology and skills? Or had charismatictechnology and skills? Or had charismatic 4. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION rulers? Or were the centralizing institutionsrulers? Or were the centralizing institutions and broad base and culturally diverseand broad base and culturally diverse bureaucracy responsible for their success?bureaucracy responsible for their success? How did the descendents of Babur who ruledHow did the descendents of Babur who ruled over a small principality in Farghanaover a small principality in Farghana (Afghanistan) created one of the most(Afghanistan) created one of the most powerful gunpowder empires (other two: thepowerful gunpowder empires (other two: the Ottoman Turks and Safavids of Persia)Ottoman Turks and Safavids of Persia) 5. THE LARGEST ARMYTHE LARGEST ARMY The Mughals maintained the largest standingThe Mughals maintained the largest standing army of that time. Just one estimate: In 1628army of that time. Just one estimate: In 1628 there 200,000 salaried cavalrymen, 8000there 200,000 salaried cavalrymen, 8000 mansabdarsmansabdars, 7000, 7000 ahadisahadis and mountedand mounted musketeers were stationed at the imperialmusketeers were stationed at the imperial capital, besides the armies of the nobles,capital, besides the armies of the nobles, mansabdarsmansabdars and the princes. In manyand the princes. In many instances they had the fastest moving army asinstances they had the fastest moving army as well. Akbar was able to cover a distance ofwell. Akbar was able to cover a distance of 500500 6. THE LARGEST ARMYTHE LARGEST ARMY miles (normally it took twenty-one days), inmiles (normally it took twenty-one days), in nine days to crush a rebellion (this feat wasnine days to crush a rebellion (this feat was never repeated).never repeated). Mughal dynamism depended on its militaryMughal dynamism depended on its military conquest, so much that some historians call itconquest, so much that some historians call it a war state (J F Richards). Mughal emperorsa war state (J F Richards). Mughal emperors made little apology for attacking themade little apology for attacking the neighbouring rulers and they regarded theneighbouring rulers and they regarded the 7. CHARISMATIC RULERSCHARISMATIC RULERS adjoining territories either as tributaries oradjoining territories either as tributaries or enemies.enemies. The Mughal emperors, especially Akbar,The Mughal emperors, especially Akbar, created a special image of himself, and somecreated a special image of himself, and some of his personal qualities and virtues laterof his personal qualities and virtues later served as a model for his successors (moreserved as a model for his successors (more details when legitimization process will bedetails when legitimization process will be discussed).discussed). 8. CENTRALIZING INSTITUTIONSCENTRALIZING INSTITUTIONS Most of the administrative institutions wereMost of the administrative institutions were initiated and established during the reign ofinitiated and established during the reign of Akbar. He was able to build a centralizedAkbar. He was able to build a centralized administration which was capable of steadyadministration which was capable of steady expansion as new territories were added to theexpansion as new territories were added to the empire. At the apex of this system was theempire. At the apex of this system was the emperor who acted as a chief executive.emperor who acted as a chief executive. At the central level there were four mainAt the central level there were four main 9. THE MINISTERSTHE MINISTERS officials and their ministries namely:officials and their ministries namely: DiwanDiwan in charge of finance and revenue,in charge of finance and revenue, Mir BakshiMir Bakshi in charge of army and intelligence,in charge of army and intelligence, QaziQazi inin charge of judiciary and patronage andcharge of judiciary and patronage and Mir-i-Mir-i- SamaSaman in charge of the royal household, andn in charge of the royal household, and its central workshops, buildings, roads andits central workshops, buildings, roads and canals throughout the empire.canals throughout the empire. All other functions such as diplomacy andAll other functions such as diplomacy and 10. THE MINISTERS..THE MINISTERS.. external affairs remained under emperorsexternal affairs remained under emperors control.control. The Mughal civil and administrative officialsThe Mughal civil and administrative officials were regulated and organized under thewere regulated and organized under the mansabdarimansabdari system.system. Each of these officials were supported andEach of these officials were supported and helped by a large staff of clerks, accountants,helped by a large staff of clerks, accountants, auditors, messengers, and other functionaries.auditors, messengers, and other functionaries. 11. THE PROVINCIAL OFFICIALSTHE PROVINCIAL OFFICIALS The division of functions established at the centre was duplicated in the provinces. At each provincial capital a subahdar (governor) responsible directly to the emperor, shared power with a diwan (finance official) reported to the imperial diwan, bakshi (military and intelligence official) reported to the mir-bakshi and a sadr reported to the imperial qazi. 12. THETHE MANSABDARIMANSABDARI SYSTEMSYSTEM Every official in the Mughal empire, high orEvery official in the Mughal empire, high or low, had a rank or alow, had a rank or a mansab.mansab. Their status,Their status, duties, pay and importance were gradedduties, pay and importance were graded accordingly. Technically, all mansabdars hadaccordingly. Technically, all mansabdars had to maintain a military contingent for whichto maintain a military contingent for which they were paid. All other officials were paid inthey were paid. All other officials were paid in cash. During Akbars time the official bearingcash. During Akbars time the official bearing a decimal rank of 500 were ranked as a noblea decimal rank of 500 were ranked as a noble 13. THETHE MANSABDARIMANSABDARI .. oror umara.umara. But by the end of the seventeenthBut by the end of the seventeenth century thecentury the mansabdarsmansabdars with 1000 rank werewith 1000 rank were accorded the status of aaccorded the status of a umara.umara. All mansabdars had dual ranks and they were remunerated on that basis. The successful regulation of the mansabs and the salary assignment (jagirdari system) can be truly termed as a Mughal phenomenon. 14. THETHE MANSABDARIMANSABDARI All Mughal officials received a dual rankAll Mughal officials received a dual rank when they joined the Mughal imperial service.when they joined the Mughal imperial service. That wasThat was zatzat (personal salary) and(personal salary) and sawarsawar (payment for the military contingent). For(payment for the military contingent). For example theexample the mansabmansab of Prince Salimof Prince Salim (Jahangir) was 5000(Jahangir) was 5000 zat/zat/50005000 sawar.sawar. WhatWhat does it mean: Prince Salims personal salarydoes it mean: Prince Salims personal salary was based on hiswas based on his mansabmansab of 5000of 5000 zatzat and forand for 50005000 sawarsawar, he had to maintain a military, he had to maintain a military contingent.contingent. 15. THETHE MANSABDARIMANSABDARI During Akbars reign the ratio was oneDuring Akbars reign the ratio was one horsemen and two horses and ahorsemen and two horses and a mansabdarmansabdar ofof 5000 sawar had to maintain a contingent of5000 sawar had to maintain a contingent of 5000 horsemen. The5000 horsemen. The mansabdars zatmansabdars zat rankrank never exceeded hisnever exceeded his sawarsawar rank (either it usedrank (either it used to be equal 5000/5000 or 3000/ 4000 or lessto be equal 5000/5000 or 3000/ 4000 or less than thethan the sawarsawar rank). Therank). The zatzat numerals werenumerals were always used to be stated first.always used to be stated first. The highest rank (The highest rank (mansabmansab) was 7000/7000) was 7000/7000 which was awarded to the officials/royalty.which was awarded to the officials/royalty. 16. CHANGES IN THECHANGES IN THE MANSABDARIMANSABDARI After the reign of Akbar when the highestAfter the reign of Akbar when the highest ranking mansabdars who had reached theranking mansabdars who had reached the maximum limit in their mansab had nothing tomaximum limit in their mansab had nothing to aspire for. For this reason there were someaspire for. For this reason there were some changes in thechanges in the mansabdarimansabdari system.system. The quota of the contingent which eachThe quota of the contingent which each mansabdarmansabdar had to maintain was lowered andhad to maintain was lowered and there were further reductions in the contingentthere were further reductions in the contingent if theif the mansabdarsmansabdars were posted on the frontierswere posted on the frontiers or far away places.or far away places. 17. THE CHANGESTHE CHANGES Changes in theChanges in the mansabdarimansabdari system:system: Du-aspaDu-aspa andand sih-aspasih-aspa categories: For examplecategories: For example thethe mansabmansab of Ali Mardan Khan (1628) wasof Ali Mardan Khan (1628) was 7000/70007000/7000 du-aspa (du-aspa (His personal rank wasHis personal rank was 7000 but for his 7000 contingent he had to7000 but for his 7000 contingent he had to maintain only 66% of troops)maintain only 66% of troops) If theIf the sih-aspasih-aspa category was added then thecategory was added then the mansabdarmansabdar had to maintain 33% of hishad to maintain 33% of his contingent.contingent. 18. THE CHANGESTHE CHANGES The crisis in theThe crisis in the mansabdarimansabdari system wassystem was becoming obvious by the time of Shahjahan.becoming obvious by the time of Shahjahan. TheThe zatzat rank of the mansabdars startingrank of the mansabdars starting exceeding theirexceeding their sawarsawar rank and had crossedrank and had crossed the maximum limit of 7000. Athe maximum limit of 7000. A mansabdarmansabdar could have acould have a mansabmansab of 20,000/ 5000. (will beof 20,000/ 5000. (will be elaborated).elaborated). 19. THETHE JAGIRDARIJAGIRDARI SYSTEMSYSTEM All the Mughal mansabdars were paid through an assignment of jagirs. These jagirs can be linked to the Delhi Sultans Iqta system where the Sultans parcelled out their territories to be administered by their nobles and the state officials. These officials were responsible for maintaining law and order and collection of land revenue. After meeting 20. THETHE JAGIRDARIJAGIRDARI the necessary expenses thethe necessary expenses the iqtadarsiqtadars used toused to send the surplus revenue to the centralsend the surplus revenue to the central treasury.treasury. The jagir assignments initiated by Akbar,The jagir assignments initiated by Akbar, however, only gave the right to collecthowever, only gave the right to collect revenues to therevenues to the mansabdarsmansabdars. They were not. They were not responsible to maintain law and order or anyresponsible to maintain law and order or any other responsibilities. It was a purely fiscalother responsibilities. It was a purely fiscal 21. THETHE JAGIRDARIJAGIRDARI arrangement and only Rajputarrangement and only Rajput mansabdarsmansabdars were given more extensive rights of residencewere given more extensive rights of residence within their own homeland (Rajputana). Theywithin their own homeland (Rajputana). They received patrimonial (Mughal term:received patrimonial (Mughal term: watanwatan)) lands as a part of thelands as a part of the jagirsjagirs assigned to them.assigned to them. The most important element of theThe most important element of the jagirjagir assignments was that they were transferable.assignments was that they were transferable. Abul Fazl compared the transfer ofAbul Fazl compared the transfer of jagirsjagirs toto 22. THETHE JAGIRDARIJAGIRDARI re-sowing of the seeds in the garden. Inre-sowing of the seeds in the garden. In practice, however, the higherpractice, however, the higher mansabdarsmansabdars preferred to retain theirpreferred to retain their jagirsjagirs (if they were(if they were good) and bribed the imperial officials lavishlygood) and bribed the imperial officials lavishly for that.for that. Deaths, transfers, promotions, and demotionsDeaths, transfers, promotions, and demotions of the imperial cadres necessitated continuingof the imperial cadres necessitated continuing transfer oftransfer of jagirsjagirs.. 23. THETHE ZAMINDARIZAMINDARI SYSTEMSYSTEM The local level administration was carried onThe local level administration was carried on the local elites or hereditary landowners and inthe local elites or hereditary landowners and in Mughal parlance known asMughal parlance known as zamindarszamindars. They. They claimed a hereditary right to collect a share inclaimed a hereditary right to collect a share in the revenue collection.the revenue collection. For administrative purposes they could beFor administrative purposes they could be categorized into three broad groups.categorized into three broad groups. 24. THETHE ZAMINDARIZAMINDARI AUTONOMOUSAUTONOMOUS ZAMINDARSZAMINDARS:: the hereditary landowners who enjoyed sovereign powers. Rajput rulers, Jats (large peasant landowners) belonged to this category. INTERMEDIARYINTERMEDIARY ZAMINDARSZAMINDARS:: thethe zamindarszamindars who collected the land revenue andwho collected the land revenue and paid to the imperial treasury or thepaid to the imperial treasury or the jagirdars.jagirdars. 25. THETHE ZAMINDARIZAMINDARI PRIMARYPRIMARY ZAMINDARSZAMINDARS: the proprietary: the proprietary rights over agricultural as well as habitationalrights over agricultural as well as habitational lands. Mughal emperors conferred suchlands. Mughal emper...</p>