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Microsoft Project 2010 Fine-Tuning Task Details Soe Naing Win Email: [email protected]

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Project Scheduling

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2. 1. Adjust task links to have more control over how tasks are related. 2. Apply a constraint to a task. 3. Split a task to record an interruption in work. 4. Create a task calendar and apply it to a task. 5. Change a task type to control how Project schedules tasks. 6. Record deadlines for tasks. 7. Enter a fixed cost for a task. 8. Set up a recurring task in the project schedule. 9. View the projects critical path. 10. Enter a specific duration value for a summary task. 3. Recall the four types of task dependencies 1. Finish-to-start (FS): The finish date of the predecessor task determines the start date of the successor task. 2. Start-to-start (SS): The start date of the predecessor task determines the start date of the successor task. 3. Finish-to-finish (FF): The finish date of the predecessor task determines the finish date of the successor task. 4. Start-to-finish (SF): The start date of the predecessor task determines the finish date of the successor task. 4. Lead time (overlap) and lag time (delay) Assuming that two tasks have a finish-to-start relationship: Lead time causes the successor task to begin before its predecessor task concludes. The next task overlaps with its predecessor it starts before its predecessor is complete. Lag time causes the successor task to begin some time after its predecessor task concludes The successor task starts some time after predecessor concludes. Why would you use it? Allow paint to dry, for example. Lead and lag time can be units of time, like 2 days, -2d, or a percentage, like 50%, -50% - thats a percentage of the duration of the predecessor task. 5. Exercise : Enter lead and lag time and change task relationships between predecessor and successor tasks Lead time(overlap) and lag time(delay) Lag Time Task tab > Tasks group > Inspect. 6. Lead time(overlap) and lag time(delay) Select the name of task 10. Task tab > Editing group > Scroll to Task. Task tab > Properties group > Information. 7. Task > Properties > Information > selected task, 11. Predecessors > Lag > 3d Predecessor details such as lag time appear in the Task Inspector. 8. Lead Time Task 17 > -25% Entering lag time as a negative value produces lead time 9. There are three categories of constraints : Flexible constraints As soon as possible (ASAP) Inflexible constraints (a hard constraint) Has to be on this day, days Semi-flexible constraint (a soft constraints) Has to finish by a certain date, could finish before it. 10. There are three categories of constraints : Flexible constraints As soon as possible (ASAP) Inflexible constraints (a hard constraint) Has to be on this day, days Semi-flexible constraint (a soft constraints) Has to finish by a certain date, could finish before it. 11. 8 types of task constraints As soon as possible (ASAP) As late as possible (ALAP) Start no earlier than (SNET) Start no later than (SNLT) Finish no earlier than (FNET) Finish no later than (FNLT) Must start on (MSO) Must finish on (MFO) Semi-flexible Flexible Inflexible 12. Flexible constraints Project can change the start and finish dates of a task. The default constraint type in Project is that tasks start as soon as possible. This type of flexible constraint is called As Soon As Possible, or ASAP for short. No constraint date is associated with flexible constraints. Project does not display any special indicator in the Indicators column for flexible constraints. 13. Inflexible constraints A task must begin or end on a certain date. For example, you can specify that a task must end on November 9, 2013. Inflexible constraints are sometimes called hard constraints. When an inflexible constraint has been applied to a task, Project displays a special indicator in the Indicators column. You can point to a constraint indicator, and the constraint details will appear in a ScreenTip. 14. Semi-flexible constraints A task has a start or finish date boundary. However, within that boundary, Project has the scheduling flexibility to change the start and finish dates of a task. For example, lets say a task must finish no later than June 15, 2012. However, the task could finish before this date. Semi-flexible constraints are sometimes called soft or moderate constraints. When a semi-flexible constraint has been applied to a task, Project displays a special indicator in the Indicators column 15. Exercise : Apply a constraint to a task Task tab > properties group > Information > Advanced tab. Constraint Type > Start No Earlier Than > Constraint Date> Today 16. The constraint affects the scheduling of the task, the Task Inspector pane now includes the constraint details Position your mouse pointer over a constraint indicator (or any icon in the Indicators column) to see a ScreenTip 17. The following are some reasons why you might want to split a task, You except an interruption in a task. For example, a resource might be assigned to a weeklong task, but she needs to attend an event on Wednesday that is unrelated to the task. A task is unexpectedly interrupted. After a task is under way, a resource might have to stop work on the task because another task has taken priority. After the second task is completed, the resource can resume work on the first task. 18. Exercise : Split a task to account for a planned interruption of work on that task. You have been informed that work on this task will be interrupted for three days starting Monday, April 9. Select any task, Task tab > Editing group > Scroll to Task. Task tab > Schedule group> click Split Task. 19. Exercise : create a new base calendar and apply it to account for the limited working time for a task Project tab > Properties group > Change Working Time > Create New Calendar Name > type Monday-Wednesday> OK Make a copy of > Standard. 20. Next, youll enter the working time details for this new calendar. Change Working Time > Work Weeks > select Thursday and Friday > Set days to nonworking time. 21. Exercise : Apply new calendar to task Select any Task Task > Properties > Information > Advanced tab > Calendar > select Monday-Wednesday. 22. A ScreenTip appears, showing the calendar details. Right now, this task is rescheduled But as you further adjust the project plan, this is likely to change. Due to the custom calendar that has been applied to this task. 23. MS Project Scheduling formula : where assignment units are normally expressed as a percentage. Duration is the total of active working time required to complete a task. Work is the total amount of work to be performed on a task, in the specified duration, by all assigned resources Work = Duration Assignment Units 24. For fixed-units task. It is the default task type. If you change a tasks duration, Project will recalculate work. Likewise, if you change a tasks work, Project will recalculate the duration. In either case, the units value is not affected. The two other task types are fixed duration and fixed work. For these task types, Project uses a timephased field called peak units when responding to schedule changes. 25. Changes to a Fixed Unit task create these results: If you revise the duration, work also changes, and units are fixed. If you revise work, duration also changes, and units are fixed. If you revise units, duration also changes, and work is fixed 26. For a fixed-work task: If you can change the assignment units value and Project will recalculate the duration. You can change the duration value and Project will recalculate peak units per time period. The assignment units value is not affected. Note You cannot turn off effort-driven scheduling for a fixed-work task. 27. Changes to a Fixed Work task create these results: If you revise the duration, units also change, and work is fixed. If you revise units, duration also changes, and work is fixed. If you revise work, duration also changes, and units are fixed. 28. For a fixed-duration task: You can change the assignment units value and Project will recalculate work. You can change the work value and Project will recalculate peak units per time period. The assignment units value is not affected. Project also keeps track of the highest peak units value per assignment. This value is stored in the Peak field, which youll work with in the sidebar. 29. Changes to a Fixed Duration task create these results: If you revise units, work also changes, and duration is fixed. If you revise work, units also change, and duration is fixed. If you revise the duration, work also changes, and units are fixed 30. If Units = 50% & Work = 1 day Duration = 2 days If Units = 100% & Work = 5 days Duration = 5 days If Duration = 3 days & Units = 50% Work = 1.5 days If Duration = 4 days & Work = 1 day Units = 25% This proportion is always kept consistent by MS Project 31. Exercise 1 : Change a task type and some scheduling formula values. View tab > Task Views group > Task Usage. 32. Task Name column > select any task name > Scroll to Task. 33. Add two columns Assignment Units & Peak to Task views. Start column heading > Format > Columns > Insert Column > Assignment Units. Repeat for Peak. 34. After a discussion between the two copyeditors about who will perform the copyedit, you all agree that the tasks duration should increase and the resources daily work on the task should decrease correspondingly. Duration change 15days to 20days 35. Increased the duration and but we wanted the total work to remain the same. But dont !!! Increased the work to 320 hours. 36. Because task 8s task type is fixed units (the default task type), the Actions default selection is to increase work as the duration increases. However, youd like to keep the work value the same and decrease assignment units for the tasks new duration. Use the Action button to adjust the results of the new task duration. Actions list > Resources will work fewer hours per day so that the task will take longer. 37. Next : change a task type and then adjust the work on the task. Task tab @ 24 > Properties > Information > Advanced 38. Task Type > Fixed Duration 39. Task Type > Fixed Duration. Work change 120h to 150h 40. Project adjusted the peak value to 125%; this represents an intentional overallocation. Resources assigned to task 24 now have 10 hours of work scheduled per day. Their original assignment units values of 100% each remain unaffected. 41. Because this is a fixed-duration task and added work, 42. Project displays a deadline indicator in the chart portion of the Gantt Chart view. A better approach to scheduling this task is to use the default As Soon As Possible constraint and enter a deadline 43. The following are common examples of fixed costs in projects: A setup fee, charged in addition to a per-day rental fee, for a piece of equipment A building permit 44. You can specify when fixed costs should accrue as follows: Start : The entire fixed cost is scheduled for the start of the task. When you track progress, the entire fixed cost of the task is incurred as soon as the task starts. End : The entire fixed cost is scheduled for the end of the task. When you track progress, the entire fixed cost of the task is incurred only after the task is completed. Prorated : The fixed cost is distributed evenly over the duration of the task. When you track progress, the project incurs the cost of the task at the rate at which the task is completed. For example, if a task has a $100 fixed cost and is 75 percent complete, the project has incurred $75 against that task. 45. Exercise B : Assign a fixed cost to a task and specify its accrual method. View tab > Task Views group > Other Views > Task Sheet. 46. View tab > Data group > Tables > Cost. 47. Fixed Cost > task 30, Generate proofs > 500 Fixed Cost Accrual > End 48. To create a recurring task Task tab > Insert group> Task > Recurring task 49. Task Name > Editorial staff meeting. Duration > type 1h. Recurrence pattern > Weekly is selected > Monday 50. The critical path: A series of tasks that will push out the projects end date if theyre delayed. Its not the tasks that are most important. Not necessarily the tasks that have to get done well for the project to be successful. It doesnt have to do with who your best people are, who youve got to have. Its just a scheduling thing. Shortening the duration of the tasks on the critical path is called crashing. 51. The critical path will most likely change as your project progresses, and as you make scheduling changes. After a task is complete, its no longer critical. Its done -- it cant possibly delay the project any more (whew). All about slack Free slack, total slack Tasks that have no slack are critical 52. Free slack the amount of time a task can be delayed before it delays another task Total slack - the amount of time a task can be delayed before it delays the project Non-critical tasks have some slack One way to see the critical path is to switch to the Detail Gantt view 53. If all goes well, we should see a whole lot of critical tasks, in red: 54. If all goes well, we should see a whole lot of critical tasks, in red. - View> Task > view > More views> Detail Gantt. 55. Setting a manual duration for a summary task is a good way to apply a top-down focus to a project plan. You can, for example, introduce some slack or buffer to a phase of work by entering a manual duration for the summary task that is longer than its calculated duration. 56. Exercise : Enter manual durations for some summary tasks. View > Data group > Outline > Outline Level 1. Project hides all subtasks and nested summary tasks, leaving only the top-level tasks visible 57. View tab, in the Zoom group, click Entire Project. the minus signs next to the summary task names changed to plus signs 58. Duration field > Editorial Task > 30d. from automatic schedule to manually scheduled 59. Wed like to allow a bit more time for the color prep and printing. Duration field > Color Prep Task > 50d. 60. To conclude this exercise, youll adjust the display settings to see all subtasks. View tab > Data group > Outline > All Subtasks. 61. Exercise : inactivate a summary task and its subtasks. Task Design books companion website Task tab > Schedule group > Inactivate. 62. Thank you. Questions?