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Prentice HallEARTH SCIENCEEARTH SCIENCETarbuck Lutgens Chapter 44Earths ResourcesRenewable and Nonrenewable Resources4.Energ! and "#neral Resources Renewable resources can be replenished over fairly short spans of time, such as months, years, or decades. Nonrenewable resources take millions of years to form and accumulate. $oss#l $uels4.Energ! and "#neral Resources $oss#l %uels are hydrocarbons that may be used as fuel, including coal, oil, and natural gas. Ant#cl#nes Are Co&&on '#l TrapsTar Sands and '#l Shale4.Energ! and "#neral Resources Fuels derived from tar sand and oils shales could become good substitutes for dwindling petroleum supplies.$or&at#on o% "#neral (epos#ts4.Energ! and "#neral Resources Some of the most important mineral deposits form through igneous processes and from hydrothermal solutions. 're is a useful metallic mineral that can be mined at a profit. "#neral)R#ch Hot *ater Seeps #nto Rock $racturesNon&etall#c "#neral Resources4.Energ! and "#neral Resources Nonmetallic mineral resources are extracted and processed either for the nonmetallic elements they contain or for their physical and chemical properties. +ses o% Non&etall#c "#neralsSolar Energ!4.,Alternate Energ! Sources1. Solar energys !fuel" is free. Solar energy has two advantages#$. Solar energy is non%polluting.Nuclear Energ!4.,Alternate Energ! Sources &n nuclear fission, the nuclei of heavy atoms such as uranium%$'( are bombarded with neutrons. )he uranium nuclei split into smaller nuclei and emit neutrons and heat energy.(#ablo Can!on Nuclear -lant*#nd Energ!4.,Alternate Energ! Sources &n the next (* to +* years, wind power could meet between ( to 1* percent of the countrys demand for electricity.*#nd Turb#nesH!droelectr#c -ower4.,Alternate Energ! Sources )he strong water flow that results drives turbines and electric generators. )he water held in a reservoir behind a dam is a form of stored energy that can be released through the dam to produce electric power. H!droelectr#c power is the power generated by falling water..len Can!on (a&.eother&al Energ!4.,Alternate Energ! Sources ,ot water is used directly for heating and to turn turbines that generate electric power. .eother&al energ! is harnessed by tapping natural underground reservoirs of steam and hot water.The .e!sers Is the *orlds Largest Electr#cal .eother&al $ac#l#t!T#dal -ower4.,Alternate Energ! Sources )idal power is harnessed by constructing a dam across the mouth of a bay or an estuary in coastal areas. )he strong in%and%out flow of tidal water drives turbines and electric generators.T#dal (a&sThe *ater -lanet4./*ater0 A#r0 and Land Resources -ach day, people use fresh water for drinking, cooking, bathing, and growing food.The *ater -lanet4./*ater0 A#r0 and Land Resources-o#nt source pollut#on comes from a known and specific location, such as factory pipes.Nonpo#nt source pollut#on is pollution that does not have a specific point of origin. Freshwater .ollutionRuno%% is the water that flows over the land rather than seeping into the ground, often carrying nonpoint source pollution."a1or T!pes o% *ater -ollut#onEarths 2lanket o% A#r4./*ater0 A#r0 and Land Resources)he increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has altered the carbon cycle and contributed to global warng/the unnatural warming of the lower atmosphere. )he chemical composition of the atmosphere helps maintain life on -arth.)hrough a series of chemical reactions, these pollutants in the air are converted into acids that are a ma0or cause of acid precipitation. .ollution in the 1ir"a1or -r#&ar! -ollutants and The#r SourcesLand Resources4./*ater0 A#r0 and Land Resources -arths land provides soil and forests, as well as mineral and energy resources 2amage to 3and 4esources5ines produce many mineral resources, but mines are destroying, soil, vegetation, and -arths contours.5ines also cause soil erosion and pollution that contaminates soil and water and destroys ecosystems.Sur%ace "#n#ng (estro!s Earths Sur%ace3eep#ng *ater Clean and Sa%e4.4-rotect#ng Resources Conser4at#on is the careful use of resources. .ollution prevention means stopping pollution from entering the environment.3eep#ng *ater Clean and Sa%e4.4-rotect#ng Resources Starting in the 167*s, the federal government passed several laws to prevent or decrease pollution and protect resources.&n 167$, the 8lean 9ater 1ct :891; reuality Standards :N11>S; established for six !criteria" pollutants known to cause health problems ? carbon monoxide, o@one, lead, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates :fine particles;.Sa4#ng Energ!Car#ng %or Land Resources4.4-rotect#ng Resources .rotecting land resources involves preventing pollution and managing land resources wisely.Co&post is partly decomposed organic material that can be used as fertili@er.Rec!cl#ng is the collecting and processing of used items so that they can be made into new products.