03 architecture of the ancient america

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  • *for educational purposes only*
  • North America last major prehistoric cultural development AD 700 Over a great area of the Southeast and the mid- continent Intensive cultivation of corn, beans, squash, and other crops Politically & culturally each large town *for educational purposes only*
  • Second largest ceremonial mounds Flat topped earthen structure : 35 feet high Large religious and civic rituals End of the platform : secondary flat-topped mounds, probably the bases of a temple and residence of a priest or ruler Between 1250 and 1600 AD : Natchez people Political center and point of distribution for goods Animal remains, ceramic fragments, tools and the stratigraphy *for educational purposes only*
  • http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/185779/enlarge http://www.examiner.com/article/the-great-emerald-mound-is-a-super-sized-legacy-of-the-natchez-people *for educational purposes only*
  • Ancient indigenous city 650-1400 CE Largest archaeological site Monks Mound Largest structure Central of this great city Massive structure with four terraces 10 stories tall, largest man-made earthen mound north of mexico Facing south : 92 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide http://www.aartichapati.com/2011/10/tss-interlude-cahokia-mounds.html *for educational purposes only*
  • Prehistoric archaelogical site 1650-700 BC northeastern louissiana Core: 500 acres Center of the site : six concentric curved earthen ridges separated by flat corridors of earth Dividing the ridges into 3 sections are 2 ramps that slope inwardly leading to Bayou Macon. Ridge : 3 feet high Approx. diameter : 3 quarters of a mile *for educational purposes only*
  • Ancient burial site Largest conical mound 100 foot high bluff, measures 877 feet in circumference Height of 70 feet http://2nilssons.com/Mountains%20&%20Falls/Etowah%20-%20Mound%20B.jpg*for educational purposes only*
  • Largest effigy mound in the world Does not contain human remains 1,330 feet in length, 3 feet in height Head of the serpent : aligned to summer solstice sunset Coils : point to the winter solstice sunrise Adena Indians (800 BC AD 100) *for educational purposes only*
  • http://www.barry.warmkessel.com/SERPENT-6.html *for educational purposes only*
  • IGLOO,IGLU Eskimo House Blocks of hard snow or ice, sometimes of sod, wood, or stone. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igloo#mediaviewer/File:EskimoIglooDrawing.jpeg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igloo#mediaviewer/File:Igloo_see-through_sideview_diagram.svg*for educational purposes only*
  • PLANK HOUSE Large, usually rectangular house Constructed of timber planks Used by Indians & Eskimo http://www.aaanativearts.com/culture-tribal-customs/native-american-homes/1125- some-pacific-northwest-coast-indians-lived-in-plank-houses.html#axzz37RRjkrog http://ed101.bu.edu/StudentDoc/Archives/ED101fa10/cmmac/Tlingit.html *for educational purposes only*
  • BRUSH SHELTER Temporary native American dwellings Only used for sleeping in. Simple wooden frame covered with brush, cone-shaped, with one side left open, or tent- shaped, with both ends left open. http://www.johnsunter.com/shelters/brush%20tp1.jpg http://www.lewis-clark.org/content/content-article.asp?ArticleID=2171 *for educational purposes only*
  • EARTHEN SHELTER Native American homes Basement-like living spaces dug from the earth, with domed mound built over the top. *for educational purposes only*
  • PUEBLO Communal and defensive structure Built of adobe or stone Many-storied terraced Flat roofs of the chambers by ladders Built on the desert floor in valley, or cliff walls of mesas. KIVA Large underground Used by men for religious ceremonies & councils http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:USA_09669_Taos_Pueblo_Luca_Galuzzi_2007.jpg http://www.crowcanyon.org/educationproducts/peoples_mesa_verde/pueblo_I_overview.asp*for educational purposes only*
  • CHICKEES Stilt houses Thick posts supporting a thatched roof and a flat wooden platform raised several feet off the ground without walls http://access.sd25.org/curriculum/NativeAmericans/chickee.html*for educational purposes only*
  • WATTLE AND DAUB HOUSES (ASI) Native American houses Made by weaving river cane, wood, and vines into a frame, then coating the frame with plaster. Roof was either thatched with grass or shingled with bark. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/92358/Reconstruction-of-a-Natchez- house-and-granary-at-the-Grand *for educational purposes only*
  • GRASS HOUSES Southern Plains by tribes such as the Caddos Made with a wooden frame bent into a beehive shape and thatched with long prairie grass Large buildings, sometimes more than 40 feet tall http://www.native-languages.org/images/grass2.jpg http://pw1.netcom.com/~wandaron/Caddo.jpg*for educational purposes only*
  • TEPEES Tent-like American Indian houses used by Plains tribes. Cone-shaped wooden frame with a covering of buffalo hide Tribe move from one place to another place, would bring their own tipi poles and hide tent along with them. 12 feet high http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/albright3/chap7c.htm *for educational purposes only*
  • LONGHOUSES Irquois tribes Similar to wigwams, pole frames and elm bark covering Longhouses are much, much larger than wigwams 150 feet long, 20 feet wide & 20 feet high Raised platforms created a second story for sleeping space Mats & wood screens divided the longhouse into separate rooms. 60 people http://www.nysm.nysed.gov/IroquoisVillage/images/figure1longhouselg.gif *for educational purposes only*
  • WIGWAMS Algonquian Indians 8-10 feet tall Wooden frames with woven mats & sheets of birch bark Frame can be shaped like a dome, like a cone, or like a rectangle with an arched roof Ropes or strings of wood are wrapped around the wigwam to hold the bark in place. http://www.native-languages.org/houses.htm*for educational purposes only*
  • Masonry Pueblo or communal dwellings 800 room a piece Pre-history Anasazi Indians Great social & ceremonial centers of the American Southwest http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaco_Culture_National_Historical_Park#mediaviewer/File :Chaco_Canyon_Chetro_Ketl_great_kiva_plaza_NPS.jpg*for educational purposes only*
  • Largest & Best known Great house Ancestral pueblo people AD 828 and 1126 Two sections : precisely aligned wall, symmetrical pattern Great Kiva Either side of wall Kivas or ceremonial structures Large central courtyard Interior living spcaes 2 acres (8,000sqm) incorporates at least 650 rooms Tiered structure : four & five stories high Builders use of core and veneer architecture & multi-story construction produced massive masonry walls http://www.colorado.edu/Conferences/chaco/tour/images/pb2n.jpg *for educational purposes only*
  • 2400 BCE 300 CE MesoAmerican civilization took shape Meso America 1150-400 BCE Gulf coast lowlands Jade carving Mother culture of civilization *for educational purposes only*
  • C. 1200-500 BCE Tropical lowland of the Mexican Gulf coasts Temple-Pyramids Large ceremonial centers http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:La_Venta_site_plan.png http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:La_Venta_Mosaic_%28Ruben_Charles%29.jpg*for educational purposes only*
  • Peruvian civilizations 1000-300 BCE Worship of the jaguar god, characterized by excellent gold stone scuplture,elaborate gold work, and remarkable ceramic CHAVIN DE HUANTAR Center of the chavin culture Elevated 10,000 in the Cordillera Blanca of the NW Andes http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9b/Chav%C3%ADn_de_Hu%C3%A1ntar.JPG/285px-Chav%C3%ADn_de_Hu%C3%A1ntar.JPG http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chav%C3%ADn_de_Huantar#mediaviewer/File:Chavin_circular_plaza_cyark.jpg*for educational purposes only*
  • Pre-Indian culture N.coast of Peru 200 BCE - 700 BCE TEMPLE OF THE SUN Mud-brick building in the Pre-Hispanic new world Construction of the temple was additive; new layers of brick were laid directly on top of the old; hence large quantities of bricks were required for its construction. 130 million adobe bricks http://www.garystravels.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Temple-of-the-Sun-Teotihuacan-300x225.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Temple_of_the_Sun,_Palenque.jpg*for educational purposes only*