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  • 7/24/2019 00.00.Tolerancing and Engineering Standards

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    TOLERANCING AND ENGINEERING STANDARDS

    Tolerancing is just like written languages. It has its own standards. There are to

    many standards like ANSI(Inch System), ISO (Metric System) etc. ist o! standards"ANSI #$.%, ANSI #$.&, ISO &', ISO %'&, ISO &*', +N &&', -IS # $%. In anassemly /rocess the degree o! 0clearance0 or 0tightness0 desired etween mating/arts is im/ortant. In a manu!acture o! a machine, 1uality is a /rimary consideration.Manu!acturing /recision taken into the /roduct determines its 1uality, its cost andselling /rice. 2arts o! a machine are designed in order to make a !unction. Theworking /arts ha3e a de!inite relationshi/ with each other" !ree rotation, !reelongitudinal mo3ement, clam/ing action, and /ermanent !i4ed /osition. 2recision isthe degree o! accuracy necessary to ensure the !unctioning o! a /art as intended.Tolerance is the allowale 3ariation !or any gi3en si5e in order to achie3e a /ro/er

    !unction.

    Tolerancing Definitions

    NOMINAL SIZE :The si5e used !or general descri/tion. +4am/le6 *7' inch Sha!t,&8mm Sha!t etc.

    BASIC SIZE :The si5e used when the nominal si5e is con3erted to the decimal and!rom which de3iation are made to /roduce limit dimension. +4am/le" .'*8inch sha!t

    which is the asic si5e !or a *7' inch nominal sha!t.&8mm nominal si5e which can easic si5e o! &$.8mm.

    LIMIT DIMENSION :The ower and 9//er /ermitted si5es !or a single !eaturedimension. .8:.8 inch where .8 inch is the lower limit and .8 inchu//er limit dimensions

    TOLERANCE :Tolerance is the allowale 3ariation !or any gi3en si5e in order toachie3e a /ro/er !unction. Tolerance e1uals the di!!erence etween lower and u//erlimit dimensions. +4am/le6 !or .8:.8 inch the tolerance would e . inch.

    BILATERAL TOLERANCE :It is a way to e4/ress tolerance y using oth minusand /lus 3ariations !rom a gi3en si5e. +4am/le6

    http://www.cobanengineering.com/Tolerances/TolerancesDefinitions.asphttp://www.cobanengineering.com/Tolerances/TolerancesDefinitions.asp
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    inch. The limit dimensions are %.%&:%.%; inch. The tolerance is .% inch.

    UNILATERAL TOLERANCE :It is a way to e4/ress tolerance y using only minusor /lus 3ariation !rom a gi3en si5e. +4am/leinch. As you can see the !irst case uses a minus 3ariation.

    or

    inch. The !irst case uses a minus and /lus 3ariation.

    FIT :The general term o! !it to descrie the range o! tightness designed into /artswhich assemle one into another. The !it can e e4/lained under the threecategories.

    ACLEARANCE FIT :A ty/e o! !it in which one /art !its easily into another with aresulting clearance ga/. See the elow e4am/le,

    A clearance !it. The sha!t is always smaller than the holeTolerance on sha!t " .&Tolerance on hole " .&minimum clearance " . : .88 < .8 inchma4imum clearance " .& : .8;< . inch

    The .8 clearance in !or the tightest /ossile !it.

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    BFORCE !INTERFERENCE" FIT :A ty/e o! !it in which one /art must e !orcily!itted into another. See the elow e4am/le

    An =orce (inter!erence) !it. when the sha!t is always larger in diameter than the hole/arts must e assemled y /ressure or heat e4/ansion.Tolerance on sha!t " .%Tolerance on hole " .%minimum clearance " .8 : .8;< :.; in (the tightest !it .; in inter!erence)ma4imum clearance " .8% : .8& < :.% in (the loosest !it .% in inter!erence)Ma4imum clearance

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    CTRANSITION FIT :A ty/e o! !it in which loosest case /ro3ides a clearance !it andthe tightest case gi3es an inter!erence !it. See the e4am/le elow,

    A transition !it e4ist when the ma4imum clearance is /ositi3e and the minimumclearance is negati3eTolerance on sha!t " .8Tolerance on hole " .8minimum clearance " .8 : .8* < :.* inch

    The tightest !it is .* in inter!erence.ma4imum clearance " .88 : .& < .8; inch

    The loosest !it is .; in clearanceTransition !its are used only !or locating a sha!t relati3e to a hole,where accuracy is im/ortant ut either a clearance or inter!erence is /ermitted.

    ALLO#ANCE :An alternati3e e4/ression !or tightest /ossile !it, which is minimum

    clearance or ma4imum inter!erence

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    Ma4imum allowance is .;.

    BASICS$AFT S%STEM :This is a system in which the asic si5e is included asone o! the limit dimensions o! the sha!t. #ut it is not !or the hole. As an e4am/le" !ora asis si5e o! %. inch. The limit dimensions on the sha!t could e %. and%.8 inch. The related hole could e %.%% and %.%' inch.

    BASIC$OLE S%STEM :This is a system in which the asic si5e a//ears as one o!the limit dimensions o! the hole. #ut it is not !or the sha!t. As an e4am/le !or a asicsi5e o! %. inch, the limit dimensions o! the hole might e %. and %.* inch.=or the related sha!t the limit dimensions could e .$ and .' inch.

    MINIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION :In this condition a hole is at its largest limitdimension. A sha!t is at its smallest limit dimension. This condition e4ists atma4imum clearance or minimum inter!erence.

    MA&IMUM MATERIAL CONDITION :In this condition a hole is at its smallest limitdimension. The sha!t is at its largest limit dimension. This condition e4ists atminimum clearance or ma4imum inter!erence. See e4am/le under the =orce !itcondition.

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    $ole An' S(aft Basis Li)its An' Fits

    >ole asis limits and !its with Sha!t asis limits and !its ha3e een gi3en as an e4am/le in the chart elow. Thede!initions !or descri/tions gi3en in the chart e4/lained as !ollows. The chart elow gi3es sim/le understanding o! >ole#asis imits and Sha!t #asis imits. Some o! the a//lication and some o! the selected 2re!erred =its !or >ole andSha!t #asis system ha3e een gi3en !ollowed y =its e4/lanations.

    More Clearance(Close to Top of The Chart)

    More Interference(Close to Bottom of The Chart)

    Clearance Fits

    Description Hole Basis Shaft Basis

    Free Running H9/d9 D9/h9

    oose Running H!!/c!! C!!/h!!

    "as# Running H$/f$ F$/h$

    %liding H&/g' &/h'

    Close Clearance H$/f& F$/h&

    ocational Clearance H&/h' H'/h&

    Transition

    Fits

    ocation slight interference H&/*' +&/h&

    ocation/Transition H&/n' ,&/h'

    Interference

    Fits

    ocation/Interference H&/p' -&/h'Medium Dri.e Fit H&/s' %&/h'

    Force Fit H&/u' &/h'

    Free R*nning+This ty/e o! tolerance can e usale where any s/ecial re1uirements !or accuracy in not essential, utgood !or wide tem/erature 3ariation, hea3y journal /ressures and high running s/eeds.So)e of t(e a,,lications:Multi/le !its o! sha!ts o! /roduction and /iston machines, /arts rotating 3ery rarely or onlyswinging..So)e of t(e selecte' -referre' fits:>7d, ?7h, >[email protected], >7d%, ?7h', >'7d, >'7d', ?%7h,

    Loose R*nning+=its =or wide commercial tolerances7clearances or allowances with /arts on e4ternal memers.So)e of t(e a,,lications:=its o! /arts e4/osed to corrosi3e e!!ects, /i3ots, latches, contamination with dust andthermal or mechanical de!ormations.So)e of t(e selecte' -referre' fits: >%%7c%%, >%%7a%%, @%%7h%%, >%%7c, ?%%7h%%, >%%7d%%, A%%7h%%,

    Eas. R*nning+This is tuning !its with smaller clearances with general re1uirements !or !it accuracy.So)e of t(e a,,lications:Main !its o! machine tools. eneral !its o! sha!ts, regulator earings, machine tools/indles, sliding rods.So)e of t(e selecte' -referre' fits:>'7!', >7!', ='7h, ='7h*, >'7!*, >*7!*,

    Sli'ing/R*nning Fit+This !it does not /ro3ide !reely running. This running7sliding tolerance !its with 3ery smallclearances !or accurate guiding o! sha!ts. This kind o! tolerance hel/s the /arts to mo3e and turn !reely and locateaccurately.

    So)e of t(e a,,lications:sliding gears and clutch disks, /arts o! machine tools, /istons o! hydraulic machines, rodssliding in earings, grinding machine s/indles, cranksha!t journals.So)e of t(e selecte' -referre' fits:>*7g, >'7g*, *7h,

    Close Clearance ! S,igots an' Locations"+This !it is !or accurate location at moderate s/eeds and journal/ressures, and running on accurate machine /arts. Bunning !its with smaller clearances with general re1uirements !or!it accuracy.So)e of t(e a,,lications:eneral !its o! sha!ts, machine tool s/indles, main !its o! machine tools, regulator

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    earings, sliding rods.So)e of t(e selecte' -referre' fits: >'7!*, ='7h*, ='7h, >7!', >'7!', >*7!*,

    Locational Clearance+=or locating stationary /arts, it /ro3ides snug !it. It /ro3ides !reely assemle and disassemle.This !it hel/s !or /recise guiding and centering o! /arts and mounting y sliding on without use o! any great !orce, a!terlurication the /arts can e turned and slid y hand.

    So)e of t(e a,,lications:Boller guides. /recise guiding o! machines and /re/arations, e4changeale wheels.So)e of t(e selecte' -referre' fits:>*7h, >'7h*, >'7h, >'7h',

    Location slig(t interference+This ty/e o! !it com/romise etween inter!erence and clearance !or accurate location.Cith this !it, the /arts can e assemle or disassemle without great !orce using a ruer mallet.So)e of t(e a,,lications:@lutches, demountale !its o! hus o! gears and /ulleys, manual wheels, rake disks.So)e of t(e selecte' -referre' fits:>*7k, >'7k*, D*7h, D'7h*,

    Location/Transition+This !it !or accurate location where greater inter!erence /ermissile. It is !i4ed !its with smallinter!erences or negligile clearances. Mounting o! !its using /ressing and light !orce.So)e of t(e a,,lications:Armatures o! electric motors on sha!ts, gear rims, !i4ed /lugs, dri3en ushings, !lushedolts.So)e of t(e selecte' -referre' fits:>*7n, >'7n*, >'7/*, >*7m, >'7m*, M'7h, N*7h, N'7h*,

    Location/Interference+ This ty/e o! !it where the assemled /arts re1uiring rigidity and great alignment with /rimeaccuracy o! location. 2ress !it which can e se/arated, /ressed !its with guaranteed inter!erence. Assemly o! the/arts can e carried out using cold /ressing.So)e of t(e a,,lications:#earing ushings, >us o! clutch disks.So)e of t(e selecte' -referre' fits:>*7/, >*7r, >'7r*, 2*7h, B*7h,

    Me'i*) Dri0e FitThis !it !or shrink !it on light section or ordinary steel /arts. 2ressed !its with medium inter!erence,assemly o! /arts using hot /ressing, assemly using cold /ressing only with use o! large !orces. the tightest toleranceusale !or cast iron.So)e of t(e a,,lications:2ermanent cou/ling o! gears with sha!ts, earing ushings.

    So)e of t(e selecte' -referre' fits:>*7s, >'7s*, >*7t, >'7t*, S*7h, T*7h,

    Force Fit+This !it suitale !or /arts which can e highly stressed. 2ressed !its with ig inter!erences, assemly using/ressing and great !orces under di!!erent tem/eratures o! the /arts. This !it !or shrink !its where the hea3y /ressing!orces re1uired are im/ractical.So)e of t(e a,,lications:2ermanent cou/lings o! gears with sha!ts, !langes.

    http://www.cobanengineering.com/Tolerances/ANSILocationalTransitionAndInterferenceFits.asp#LThttp://www.cobanengineering.com/Tolerances/ANSILocationalTransitionAndInterferenceFits.asp#LT
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    So)e of t(e selecte' -referre' fits:>*7u, >'7u*, >'7u', >'74', 9*7h, 9'7h*,

    ISO Tolerance S.ste)s For Li)its An' Fits

    This standard can e descried as ISO &'"%''.This standard is eing descried in 9SA as ANSI (ANSI #$.&:%*').American National Standard (ANSI #$.&:%*') descries ISO standard o! metric !its and limits !or mating machine/arts as a//ro3ed !or general engineering usage. This Standard is used as an international standard !or lineardimension tolerances. This ISO system is identical with the +uro/ean standard (+N &&'"%;) and de!ines aninternationally recogni5ed system o! tolerances, de3iations and !its. This system has een acce/ted in most industriallyde3elo/ed countries in identical or y modi!ying wording system as a their national standard like -a/an, #ritish, 9SA(-IS # $%, ?IN ISO &', #S +N &&', @SN +N &&', etc.). eneral terms o! sha!t and hole can also e taken tore!er to the s/ace contained y two /arallel !aces o! any /art, e.g. !its o! keys in groo3es.

    The most im/ortant term relating to !its and limits are showmen in the !igure elow6

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    ?e3iations !rom the e4act dimensions are una3oidale due to the nature o! manu!acturing /rocesses.

    De0iation: ?i!!erence etween the si5e and the corres/onding asic si5e. The asic si5e is assigned as limits o!de3iation. it is same !or oth /arts o! their ! its.

    Lo1er De0iation: ?i!!erence etween the min limit o! /artEs si5e and corres/onding asic si5e. It is designated 2EI2!or >ole,2ei2!or sha!t

    U,,er De0iation: ?i!!erence etween the ma4 limit o! /artEs si5e and the corres/onding asic si5e. It is designated2ES2!or hole,2 es2!or sha!t

    F*n'a)ental De0iation: One o! the de3iations closest to the asic si5e.

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    For eas. *n'erstan'ing of t(e 2es23 2ei23 2ES23 an' 2EI2 an' i'entification of t(eir negati0e an' ,ositi0e0al*es3 t(e letter )a. 4e inter,rete' as follo1+

    es: +rror !rom 5ero line (#asic Si5e) to su/erior si5e o! sha!t.

    ei: +rror !rom 5ero line (#asic Si5e) to in!erior si5e o! sha!t.

    ES: +rror !rom 5ero line (#asic Si5e) to su/erior si5e o! hole.

    EI: +rror !rom 5ero line (#asic Si5e) to in!erior si5e o! hole.

    Tolerance Zone:A 5one re/resenting the tolerance and its /osition in relating to the asis si5e. The tolerance 5one isalso de!ined as a s/herical 5one limited y the u//er and lower limit dimensions o! the /art.

    Tolerance:The algeraic di!!erence etween the ma4 and min limits on the /art.

    International Tolerance Gra'e !IT"

    IT grade is a grou/ o! tolerances. +ach o! the tolerances o! this system is marked 0IT0 with attached grade o! accuracy(IT%, IT, IT% ... IT%').IT rades re!erence ISO &'. The magnitude o! the tolerance 5one is the 3ariation in /art si5e.IT grou/s o! tolerances such that tolerances !or a /articular IT numer ha3e the same relati3e le3el o! accuracy ut3ary de/ending on the asic si5e. A smaller grate o! IT numer /ro3ides a smaller tolerance 5one. The !undamental ITde3iation !or hole asis is designated y 0>0, the sha!t designated y 0h0.

    Tolerance S.)4oles:The tolerance symol is estalished y comining the IT grade numer and /osition letter !ortolerance. @a/ital letter like 0>0 !or hole, and lower case letter like 0h0 !or sha!t.

    S(o1ing Internal ,art 1it( IT s.)4ol:

    S(o1ing E5ternal -art 1it( IT s.)4ol:

    A,,lication Fiel' of International Tolerances of ISO 678 s.ste):

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    0--IC0TI1,% IT rade Range

    Measuring Instruments and -roduction of auges IT2!3 IT23 IT!3 IT43 IT53 IT63 IT73 IT'

    eneral "ngineering/Industr# and -recision Fit IT 73 IT'3 IT&3 IT$3 IT93 IT!23 IT!!3 IT!4

    %emi Finished -roduct IT!!3 IT!63 IT!73 IT!'

    %tructural "ngineering IT!'3 IT!&3 IT!$

    *n'a)ental De0iations Letter For $ole an' S(aft Basis9

    T(e al*e for t(e $ole fro) 2A2 to 2$2 are ,ositi0e !;"3 for t(e S(aft fro) 2a2 to 2(2 negati0e !"9 T(e al*e of

    t(e $ole fro) 22 to 2?2 eit(er ,ositi0e !;" ornegati0e !"9

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    A,,lications 1it( ISO 678/ANSI [email protected] International Tolerance Gra'e9

    =or est !it selection !or a s/eci!ic a//lications many !actors can e e!!ecti3e. Such as s/eed, tem/eratures, lengthengagement, materials, lurications, humidity, earing load and etc. To satis!y e4treme conditions the est /re!erred !itmust e considered. The tolerances indicated y the International Tolerance (IT) rades are general guide tomachining /rocess gi3en in ISO &'7ANSI #$.&:%*' showmen in the elow tale.

    0--IC0TI1,% and -R1C"%% IT rade Range

    0--I, 0,D H1,I, IT!3 IT43 IT53 IT63 IT73C8I,DRIC0 TR,I, 0,D DI0M1,D TR,I, IT63 IT73 IT'3 IT&

    -0,"/ %RF0C" RI,DI, IT73 IT'3 IT&3 IT$3 IT9

    BR10CHI, 0,D R"0MI, IT73 IT'3 IT&3 IT$3 IT9

    B1RI, 0,D TR,I, IT'3 IT&3 IT$3 IT93 IT!23 IT!!3 IT!4

    %0I, IT93 IT!23 IT!!

    -1D"R M"T0%I,T"R"D IT&3 IT$3 IT93IT!2

    MII, IT93IT!23IT!!3 IT!43 IT!5

    -0,I,3 %H0-I,3 C1D R1I, 0,D DR0I, IT!23 IT!!3 IT!43 IT!53IT!63

    C1D R1I, 0,D DR0I, IT 63 IT73 IT'3IT&

    DRIII, IT!!3 IT!43IT!53 IT!6

    DI" C0%TI, IT!43:IT!53IT!63 IT!7

    -,CHI, 0,D F1RI, IT!53IT!63 IT!73IT!'

    H1T R1I,3 F0M" CTTI, 0,D %0,D C0%TI, IT! 63IT!73 IT!'

    ISO 678 TOLERANCE BAND IT To IT

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    Tolerance Ban' Gi0en Belo1 !IT To IT" In Micro)eter! "))

    E5a),le: IT For No)inal Sie ))+ 97H)975!"97))

    ,1MI,0( B0%IC) %I;"% (mm) I,T"R,0TI1,0 T1"R0,C" R0D"%1

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    :and> 5=74D for D !42

    As IT!/4

    *6 to *& >? 2='5E D

    > (!62 ? 2=$74D): for D G!'2:0nd> !=$4D for D !'2

    * for rade @5 and 6 >2

    m > ? (T&IT')

    c

    > 74D2=4for D @ 62

    > (97 ? 2=$4) for D 62 n > ? 7D

    2=56

    - > ? IT& ? 2 to 7

    cd =M= of .alues for c and dr

    > geometric mean of.alues for p and s

    d > !'D2=66

    s > IT$ ? ! to 6: for D @72

    > ? &T& to ? 2=6D: for D 72e > !!D2=6!

    ef =M= of .alues for e and f f > 7=7D2=6! t > ? IT& ? 2='5Dfg =M= of .alues for f and g u > ? IT& ? D

    g > 4=7D2=56 < > ? IT! ? !=4747D

    h > 2

    > ? IT& ? !='4D# > ? IT& ? 4DJ > ? IT& ? 4=74D

    Ja > IT$ ? 5 ? 5=!74DJ > ? IT9 ? 6DJc > ? IT!2 ? 6D

    0 D" oLer de.iation ei of the shaft of the same letter s#mol ut onegrade finer and of opposite sign increased # the difference etLeen thetolerances of the tLo grades in:ei?IT>"%?ITn and eiITn> "%IT (>n!)

    For %iJe0o.e5mm

    For)*lae For F*n'a)ental De0iations of S(afts *, to sie JJ))

    %H0FT H1"%

    F1RM0"F1RD"

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    e es " "I ? !!D2=6!

    f es F "I ? 7=7D2=6!

    g es "I ? 4=7D2=56

    h es ,o

    %ign H "I

    ,o%ign

    2

    As ei N% "% ? 2=7ITn

    * ei ? + "% 2

    m ei ? M "% 2=246D?!4='

    n ei ? , "% 2=26?4!

    p ei ? - "% 2=2&4D?5&=$

    r ei ? R "%

    eometric meanof the .alues OpOand OsO or O-Oand O%O

    s ei ? % "% IT&?2=6D

    t ei ? T "% IT&?2='5D

    u ei ? "% IT&?D

    ISO 678 Tolerance Ban' 2IT72 To 2IT82

    Tolerance Ban' Gi0en Belo1 !IT7 To IT8" In Micro)eter! "))

    NOMINAL% BASIC& SIES %$$& INTERNATIONAL TOLERANCE )RADES

    OVER U! TO INCL* IT$ IT9 IT!2 IT!! IT!4 IT!5 IT!6 IT!7 IT!'

    2 5 !6 47 62 '2 !22 !62 472 622 '22

    5 ' !$ 52 6$ &7 !42 !$2 522 6$2 &'2

    ' !2 4& 5' '$ 92 '2 442 5'2 7$2 922

    !2 !$ 4& 65 &2 !!2 !$2 4&2 652 &22 !!22

    !$ 52 55 74 $6 !52 4!2 552 742 $62 !522

    52 72 59 '4 !22 !'2 4'2 592 '42 !222 !'22

    72 $2 6' &6 !42 !92 522 6'2 &62 !422 !922

    $2 !42 '6 $& !62 442 572 762 $&2 !622 4422

    !42 !$2 '2 !22 !'2 472 622 '52 !222 !'22 4722

    !$2 472 &4 !!7 !$7 492 6'2 &42 !!72 !$72 4922

    472 5!7 $! !52 4!2 542 '42 $!2 !522 4!22 5422

    5!7 622 $9 !62 452 5'2 7&2 $92 !622 4522 5'22

    622 722 9& !77 472 622 '52 9&2 !722 4722 6222

    722 '52 !!2 !&7 4$2 662 &22 !!22 !&72 4$22 6622

    '52 $22 !47 422 542 722 $22 !472 4222 5422 '222

    $22 !222 !62 452 5'2 7'2 922 !622 4522 5'22 7'22

    !222 !472 !'7 4'2 642 ''2 !2'2 !'72 4'22 6422 ''22

    !472 !'22 !97 5!2 722 &$2 !4'2 !972 5!22 7222 &$22

    !'22 4222 452 5&2 '22 942 !722 4522 5&22 '222 942

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    4222 4722 4$2 662 &22 !!22 !&72 4$22 6622 &222 !!222

    4722 5!72 552 762 $'2 !5'2 4!22 5522 7622 $222 !572

    Calc*lation of International Tolerance Gra'es:

    As mentioned e!ore IT rade ha3e %' standard tolerance. These IT rades ha3e their own numerical 3alues !or eachdimater ste/ gi3en in the tales ao3e. IT rades IT to ITJare the most accurate and used essetially !or gauge. ITrades IT8 to IT 8 are less accurate and are used !or nonmating dimensions. International rade can e calculatedas gi3en elow6

    T:International Tolerance grade in (Fm)

    D:eometric mean dimension in millimeters (mm)

    ITG:IT rade (a /ositi3e integer)

    Also T"International Tolerance can e showmen as6

    2i2:is standard tolerance unit7!actor.2i2 !or IT8 to IT % 3alues can e calculated with the !ormula elow6

    9nit tolerance in (Fm). To calculate ?6

    where, ? (mm) is the geometric mean o! the lower and u//er diameters o! a /articular diameter ste/ within which thechosen the diameter ? lies. Standard Tolerance 9nit7=actor the !ormula has /araolic relationshi/ with the si5e o! the/roducts. As the si5e increases, the tolerance within which a /art can e manu!actured also increases.

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    The Standards Tolerance 3alues corres/onding to IT grades IT%, IT, IT%, see the chart elow

    INTERNATIONAL TOLERANCE )RADES

    Val+es In Microns IT2! IT2 IT!

    Val+es For D In $$ 2=5?2=22$D 2=7?2=2!4D 2=$?2=242D

    The Standards Tolerance 3alues corres/onding to IT grades IT8 to IT%, see the chart elow

    INTERNATIONAL TOLERANCE )RADES

    Val+es In Microns IT7 IT' IT& IT$ IT9 IT!2 IT!! IT!4 IT!5 IT!6 IT!7 IT!'

    Val+es For D In $$ &i !2i !'i 47i 62i '6i !22i !'2i 472i 622i '62i !222i

    E&AM-LE:

    Lets c(ose t(e 'ia)eter of t(e s(aft 8))3 an' Tolerance gra'e $7f+ Calc*lation for F*n'a)ental 'e0iation3Tolerances an' Li)it of sie for $ole an'3 S(aft9 Calc*lation of t(e Stan'ar' tolerance Unit+

    T(e sie range for 8)) Dia)eter 1o*l' 4e J7)) fro) t(e ISO 678 ta4le

    ?' 0i0 3alue standard unit !rom the tale6

    Tolerance

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    Ta4le Belo1: F*n'a)ental U,,er De0iation For S(aft 2a2 to 2>s2 ! )) To J ))"

    O,er Up to

    Incl*

    FUNDAMENTAL U!!ER DEVIATION %es & IT#- to IT-.

    a c cd d e ef f fg g h As

    2 5 4&2 !62 '2 56 42 !6 !2 ' 6 4 2 ITn/4

    5 ' 4&2 !62 &2 6' 52 42 !6 !2 ' 6 2 ITn/4

    ' !2 4$2 !72 $2 7' 62 47 !$ !5 $ 7 2 ITn/4

    !2 !6 492 !72 97 72 54 !' ' 2 ITn/4

    !6 !$ 492 !72 97 72 54 !' ' 2 ITn/4

    !$ 46 522 !'2 !!2 '7 62 42 & 2 ITn/4

    46 52 522 !'2 !!2 '7 62 42 & 2 ITn/4

    52 62 5!2 !&2 !42 $2 72 47 9 2 ITn/4

    62 72 542 !$2 !52 $2 72 47 9 2 ITn/4

    72 '7 562 !92 !62 !22 '2 52 !2 2 ITn/4

    '7 $2 5'2 422 !72 !22 '2 52 !2 2 ITn/4

    $2 !22 5$2 442 !&2 !42 &4 5' !4 2 ITn/4

    !22 !42 6!2 462 !$2 !42 &4 5' !4 2 ITn/4

    !42 !62 6'2 4'2 422 !67 $7 65 !6 2 ITn/4

    !62 !'2 742 4$2 4!2 !67 $7 65 !6 2 ITn/4

    !'2 !$2 7$2 5!2 452 !67 $7 65 !6 2 ITn/4

    !$2 422 ''2 562 462 !&2 !22 72 !7 2 ITn/4

    422 447 &62 5$2 4'2 !&2 !22 72 !7 2 ITn/4

    447 472 $42 642 4$2 !&2 !22 72 !7 2 ITn/4

    472 4$2 942 6$2 522 !92 !!2 7' !& 2 ITn/4

    4$2 5!7 !272 762 552 !92 !!2 7' !& 2 ITn/4

    5!7 577 !422 '22 5'2 4!2 !47 '4 !$ 2 ITn/4

    577 622 !572 '$2 622 4!2 !47 '4 !$ 2 ITn/4

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    622 672 !722 &'2 662 452 !57 '$ 42 2 ITn/4

    672 722 !'72 $62 6$2 452 !57 '$ 42 2 ITn/4

    Ta4le Belo1: F*n'a)ental Lo1er De0iation For S(aft 2>2 to 2c2 ! )) To J ))"9 F*n'a)ental De0iationIT to IT8 for 2)2 to 2c29

    O,er Up to

    Incl*

    FUNDAMENTAL LO'ER DEVIATION %ei&

    A7/A' A& *6*& (incl=) other * m n p r s t u . # J Ja J Jc

    2 5 4 6 2 2 4 6 ' !2 !6 !$ 42 4' 54 62 '2

    5 ' 4 6 ! 2 6 $ !4 !7 !9 45 4$ 57 64 72 $2

    ' !2 4 7 ! 2 ' !2 !7 !9 45 4$ 56 64 74 '& 9&

    !2 !6 5 ' ! 2 & !4 !$ 45 4$ 55 62 72 '6 92 !52

    !6 !$ 5 ' ! 2 & !4 !$ 45 4$ 55 59 67 '2 && !2$ !72

    !$ 46 5 $ 4 2 $ !7 44 4$ 57 6! 6& 76 '5 &5 9$ !5' !$$

    46 52 5 $ 4 2 $ !7 44 4$ 57 6! 6$ 77 '6 &7 $$ !!$ !'2 4!$52 62 6 !2 4 2 9 !& 4' 56 65 6$ '2 '$ $2 96 !!4 !6$ 422 4&6

    62 72 6 !2 4 2 9 !& 4' 56 65 76 &2 $! 9& !!6 !5' !$2 464 547

    72 '7 7 !4 4 2 !! 42 54 6! 75 '' $& !24 !44 !66 !&4 44' 522 627

    '7 $2 & !4 4 2 !! 42 54 65 79 &7 !24 !42 !6' !&6 4!2 4&6 5'2 6$2

    $2 !22 9 !7 5 2 !5 45 5& 7! &! 9! !46 !6' !&$ 4!6 47$ 557 667 7$7

    !22 !42 9 !7 5 2 !5 45 5& 76 &9 !26 !66 !&4 4!2 476 5!2 622 747 '92

    !42 !62 !! !$ 5 2 !7 4& 65 '5 94 !44 !&2 424 46$ 522 5'7 6&2 '42 $22

    !62 !'2 !! !$ 5 2 !7 4& 65 '7 !22 !56 !92 44$ 4$2 562 6!7 757 &22 922

    !'2 !$2 !! !$ 5 2 !7 4& 65 '$ !2$ !6' 4!2 474 5!2 5$2 6'7 '22 &$2 !222

    !$2 422 !5 4! 6 2 !& 5! 72 && !44 !'' 45' 4$6 572 647 742 '&2 $$2 !!72

    422 447 !5 4! 6 2 !& 5! 72 $2 !52 !$2 47$ 5!2 5$7 6&2 7&7 &62 9'2 !472447 472 !5 4! 6 2 !& 5! 72 $6 !62 !9' 4$6 562 647 742 '62 $42 !272 !572

    472 4$2 !' 4' 6 2 42 56 7' 96 !7$ 4!$ 5!7 5$7 6&7 7$2 &!2 942 !422 !772

    4$2 5!7 !' 4' 6 2 42 56 7' 9$ !&2 462 572 647 747 '72 &92 !222 !522 !&22

    5!7 577 !$ 4$ 6 2 4! 5& '4 !2$ !92 4'$ 592 6&7 792 &52 922 !!72 !722 !922

    577 622 !$ 4$ 6 2 4! 5& '4 !!6 42$ 496 657 752 ''2 $42 !222 !522 !'72 4!22

    622 672 42 54 7 2 45 62 '$ !4' 454 552 692 797 &62 942 !!22 !672 !$72 4622

    672 722 42 54 7 2 45 62 '$ !54 474 5'2 762 ''2 $42 !222 !472 !'22 4!22 4'22

    Ta4le Belo1: F*n'a)ental U,,er De0iation For S(aft 2'2 to >s+ Lo1er De0iation For S(aft 2?2 to 2*2 !J ))

    To J ))"

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    O,er Up to

    Incl*

    FUNDAMENTAL U!!ER DEVIATION %es& FUNDAMENTAL LO'ER DEVIATION %ei&

    d e ef f fg g h As * m n p r s t u

    722 7'2 4'2 !67 &' 44 2 ITn/4 2 4' 66 &$ !72 4$2 622 '22

    7'2 '52 4'2 !67 &' 44 2 ITn/4 2 4' 66 &$ !77 5!2 672 ''2

    '52 &!2 492 !'2 $2 46 2 ITn/4 2 52 72 $$ !&7 562 722 &62

    &!2 $22 492 !'2 $2 46 2 ITn/4 2 52 72 $$ !$7 5$2 7'2 $62

    $22 922 542 !&2 $' 4' 2 ITn/4 2 56 7' !22 4!2 652 '42 962

    922 !222 542 !&2 $' 4' 2 ITn/4 2 56 7' !22 442 6&2 '$2 !272

    !222 !!42 572 !97 9$ 4$ 2 ITn/4 2 62 '' !42 472 742 &$2 !!72

    !!42 !472 572 !97 9$ 4$ 2 ITn/4 2 62 '' !42 4'2 7$2 $62 !522

    !472 !622 592 442 !!2 52 2 ITn/4 2 6$ &$ !62 522 '62 9'2 !672!622 !'22 592 442 !!2 52 2 ITn/4 2 6$ &$ !62 552 &42 !272 !'22

    !'22 !$22 652 462 !42 54 2 ITn/4 2 7$ 94 !&2 5&2 $42 !422 !$72

    !$22 4222 652 462 !42 54 2 ITn/4 2 7$ 94 !&2 622 942 !572 4222

    4222 4462 6$2 4'2 !52 56 2 ITn/4 2 '$ !!2 !97 662 !222 !722 4522

    4462 4722 6$2 4'2 !52 56 2 ITn/4 2 '$ !!2 !97 6'2 !!22 !'72 4722

    4722 4$22 742 492 !67 5$ 2 ITn/4 2 &' !57 462 772 !472 !922 4922

    4$22 5!72 742 492 !67 5$ 2 ITn/4 2 &' !57 462 7$2 !622 4!22 5422

    Calc*lation of U,,er !Es" an' Lo1er !Ei" De0iation For $oles:

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    Ta4le Belo1: F*n'a)ental De0iation For IT To IT89 F*n'a)ental De0iations 2A2 To 2

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    Ta4le Belo1: F*n'a)ental De0iations For 2M2 an' 2N2 + ITnKs 373 an' 7 9 F*n'a)ental De0iations 2-2 To 2ZC2 ITnKs onl. a,,lies9

    O,er Up to

    Incl*

    FUNDAMENTAL DEVIATION %Es &

    M& M$ M$ ,& ,$ ,$ - R % T < 8 ; ;0 ;B ;C

    2 5 4 4 4 7 6 6 ' !2 !6 2 !$ 2 42 2 4' 54 62 '2

    5 ' 2 4 6 6 4 2 !4 !7 !9 2 45 2 4$ 2 57 64 72 $2

    ' !2 2 ! ' 6 5 2 !7 !9 45 2 4$ 2 56 2 64 74 '& 9&

    !2 !6 2 4 & 7 5 2 !$ 45 4$ 2 55 2 62 2 72 '6 92 !52

    !6 !$ ! 7 & 7 5 2 !$ 45 4$ 2 55 59 67 2 '2 && !2$ !72

    !$ 46 2 6 $ & 5 2 44 4$ 57 2 6! 6& 76 '5 &5 9$ !5' !$$

    46 52 ! ' $ & 5 2 44 4$ 57 6! 6$ 77 '6 &7 $$ !!$ !'2 4!$

    52 62 2 7 9 $ 5 2 4' 56 65 6$ '2 '$ $2 96 !!4 !6$ 422 4&6

    62 72 4 & 9 $ 5 2 4' 56 65 76 &2 $! 9& !!6 !5' !$2 464 547

    72 '7 2 7 !! 9 6 2 54 6! 75 '' $& !24 !44 !66 !&4 44' 522 627

    '7 $2 4 $ !! 9 6 2 54 65 79 &7 !24 !42 !6' !&6 4!2 4&6 5'2 692

    $2 !22 2 ' !5 !2 6 2 5& 7! &! 9! !46 !6' !&$ 4!6 47$ 557 667 7$7!22 !42 4 !2 !5 !2 6 2 5& 76 &9 !26 !66 !&4 4!2 476 5!2 622 747 '92

    !42 !62 2 $ !7 !4 6 2 65 '5 94 !44 !&2 424 46$ 522 5'7 6&2 '42 $22

    !62 !'2 2 $ !7 !4 6 2 65 '7 !22 !56 !92 44$ 4$2 562 6!7 757 &22 922

    !'2 !$2 4 !! !7 !4 6 2 65 '$ !2$ !6' 4!2 474 5!2 5$2 6'7 '22 &$2 !222

    !$2 422 2 9 !& !6 7 2 72 && !44 !'' 45' 4$6 562 647 742 '&2 $$2 !!72

    422 447 2 9 !& !6 7 2 72 $2 !52 !$2 47$ 5!2 5$7 6&2 7&7 &62 9'2 !472

    447 472 5 !4 !& !6 7 2 72 $6 !62 !9' 4$6 562 647 742 '62 $42 !272 !572

    472 4$2 2 9 42 !6 7 2 7' 96 !7$ 4!$ 5!7 5$7 6&7 7$2 &!2 942 !422 !772

    4$2 5!7 ! !4 42 !6 7 2 7' 9$ !&2 462 572 647 747 '72 &92 !222 !522 !&22

    5!7 577 2 !! 4! !' 7 2 '4 !2$ !92 4'$ 592 6&7 792 &52 922 !!72 !722 !922

    577 622 4 !5 4! !' 7 2 '4 !!6 42$ 496 657 752 ''2 $42 !222 !522 !'72 4!22622 672 6$ 79 45 !& ' 2 '$ !4' 454 552 692 797 &62 942 !!22 !672 !$72 4622

    672 722 47 47 45 !& ' 2 '$ !54 474 5'2 762 ''2 $42 !222 !472 !'22 4!22 4'22

    Ta4le Belo1: F*n'a)ental De0iations 2-2 to 2Z2 For IT8 an' IT

    O,er Up to

    Incl*

    FUNDAMENTAL DEVIATION %Es &

    -' -& R' R& %' %& T' T& ' &

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    '7 $2 4' 4! 5& 54 75 6$ '9 '6 9' 9! !!6 !29 !62 !57 !'$ !'5 426 !99

    $2 !22 52 46 66 5$ '6 7$ $6 &$ !!& !!! !59 !55 !&! !'7 42& 42! 47! 467

    !22 !42 52 46 6& 6! &4 '' 9& 9! !5& !5! !'7 !79 425 !9& 46& 46! 525 49&

    !42 !62 5' 4$ 7' 6$ $7 && !!7 !2& !'5 !77 !97 !$& 46! 455 495 4$7 57$ 572

    !62 !'2 5' 4$ 7$ 72 95 $7 !4& !!9 !$5 !&7 44! 4!5 4&5 4'7 555 547 62$ 622

    !'2 !$2 5' 4$ '! 75 !2! 95 !59 !5! 425 !97 467 45& 525 497 5&5 5'7 67$ 672!$2 422 6! 55 '$ '2 !!5 !27 !7& !69 44& 4!9 4&7 4'& 55! 545 6!' 62$ 7!! 725

    422 447 6! 55 &! '5 !4! !!5 !&! !'5 469 46! 52! 495 5&' 5'$ 6'! 675 7'' 77$

    447 472 6! 55 &7 '& !5! !45 !$& !&9 4&7 4'& 55! 545 6!' 62$ 7!! 725 '5! '45

    472 4$2 6& 5' $7 &6 !69 !5$ 429 !9$ 52' 497 5&' 5'7 6'' 677 7&! 7'2 &2! '92

    4$2 5!7 6& 5' $9 &$ !'! !72 45! 442 56! 552 6!' 627 7!' 727 '6! '52 &$! &&2

    5!7 577 7! 6! 9& $& !&9 !'9 47& 46& 5&9 5'9 6'6 676 7&9 7'9 &!9 &29 $$9 $&9

    577 622 7! 6! !25 95 !9& !$& 4$5 4&5 646 6!6 7!9 729 '69 '59 $29 &99 9$9 9&9

    622 672 77 67 !!5 !25 4!9 429 5!& 52& 6&& 6'& 7$4 7&4 &4& &!& 92& $9& !2$& !2&&

    672 722 77 67 !!9 !29 459 449 56& 55& 74& 7!& '6& '5& $2& &9& 9$& 9&& !45& !44&

    ISO S(aft Tolerances !ISO 6786"!))@))":

    ISO Sha!t Tolerances !or chart gi3en elow shows range etween )) to @)). Nominal ?imension and Toleranceone !or >oles are in mm (Metric). ISO Sha!t Tolerances hel/ the manu!acturer to machine the /arts with s/eci!iedlimits gi3en y engineer. ISO Sha!t Tolerance limits is designated with lower case letter as shown in the chart and It isalso descried in /re3ious /ages.

    E5a),le: No)inal Sie ))8))+ 6H) 6!"96))

    )ra/e NOMINAL SHAFT SIES %$$&

    1.er 5 ' !2 !$ 52 62 72 '7 $2 !22 !42 !62 !'2 !$2 422 447 472 4$2 5!7 577

    p toandincl=

    ' !2 !$ 52 62 72 '7 $2 !22 !42 !62 !'2 !$2 422 447 472 4$2 5!7 577 622

    a!4 4&2

    592

    4$2

    652

    492

    6&2

    5227!2

    5!2

    7'2

    542

    7&2

    562

    '62

    5'2

    ''2

    5$2

    &52

    6!2

    &'2

    6'2$'2

    742

    942

    7$2

    9$2

    ''2!!42

    &62!422

    $42!4$2

    942!662

    !272

    !7&2

    !422

    !&&2

    !572!942

    d' 525$

    6269

    72'!

    '7&$

    $29'

    !22!!9

    !42!64

    !67!&2

    !&2!99

    !92444

    4!246'

    e' 42

    4$4756

    5465

    6275

    72''

    '2&9

    &496

    $7!!2

    !22!49

    !!2!64

    !47!'!

    e!5 42

    42247467

    54524

    625&2

    72662

    '2742

    &4'!4

    $7&!7

    !22$42

    !!2942

    !47!2!7

    f7 !2

    !7!5!9

    !'46

    4249

    475'

    5265

    5'7!

    65'!

    72&2

    7'&9

    '4$&

    f' !2 !5 !' 42 47 52 5' 65 72 7' '4

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    !$ 44 4& 55 6! 69 7$ '$ &9 $$ 9$

    f& !2

    44!54$

    !'56

    426!

    4772

    52'2

    5'&!

    65$5

    729'

    7'!2$

    '4!!9

    g7 6

    97!!

    '!6

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    942

    !245

    !44&

    !654

    !757

    !&62

    !$65

    g' 6

    !4

    7

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    !&

    &

    42

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    56

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    !7

    66

    !&

    69

    !$

    76

    g& 6

    !'742

    '46

    &4$

    956

    !262

    !46&

    !676

    !7'!

    !&'9

    !$&7

    h6 2

    626

    27

    2'

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    2$

    2!2

    2!4

    2!6

    2!'

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    h7 2

    72'

    2$

    29

    2!!

    2!5

    2!7

    2!$

    242

    245

    247

    h' 2

    $29

    2!!

    2!5

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    2!9

    244

    247

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    h& 2

    !42!7

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    24!

    247

    252

    257

    262

    26'

    274

    27&

    h$ 2

    !$244

    24&

    255

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    26'

    276

    2'5

    2&4

    2$!

    2$9

    h9 2

    5225'

    265

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    2$&

    2!22

    2!!7

    2!52

    2!62

    h!2 2

    6$27$

    2&2

    2$6

    2!22

    2!42

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    2!$7

    24!2

    2452

    h!! 2

    &7292

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    2!52

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    2!92

    2442

    2472

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    h!4 2

    !422!72

    2!$2

    24!2

    2472

    2522

    2572

    2622

    26'2

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    27&2

    A7 ?5

    4?64

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    As7 ?4=7

    4=7?55

    ?66

    ?6=76=7

    ?7=77=7

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    ?&=7&=7

    ?99

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    ?7=77=7

    ?'=7'=7

    ?$$

    ?9=79=7

    ?!!!!

    ?!4=7!4=7

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  • 7/24/2019 00.00.Tolerancing and Engineering Standards

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    n7 ?!5

    ?$?!'?!2

    ?42?!4

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    ?4$?!&

    ?55?42

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    n' ?!'

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    n& ?42

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    p7 ?!&?!4 ?4!?!7 ?4'?!$ ?5!?44 ?5&?4' ?67?54 ?74?5& ?'!?65 ?&2?72 ?&9?7' ?$&?'4

    p' ?42

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    ?!2'?&&

    ?!29?$2

    ?!!5?$6

    ?!4'?96

    ?!52?9$

    ?!66?!2$

    ?!72?!!6

    ISO $ole Tolerances !ISO 6786" !))@))":

    ISO >ole Tolerances !or chart gi3en elow shows range etween )) to @)). Nominal ?imension and Toleranceone !or >oles are in mm (Metric). ISO >ole Tolerances hel/ the manu!acturer to machine the /arts with s/eci!iedlitims gi3en y engineer. ISO >ole Tolerance limits is designated with @a/ital etter as shown in the chart and It is alsodescried in /re3ious /ages.

    E5a),le: No)inal Sie ))8))+ 67H) 675!"967))

    )ra/e NOMINAL HOLE SIES %$$&

    o.er 5 ' !2 !$ 52 62 72 '7 $2 !22 !42 !62 !'2 !$2 422 447 472 4$2 5!7 577

    inc= ' !2 !$ 52 62 72 '7 $2 !22 !42 !62 !'2 !$2 422 447 472 4$2 5!7 577 622

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    -$ !4

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    ISO $ole Tolerances !ISO 6786" [email protected])) to J))":

    ISO >ole Tolerances !or chart gi3en elow shows range etween @)) to J)). Nominal ?imension andTolerance one !or >oles are in mm (Metric). ISO >ole Tolerances hel/ the manu!acturer to machine the /arts withs/eci!ied limits gi3en y engineer. ISO >ole Tolerance limits is designated with @a/ital etter as shown in the chartand It is also descried in /re3ious /ages.

    E5a),le: No)inal Sie @))J))+ JH) J5!"9J))

    )ra/e NOMINAL HOLE SIES %$$&

    1.er 622 722 '52 $22 !222 !472 !'22 4222 4722p To0nd Incl=

    722 '52 $22 !222 !472 !'22 4222 4722 5!72

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  • 7/24/2019 00.00.Tolerancing and Engineering Standards

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    ANSI Stan'ar' Li)its an' Fits !ANSI [email protected]@"

    ANSI, This American Standard !or /re!erred limits and !its !or cylindrical /arts /resents de!initions o! terms a//lying to

    !its etween nonthreaded cylindrical and makes some recommendations on /re!erred si5es, !its, tolerances, andallowances !or use where they are a//licale. The ANSI #$.% charts data are /ro3ided in t(o*san't(s (.%) o! aninch.ANSI can e de!ined ANSI metric or ANSI Inch system. ANSI decimal inch system is ased on ANSI Standard(#$.% : %*(%*). ANSI Standard (#$.& : %*')metric systemis ased on ISO millimeter system. ANSI : AmericanNational Standards Institute. ISO is International Organi5ation !or Standardi5ation. ANSI standard is in accord with therecommendations o! American:#ritish:@anadian (A#@) con!erences u/ to diameter o! & inches.The A#@ /ro/osalcom/rises"(a)A grade system o! !undamental tolerances !or diameters .$ inch to a//ro4imately & inches, thetolerance 3alues in each grade eing to the diameter y a gi3en law o! !ormula and each grade o! tolerance einga//ro4imately related to the others in the system in a /re!erred numer ratio (B8 series, with /ercent increments).(a) A series o! unilateral hole limits deri3ed !rom the !undamental tolerances, !or use with a hole asis system. (c) Aseries o! sha!t, one o! these limits eing determined y the allowance ( according to some technical re1uirement), theother eing deri3ed !rom it y addition or sutraction o! the !undamental tolerance.(d) A selection o! !its made yrecommended association o! certain o! the holes and sha!t, the selection eing ade1uate to co3er most engineering

    re1uirements.

    #(at can 4e effecti0e for selection of t(e fitsMany !actor can e a!!ecti3e !or selecting /ro/er !its such as earing loads, s/eed, materials, length o! engagement,lurication, humidity, and tem/erature etc. This all a!!ect must e taken into consideration in the selection o! the !its !or/ro/er a//lications.

    ANSI [email protected] 8!"3 [email protected] Stan'ar' Tolerances

    ANSI #$.% standard im/lements % tolerance grades to meet the re1uirements o! 3arious /roduction ranches !oraccuracy o! /roducts. ANSI #$.% standard de!ines a system o! /re!erred !its only !or asic si5es u/ to %. inch. ANSI#$.% system o! tolerances is /rescried y the standard !or asic si5es u/ to & in. ANSI #$.% Tolerance Tale/ro3ides a suitale range !rom which a//ro/riate tolerance !or holes and sha!t can e selected. This enales the useo! standard gages. Tale shown elow

    NOMINAL% BASIC& SIES

    %INCHES& INTERNATIONAL TOLERANCE )RADES

    OVER U! TO INCL* IT6 IT7 IT' IT& IT$ IT9 IT!2 IT!! IT!4 IT!5

    2 2=!4 2=!4 2=!7 2=47 2=6 2=' !=2 !=' 4=7 6 '

    2=!4 2=46 2=!7 2=42 2=5 2=7 2=& !=4 !=$ 5=2 7 &

    2=46 2=62 2=!7 2=47 2=6 2=' 2=9 !=6 4=4 5=7 ' 9

    2=62 2=&! 2=4 2=5 2=6 2=& !=2 !=' 4=$ 6=2 & !2

    2=&! !=!9 2=47 2=6 2=7 2=$ !=4 4=2 5=7 7=2 $ !4

    !=!9 !=9& 2=5 2=6 2=' !=2 !=' 4=7 6=2 ' !2 !'

    !=9& 5=!7 2=5 2=7 2=& !=4 !=$ 5=2 6=7 & !4 !$

    5=!7 6=&5 2=6 2=' 2=9 !=6 4=4 5=7 7 9 !6 44

    http://www.cobanengineering.com/Tolerances/ANSILimitsAndFits.asphttp://www.cobanengineering.com/Tolerances/ANSILimitsAndFits.asp
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    6=&5 &=29 2=7 2=& !=2 !=' 4=7 6=2 ' !2 !' 47

    &=29 9=$7 2=' 2=$ !=4 !=$ 4=$ 6=7 & !4 !$ 4$

    9=$7 !4=6! 2=' 2=9 !=4 4=2 5=2 7=2 $ !4 42 52

    !4=6! !7=&7 2=& !=2 !=6 4=4 5=7 ' 9 !6 44 57

    !7=&7 !9='9 2=$ !=2 !='5 4=7 6 ' !2 !' 47 62

    !9='9 52=29 2=9 !=4 4=2 5 7 $ !4 42 52 72

    52=29 6!=69 !=2 !=' 4=7 6 ' !2 !' 47 62 '2

    6!=69 7'=!9 !=4 4=2 5 7 $ !4 42 52 72 $2

    7'=!9 &'=59 !=' 4=7 6 ' !2 !' 47 62 '2 !22

    &'=59 !22=9 4=2 5 7 $ !4 42 52 72 $2 !47

    !22=9 !5!=9 4=7 6 ' !2 !' 47 62 '2 !22 !'2

    !5!=9 !&!=9 5 7 $ !4 42 52 72 $2 !47 422

    !5!=9 422 6 ' !2 !' 47 62 '2 !22 !'2 472

    Tolerances in Tho+san/ths of an Inch* All tolerances a0o,e the Bl+e line are in accor/ance 1ith ABC

    %A$erican2British3 Cana/ian& a(ree$ents*

    ANSI [email protected] 8!"3 [email protected] Stan'ar' -referre' Basic Sies

    All gi3en dimensions in tale are in inches. #ased on ANSI #$.%, asic si5e o! all mating /arts should e chosen !romthe !ractional and decimal series in the tale elow.

    Fractional Deci$al Fractional Deci$al Fractional Deci$al

    !/'6 2=2!7'47 4!/6 4=4722 9!/4 9=7222

    !/54 2=25!47 4!/4 4=722 !2 !2=222

    !/!' 2=2'47 45/6 4=&722 !2!/4 !2=722

    5/54 2=295&7 5 5=222 !! !!=2222

    !/$ 2=!472 5!/6 5=4722 !!!/4 !!=7222

    7/54 2=!7'47 5!/4 5=722 !4 !4=2222

    5/!' 2=!$&7 55/6 5=&722 !4!/4 !4=7222

    !/46 2=4722 6 6=222 !5 !5=222

    7/!' 2=5!47 6!/6 6=4722 !5!/4 !5=7222

    5/$ 2=5&72 6!/4 6=7222 !6 !6=2222&/!' 2=65&7 65/6 6=&722 !6!/4 !6=7222

    !/4 2=7222 7 7=222 !7 !7=2222

    9/!' 2=7'47 7!/6 7=4722 !7!/4 !7=7222

    7/$ 2='472 7!/4 7=722 !' !'=2222

    !!/!' 2='$&7 75/6 7=&722 !'!/4 !'=7222

    5/6 2=&722 ' '=222 !& !&=222

  • 7/24/2019 00.00.Tolerancing and Engineering Standards

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    &/$ 2=$&72 '!/4 '=722 !&!/4 !&=7222

    ! !=2222 & &=222 !$ !$=2222

    !!/6 !=4722 &!/4 &=722 !$!/4 !$=7222

    !!/4 !=722 $ $=222 !9 !9=2222

    !5/6 !=&722 $!/4 $=722 !9!/4 !9=7222

    4 4=222 9 9=222 42 42=2222

    ANSI [email protected] 8!"3 [email protected] Stan'ar' Fit Designations

    ANSI #$.% Standard arranged !its classes in three general grou/s according to the !ield and ty/e o! usage. Standard!its are designated y means o! some symols which !acilitate re!erence to classes o! !its to get etter understanding.The symols are not intended to e shown on the manu!acturing detail drawings, only si5es should e s/eci!ied on thedetail drawings.

    " R*nning or Sli'ing Fits RC

    6" Locational Fits LC3 LT3 LN9This standard can e e4/lained in three grou/s.

    a" Clearance Locational Fits LC

    4" Transition Locational Fits LT

    c" Interference Locational Fits LN

    " Force or S(rin? Fits FN

    These letter symols [email protected], @, T, N, and =N are used with numers re/resenting the !it class. like [email protected]$ re/resentclass $. One o! these symols 0with two letter and one numer0 re/resent a com/lete !it. This !it can e inter!erence, inand ma4 clearance, and limits o! si5es !or mating /arts.

    " R*nning An' Sli'ing Fits !RC":

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    Bunning and Sliding !its ranges are designated with [email protected]% to [email protected] the range o! the si5es limits o! clearance!or this !it are intended to /ro3ide a running /er!ormance with suitale lurication allowance. oosest o! the class !its,used when a sha!t is must mo3e !reely inside a hole or earing, and the /ositioning o! the sha!t is not critical in this !itlike sliding gears and clutch disks, /i3ots, running and sliding !its o! sha!ts, guiding ushings, /istons o! hydraulicmachines, etc. There are nine such !its [email protected]% to [email protected](e lo1er RC n*)4ers are t(e tig(ter fits3 t(e (ig(ern*)4ers are t(e looser fits9 [email protected]% to [email protected] =its may e descried as !ollows6

    RC+ Close Sli'ing Fits: This kind o! !its are intended !or the accurate location o! /arts which must assemle withoutnoticeale /lay.

    RC6+ Sli'ing Fits: This kind o! !its are intended !or the accurate location ut with greater ma4imum clearance thanclass [email protected]%. 2arts made to this !it turn and mo3e easily. This ty/e is not designed !or !ree run. Sliding !its in larger si5esmay sei5e with small tem/erature changes.

    RC+ -recision R*nning Fits: This kind o! !its are aout the closest !its which can e e4/ected to run !reely.2recision running !its are intended !or /recision work at low s/eed, low earing /ressures, and light journal /[email protected]; is not suitale where noticeale tem/erature di!!erences occur.

    [email protected]+ Close R*nning Fits: This kind o! !its are mostly !or running !its on accurate machinery with moderate sur!aces/eed, earing /ressures, and journal /ressures where accurate location and minimum /lay are desired. This kind o!!its also can e descried as smaller clearances with higher re1uirements !or /recision !it.

    RCJ an' R8+ Me'i*) R*nning Fits: This kind o! !its are designed !or machines running at higher running s/eeds,considerale earing /ressures, and hea3y journal /ressure. This kind o! !its also can e descried with greaterclearances with common re1uirements !or !it /recision.

    RC+ Free R*nning Fits: This kind o! !its are intended to use where accuracy is not essential. It is suitale !or greattem/erature 3ariations. This !its are suitale to use without any s/ecial re1uirements !or /recise guiding o! sha!ts.

    RC7 an' RC+ Loose R*nning Fits: This kind o! !its are intended !or use where wide commercial tolerances may ere1uired on the sha!t. Cith this !its, The /arts with great clearances with ha3ing great tolerances. oose running !itse4/osed to e!!ects o! corrosion, contamination y dust and thermal or mechanical de!ormations.

    Gra,(ical Re,resentation of ANSI [email protected] R*nning an' Sli'ing Fits Ta4le

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    R*nning an' Sli'ing Li)its an' Fits For C.lin'rical -arts!ANSI [email protected]"

    All limits shown in chart elow are in thousandths o! an inches. Symols >8,g8, etc. are Sha!t and >ole designationsused in American:#ritish:@anadian System (A#@). imits !or Sha!t and >ole are a//lied algeraically to the Nominal(asic) si5e to otain the limits o! the si5e !or the /arts. All data gi3en in old in the chart elow are in accordance with

    A#@ agreements. The 3alues gi3en under the [email protected] imits @olumn0 re/resent min and ma4 amounts o!clearance resulting !rom a//lication o! standard tolerance limits.

    VALUES SHO'N BELO' ARE IN THOUSANDTHS OF AN INCHES

    No$inal

    %Basic& Si4e

    Ran(es

    %Inches&

    Class RC- Class RC5 Class RC6 Class RC7

    Clearanceimits

    %tandardToleranceimits Clearanc

    eimits

    %tandardToleranceimits Clearanc

    eimits

    %tandardToleranceimits Clearanc

    eimits

    %tandardToleranceimits

    1.er To Hole

    H7

    %haft

    g6

    HoleH'

    %haftg7

    HoleH&

    %haftf'

    HoleH$

    %haftf&

    2 2=!4 #*-

    #*7"

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  • 7/24/2019 00.00.Tolerancing and Engineering Standards

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    #*5 # 2#*: -*. # 2#*9 6*- # 2-*9 7*5 # 25*7

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    44=26$=2

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    44=254=2

    44=2'5=2

    ?47=22

    44=25$=2

    All limits shown in chart elow are in thousandths o! an inches. Symols >',e*, etc. are Sha!t and >ole designationsused in American:#ritish:@anadian System (A#@). imits !or Sha!t and >ole are a//lied algeraically to the Nominal(asic) si5e to otain the limits o! the si5e !or the /arts. All data gi3en in old in the chart elow are in accordance with

    A#@ agreements. The 3alues gi3en under the [email protected] imits @olumn0 re/resent min and ma4 amounts o!clearance resulting !rom a//lication o! standard tolerance limits.

    VALUES SHO'N BELO' ARE IN THOUSANDTHS OF AN INCHES

    No$inal

    %Basic&

    Si4e

    Ran(es%Inches&

    Class RC" Class RC. Class RC: Class RC; Class RC9

    Clearanceimits

    %tandardToleranceimits Clearan

    ceimits

    %tandardToleranceimits

    Clearanceimits

    %tandardToleranceimits

    Clearanceimits

    %tandardToleranceimits

    Clearanceimits

    %tandardToleranceimits

    1.er

    ToHoleH$

    %hafte&

    HoleH9

    %hafte$

    HoleH9

    %haftd$

    HoleH!2

    %haftc9

    HoleH!!

    %haft

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  • 7/24/2019 00.00.Tolerancing and Engineering Standards

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    2=46 2=62 -*#

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    52=29

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    9

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    9

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    22

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    2

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    2

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    2

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    !!2

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    422 67=2

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    $2=2!47

    !22422

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    !724!2

    Locational Clearance Li)its an' Fits For C.lin'rical -arts!ANSI [email protected]"Ta4le LC8LC

    All limits shown in chart elow are in thousandths o! an inches. Symols >,>*,s, etc.. are Sha!t and >oledesignations used in American:#ritish:@anadian System (A#@). imits !or Sha!t and >ole are a//lied algeraically tothe Nominal (asic) si5e to otain the limits o! the si5e !or the /arts. All data gi3en in old in the chart elow are inaccordance with A#@ agreements. The 3alues gi3en under the [email protected] imits @olumn0 re/resent min and ma4amounts o! clearance resulting !rom a//lication o! standard tolerance limits.

  • 7/24/2019 00.00.Tolerancing and Engineering Standards

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    VALUES SHO'N BELO' ARE IN THOUSANDTHS OF AN INCHES

    No$inal%Basic&

    Si4e

    Ran(es

    %Inches&

    Class LC. Class LC: Class LC; Class LC9 Class LC-# Class LC--

    Clearanceimits

    %tandardToleranceimits

    Clearanceimits

    %tandardToleranceimits

    Cl

    earanceimits

    %tandardToleranceimits

    Cl

    earanceimits

    %tandardTolerance imits

    Cl

    earanceimits

    %tandardTolerance imits

    Cl

    earanceimits

    %tandardTolerance imits

    1.er

    ToHoleH9

    %haftf$

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    %hafte9

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    %haftd9

    HoleH!!

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    %haft

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    %haft

    2

    2=!

    4

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    4" Locational Transition Fits LT:These !its lie etween clearance and inter!erence. ocational inter!erence !its are!or a//lication where accuracy o! location in im/ortant. #ut !or these kind o! !its either small amount o! clearance orinter!erence is /ermissile. !its These !its are a com/romise etween @ and N (inter!erence7!orce) !its. These !itswould allow either a small amount o! clearance or inter!erence. T%, T& can e usale !or earing ushings, hus o!gears, /ulleys and ushings, retaining rings, etc. The /arts can e assemled or disassemled manually. T;, T$ cane usale clutches, /ulleys, manual wheels, rake disks, etc. The /arts can e assemled or disassemled withoutany great !orce y using a ruer hammer. T8, T can e usale !or armatures o! electric motors on sha!ts, dri3enushings, gear rims, !lushed olts, etc. The /arts can e assemled using low /ressing !orces. S>A=T 0j*0 with >ole0>'0 /ro3ides a transition !it a3eraging a slight clearance and is recommended !or location !its re1uiring slightly lessclearance than is gi3en with 0h0 sha!t and where a slight inter!erence is /ermissile. Ty/ical a//lications are cou/lings/igot and recesses, gear rings clam/ed t steel hus, etc. S>A=T 0k0 with >ole 0>*0 is a true transition !it a3eraging3irtually no clearance , and is recommended !or location !its where a slight inter!erence can e tolerated !or the

    /ur/ose o! eliminating 3iration.

    Gra,(ical Re,resentation of ANSI [email protected] Locational Transition Fits Ta4le

  • 7/24/2019 00.00.Tolerancing and Engineering Standards

    40/55

    Locational Transition Li)its an' Fits For C.lin'rical -arts !ANSI [email protected]"

    All limits shown in chart elow are in thousandths o! an inches. Symols >*,js, etc. are Sha!t and >ole designationsused in American:#ritish:@anadian System (A#@). imits !or Sha!t and >ole are a//lied algeraically to the Nominal(asic) si5e to otain the limits o! the si5e !or the /arts. All data gi3en in old in the chart elow are in accordance with

    A#@ agreements. The 3alues gi3en under the [email protected] imits @olumn0 re/resent min and ma4 amounts o!clearance resulting !rom a//lication o! standard tolerance limits.

    VALUES SHO'N BELO' ARE IN THOUSANDTHS OF AN INCHES

    No$inal

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    Class LT! Class LT5 Class LT6 Class LT7 Class LT" Class LT.

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    imits Fit

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    imits Fit

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