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<p>Name: _______________________________________Period: ____________</p> <p>Unit 15: Nuclear Chemistry Guided Notes</p> <p>Introduction to Nuclear Chemistry</p> <p> Nuclear chemistry is the study of the structure of ___________________________________________and the ___________________________ they undergo.</p> <p> Characteristics of nuclear reactions:</p> <p> Isotopes of one element are changed into isotopes of another _____________________________</p> <p> Contents of the __________________________ change</p> <p> Large amounts of _________________________ are released</p> <p>Chemical Reactions</p> <p>Nuclear Reactions</p> <p>__________________________ are broken</p> <p>______________________ emit particles and/or rays</p> <p>Atoms are rearranged</p> <p>Atoms change into atoms of a different _________________________________</p> <p>Involves ____________________________ electrons</p> <p>Involves __________________, _________________, and/or _______________________</p> <p>______________________________ energy changes</p> <p>______________________________ energy changes</p> <p> ____________________________________ process by which atoms give off rays or particles</p> <p> ____________________________________ the penetrating rays and particles emitted by a radioactive source</p> <p>The Discovery of Radioactivity (__________-___________)</p> <p> Roentgen found that invisible rays were emitted when electrons hit the surface of a fluorescent screen (discovered ________________________)</p> <p> Becquerel accidently discovered that phosphorescent __________________________ rock produced spots on photographic plates (discovered ___________________________________)</p> <p> Marie and Pierre Currie:</p> <p> isolated the components emitting the rays (uranium atoms) </p> <p> identified 2 new elements, _____________________ and _____________________ on the basis of their radioactivity</p> <p> These findings contradicted _______________________________ theory of indivisible atoms.</p> <p>Review of Atomic Structure</p> <p>Nucleus</p> <p>Electron Cloud</p> <p>Majority of the __________________________ of the atom (99.9%)</p> <p>None of the _____________________________ of the atom (0.01%)</p> <p>None of the _____________________________ of the atom (0.01%)</p> <p>Majority of the __________________________ of the atom (_____________________ times the size of the nucleus)</p> <p>______________ (p+) and ______________ (n0)</p> <p>______________(e-)</p> <p>______________________ charged</p> <p>______________________ charged</p> <p>__________________________________ force holds the protons together</p> <p>Weak _____________________________ force between negatively charged electrons and positively charged nucleus</p> <p> ___________________________ particles found in the nucleus of an atom </p> <p> neutrons and protons </p> <p> The nuclear symbol consists of three parts: </p> <p> Element symbol</p> <p> Atomic number (Z) number of _________________________ in the nucleus </p> <p> _____________________ number (A) sum of the number of protons and neutrons </p> <p> Also written as the element name dash (-) mass number (example: ____________________________________)</p> <p> _____________________________ each unique atom </p> <p> Ion- an atom with a _______________________________</p> <p>Radioactivity</p> <p> Isotopes atoms of the same element with different numbers of _________________________________ </p> <p> Radioisotopes isotopes of atoms with ___________________________ nuclei (too many or too few neutrons)</p> <p> Radioactive decay when unstable nuclei lose energy by emitting ___________________________________ to become more stable</p> <p> This is a spontaneous reaction (happens on its own)</p> <p>Nuclear Stability</p> <p> Elements with atomic #s ______ to ______ are very stable. </p> <p> Isotope is completely stable if the nucleus will not spontaneously __________________________.</p> <p> ______:______ ratio of protons:neutrons (p+; n0)</p> <p> Example: Carbon 12 has ______ protons and ______ neutrons</p> <p> Elements with atomic #s ______ to ______ are marginally stable.</p> <p> ______:______ ratio of protons:neutrons (p+:n0)</p> <p> Example: Mercury 200 has ______ protons and ______ neutrons</p> <p> Elements with atomic #s _________________ are unstable and radioactive.</p> <p> Examples: Uranium and Plutonium</p> <p>Nuclear Reactions</p> <p> Types of Nuclear Reactions:</p> <p> ___________________________________________ alpha and beta particles and gamma ray emission</p> <p> Nuclear ___________________________________________________ - emission of a proton or neutron</p> <p> Transmutation the conversion of an atom of one element to an atom of a different _______________________.</p> <p> Usually occurs by radioactive decay</p> <p> Nuclear equation shows the radioactive decomposition of an element </p> <p>Alpha Radiation</p> <p> Composition Alpha particles, same as a __________________________________ nuclei</p> <p> Symbol Helium nuclei, ________________, </p> <p> Charge ________________</p> <p> Deflected towards a _________________________________ charged plate</p> <p> Mass ______ amu</p> <p> Approximate energy 5.0 MeV</p> <p> Penetrating power ________________ (0.05 mm body tissue)</p> <p> Shielding _______________________________________________________________</p> <p> Alpha Decay Equations</p> <p> Step 1: Write the element that you are starting with followed by the yields symbol.</p> <p> Step 2: Write the alpha particle as a product</p> <p> Step 3: Determine the other product using atomic #.</p> <p> Step 4: Determine mass and ensure everything is balanced.</p> <p> (Net effect is loss of __________ in mass number and loss of ___________ in atomic number.) </p> <p> Example 1: Write the nuclear equation for the radioactive decay of polonium 210 by alpha emission. ___________________________________________________________________________________________</p> <p> Example 2: Write the nuclear equation for the radioactive decay of radium 226 by alpha emission. ___________________________________________________________________________________________</p> <p>Beta Radiation</p> <p> Composition Beta particles, same as a fast moving __________________________________ </p> <p> A neutron is converted to a ______________________ an a _________________________ particle</p> <p> Symbol e--, ________________</p> <p> Charge ________________</p> <p> Deflected towards a _________________________________ charged plate</p> <p> Mass ______ amu</p> <p> Approximate energy 0.05 1 MeV</p> <p> Penetrating power ________________ (4 mm body tissue)</p> <p> Shielding _______________________________________________________________</p> <p> Beta Decay Equations</p> <p> Same steps as alpha equations except use a beta particle </p> <p> (Net effect is ______________ change in mass and an addition of ______ in atomic number.)</p> <p> Example 3: Write the nuclear equation for the radioactive decay of carbon 14 by beta emission. ___________________________________________________________________________________________</p> <p> Example 4: Write the nuclear equation for the radioactive decay of zirconium 97 by beta decay. ___________________________________________________________________________________________</p> <p>Gamma Radiation</p> <p> Composition gamma, High-energy electromagnetic radiation or high energy ____________________________ </p> <p> Usually accompanied by ______________________ and _________________________ radiation</p> <p> Symbol ______________________________</p> <p> Charge ________________</p> <p> Mass ______ amu</p> <p> Approximate energy 1 MeV</p> <p> Penetrating power ________________ (penetrates body easily)</p> <p> Shielding _______________________________________________________________</p> <p> Beta Decay Equations</p> <p> Steps: include alpha and/or beta, and gamma decay</p> <p> Example 5: Write the nuclear equation for the radioactive decay of uranium 238 by gamma decay accompanied with alpha decay. _________________________________________________________________</p> <p>Type of Radioactive Decay</p> <p>Particle Emitted</p> <p>Change in Mass #</p> <p>Change in Atomic #</p> <p>Alpha</p> <p>Beta</p> <p>Gamma</p> <p> ______________________________________________: when a substance undergoes a series of nuclear decay </p> <p>Half-Life</p> <p> Half-life is the ______________________ required for ____________________ of a radioisotopes nuclei to decay into its products.</p> <p> For any radioisotope,</p> <p># of lives</p> <p>% Remaining</p> <p>100%</p> <p>50%</p> <p>25%</p> <p>12.5%</p> <p>6.25%</p> <p>3.125%</p> <p>1.5625%</p> <p> Example 6: suppose you have 10.0 grams of strontium 90, which has a half-life of 29 years. How much will be remaining after x number of years? </p> <p> You can use a table:</p> <p># of lives</p> <p>Time (years)</p> <p>Amount Remaining (g)</p> <p>0</p> <p>1</p> <p>2</p> <p>3</p> <p>4</p> <p> OR you can use an equation</p> <p> Example 7: If gallium 68 has a half-life of 68.3 minutes, how much of a 160.0 mg sample is left after 1 half life? ________ 2 half lives? __________ 3 half lives? __________</p> <p> Example 8: Cobalt 60, with a half-life of 5 years, is used in cancer radiation treatments. If a hospital purchases a supply of 30.0 g, how much would be left after 15 years? __________________________</p> <p> Example 9: Iron-59 is used in medicine to diagnose blood circulation disorders. The half-life of iron-59 is 44.5 days. How much of a 2.000 mg sample will remain after 133.5 days? ______________</p> <p> Example 10: The half-life of polonium-218 is 3.0 minutes. If you start with 20.0 g, how long will it take before only 1.25 g remains? ______________</p> <p> Example 11: A sample initially contains 150.0 mg of radon-222. After 11.4 days, the sample contains 18.75 mg of radon-222. Calculate the half-life. ________________________</p> <p>Nuclear Fission and Fusion</p> <p> Nuclear Fission- _______________________________ of a nucleus </p> <p> Releases a lot of ______________________________</p> <p> ________________________ reactions occur</p> <p> Produces radioactive _______________________</p> <p> Usually fueled by ________________________________________</p> <p> Example: ________________________ bomb, nuclear reactors, nuclear ________________________________________</p> <p> Nuclear Fusion- combining of two or more ____________________________________________________</p> <p> Two _______________________ nuclei combine to form a ______________________ heavier nucleus</p> <p> Does not occur under _______________________________ conditions</p> <p> Releases a lot of ___________________________________ ( ___________________ than fission)</p> <p> Not ____________________________________</p> <p> Can cause ___________________________ reactions</p> <p> Usually fueled by isotopes of ________________________________________________</p> <p> Example: energy output of stars and the ______________________, and ____________________ bomb (_______________ powerful than the atomic bomb)</p> <p>Advantages</p> <p>Fission</p> <p>Fusion</p> <p> Zero ____________________ pollution </p> <p> Not a ___________________________________ so doesnt contribute to climate change</p> <p> Able to be _______________________________</p> <p> No radioactive ____________________________</p> <p> Inexpensive </p> <p>Disadvantages</p> <p>Fission</p> <p>Fusion</p> <p> Produces high level radioactive ________________________ that must be stored for ______________________________ of years.</p> <p> Meltdown causes _________________________ like in Japan and Chernobyl.</p> <p> Requires large amount of __________________________________ to start</p> <p> Difficult to _______________________________</p> <p>Uses of Radiation</p> <p> Radioactive ________________________________</p> <p> Detection of _________________________________</p> <p> Treatment of some malignant ______________________________</p> <p> X-rays</p> <p> Radioactive ____________________________________</p> <p> Everyday items: thorium232 used in __________________________________ mantels, plutonium238 used in long-lasting ________________________________ for space, and americium241 in ____________________________ detectors. </p> <p>Half-Life</p> <p>Material Remaining0123456100502512.56.253.1251.5625</p> <p># of Half-Lives</p> <p>% Remaining</p> <p>1</p>